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Help with a study design that addresses the following: 1. Provide a very brief statement on the rationale for the study including the problem, scope of the problem, and research gap your proposal would address. 2. State the research question, in the form of a question. 3. Briefly state your study approach and design a. Identify your general study approach (e.g., qualitative, quantitative) and specific research design. b. Identify the population, sampling framework (if applicable), and sampling strategy. c. Describe the recruitment procedures for your sample. d. Describe your data collection procedures (e.g., interviews, survey), including when you will introduce the IRB consent, who will collect data and how, how data will be stored and secured, and any other relevant information. e. Identify your key measures and concepts (e.g., what will the main quantitative independent and dependent variable measures are? Or, what areas will the focus group or interviews inquire about?). Operationalize your variables if doing a quantitative study. If doing a qualitative study, including your interview guide. f. Identify any known limitations to your study design. g. Describe how your study results would translate to practice and how you would disseminate or report your findings. 4. Provide a few statements on what new knowledge you believe your study will create and add to the literature. State how your findings will help fill the knowledge gap you identified in your literature review. 5. Provide a brief discussion of the ways in which your proposed study reflects the values within the Code of Ethics. Select at least two core values to provide specific examples of areas where your proposed study reflects those values and areas. In this section, you must do more than identify the value—you must clearly explicate the aspects of your study that reflect the value. Describe where your study does not fully reflect the values of the profession and why this is the case (e.g., limitations in sampling, measurement, recruitment, or other issues). 

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Howdoes child abuse affect the psychosocial being of Latino immigrant children?

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Child abuse remains high in the United States, and according to the U.S Department of Justice published in 2010, around one million children have been abused annually (Reece et al., 2014). Further studies show that around 46% of American children are abused annually(Despres, 2020) . Child abuse exposes children to future physical, mental, behavioral, and emotional challenges. Some psychosocial issues are stress, hopelessness, depression, aggressiveness, lack of job control, and increased crimes (Macleod, 2003). Latino immigrants are vulnerable to stressors due to their immigration status. As a result, their children are more exposed to child abuse and psychosocial problems (Finno-Velasquez et al., 2016). Data show that at least 77.8% of Latino children experience trauma in their childhood showing how pervasive the social issue affects Latino communities (Despres, 2020). The paper reviews the literature on the effects of child abuse on the psychosocial well-being of Latino children.

Child Abuse and its Impact on Overall Population

Children may be exposed to various forms of violence that impact their development. Globally, children meet with violence in their homes and neighborhoods daily (Colin et al., 2020). The violence results in trauma that haunts children into their adult life. Many childhood experiences affect children’s relationships, careers, and happiness in adulthood (Colin et al., 2020). (Widom & Kuhns, 1996) researched the extent of the repercussion of childhood abuse on adult life using a prospective cohort study methodology. The experimental sample contained abused children, while the control group consisted of non-abused children. The findings showed that childhood abuse had negative impacts on the well-being of children. Childhood abuse increased the chances of early pregnancy, prostitution, and promiscuity among the female participants.

Childhood abuse is correlated to deteriorated psychiatric health in adulthood. (Draper et al., 2008) found that the impacts of childhood abuse are lasting and affect the victims at their older age. The study used a cross-sectional research design involving 383 participants (Draper et al., 2008). Data collection was done using questionnaire surveys. Childhood sexual or physical abuse survivors had the highest risks of mental disorders.

Moreover, child abuse predisposes children to PTSD and depression, participation in illegal and other harmful activities such as drug abuse, challenges in relationships, and hatred against others (Kendall-Tackett, 2002). These effects are connected and also affect the psychosocial well-being of children. Child abuse results in neurological disorders and negative habits such as smoking and heavy drinking in adulthood (Reece et al., 2014). It also lowers the academic attainment of learners in schools (Reece et al., 2014).

The studies affirm that child abuse increases the risk of psychosocial problems in adulthood. Female survivors of childhood abuse are more likely to become prostitutes. Others become victims of early pregnancies. On the other hand, male survivors of child abuse are more likely to participate in crimes. Childhood abuse affects interpersonal relationships by eliciting hatred and creating physical and mental health problems. Therefore, it is evident that child abuse negatively affects psychosocial well-being globally. The strength of these studies in child abuse and its implications is their use of a large sample population that largely represents the entire population. However, none of the authors discusses interventions that can mitigate the effects of child abuse on children’s adult life.

Child Abuse among Latino Immigrants and Its Psychosocial Impact

Several studies have explored the impacts of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) on Latino immigrant families. Adverse experiences include exposure to IPV, parental abuse, and discrimination. Exposure to ACEs increases mental health issues and substance use (LaBrenz et al., 2019). The study used a survey involving 417 caregivers to children aged zero to five years. An additional study by (Rosado et al., 2021) on the impacts of ACEs on Latino immigrant children showed similar results. ACEs result in numerous health issues that are part of the leading cause of death in the United States. The study analyzed eight ACEs comprising physical, emotional, and sexual abuse among the immigrant Latino population in rural areas. One hundred Latino immigrant children aged eight to seventeen years participated in the study. The results showed that ACEs were prevalent among rural Latino immigrant children and resulted in emotional and behavioral difficulties in adulthood.

As a result of high exposure to child abuse, the immigrant children’s population in the Welfare System in the United States has significantly increased. (Dettlaff & Cardoso, 2010) discovered that Latino immigrant children in the Welfare System had more mental issues than children born to Native Latino parents in the United States. Thus, immigrant status is one factor that increases the risk of child abuse.

There exist fundamental factors that influence child abuse among Latino immigrants in the United States. One of the factors is poverty. Children from poor Latino families are subjected to harsh punishment compared to their peers from wealthy families (Fontes, 2002). The discriminatory punishment approach causes the children to develop hatred against each other until adulthood. Thus, stakeholders must embrace inclusive and culturally competent punishment when dealing with all learners. Besides the harsh punishment against poor immigrants’ children from Latino communities, deportation and abuse of Latinos increase the risks of child abuse. A survey involving 132 children and parents showed increased legal vulnerability to deportation increased children’s behavioral, emotional and mental challenges (Brabeck & Qingwen Xu, 2010). The study is similar to one conducted by (Potochnick & Perreira, 2010) on the impacts of migration stressors on depressive symptoms and anxiety. They found that stressors such as time spent in the United States and documentation status increased the risks of anxiety and depressive symptoms (Potochnick & Perreira, 2010).

The studies on impacts of child abuse on psychosocial well-being Latino immigrant children have several strengths and weaknesses. Authors across the studies agree that child abuse among Latino immigrant children affects them mentally, physically, emotionally, and behaviorally (Potochnick & Perreira, 2010; Brabeck & Qingwen Xu, 2010; LaBrenz et al., 2019). The studies further show that immigrant children are predisposed to child abuse, as shown by their increasing number in the Welfare System established in the United States (Dettlaff & Cardoso, 2010). The studies also address how parents’ challenges, such as the risks of deportation and documentation status, adversely affect the children’s psychosocial wellness (Potochnick & Perreira, 2010; Brabeck & Qingwen Xu, 2010). Another strength is that most studies using human participants have a large sample size of more than one hundred participants. The large sample size increases the findings’ validity. However, none of the studies discusses how child abuse among Latino immigrants should be reduced to promote the psychosocial well-being of Latino children.

Critique of Literature in the Context of Code of Ethics

The social work Codes of Ethics that can be used to analyze the literature review are social justice and dignity and worth of the person. Social justice is where all people enjoy equal rights, opportunities, obligation and basic rights. In the literature review studies, it is evident that there is lack of social justice for Latino families that eventually increase their children’s vulnerability to abuse. In the article by Fontes (2002), it is evident that social factors like poverty and race determine the fate of children. According to the research by the author, children from poor backgrounds are likely to receive harsher punishments unlike those from rich families. Dignity and worth of person ethical value requires social workers to treat individuals in a caring and respectable manner regardless of their differences. In the literature review, it is evident that abused children have low self-esteem at their adulthood. Therefore, they are more likely to engage in prostitution, drug abuse and many succumb to early pregnancies (Widom & Kuhns, 1996). The social workers are obligated to respect and care for these group of adults without any bias. Social justice and dignity can be used to advance equality in all ethnic and racial groups to promote the lives of Latino immigrants. Moreover, dignity and worth of individuals may be utilized by social workers meeting the affected families. They must express their respect and care for the affected families and their desire to help them recover from childhood abuse.

Research Question from Literature Review

How can predictors of child abuse among Latino immigrants be mediated to enhance the psychosocial wellness of immigrant children?


Brabeck, K., & Qingwen Xu. (2010). The impact of detention and deportation on Latino Immigrant Children and Families: A Quantitative Exploration. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 341–361.


Colin, Y., Muñoz, C., & Venta, A. (2020). Childhood abuse and externalizing behavior among immigrant high school students. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 84(2), 180–196.


Despres, C. (2020, June 22). Report: More latinos view child abuse as a public health issue. Salud America. Retrieved March 6, 2022, from

Report: More Latinos View Child Abuse as a Serious Public Health Problem


Dettlaff, A. J., & Cardoso, J. B. (2010). Mental health need and service use among Latino children of immigrants in the Child Welfare System. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(10), 1373–1379.


Draper, B., Pfaff, J. J., Pirkis, J., Snowdon, J., Lautenschlager, N. T., Wilson, I., & Almeida, O. P. (2008). Long-term effects of childhood abuse on the quality of life and health of older people: Results from the Depression and early prevention of suicide in General Practice Project. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56(2), 262–271.


Fontes, L. A. (2002). Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: Reducing violence and misunderstandings. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(1), 31–40.


Finno-Velasquez, M., Cardoso, J. B., Dettlaff, A. J., & Hurlburt, M. S. (2016). Effects of parent immigration status on Mental Health Service use among Latino children referred to child welfare. Psychiatric Services, 67(2), 192–198.


Kendall-Tackett, K. (2002). The health effects of childhood abuse: Four pathways by which abuse can influence health. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26(6-7), 715–729.


LaBrenz, C. A., Panisch, L. S., Lawson, J., Borcyk, A. L., Gerlach, B., Tennant, P. S., Nulu, S., & Faulkner, M. (2019). Adverse childhood experiences and outcomes among at-risk Spanish-speaking Latino families. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29(5), 1221–1235.


Macleod, J. (2003). Psychosocial factors and Public Health: A Suitable Case for treatment? Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 57(8), 565–570.


Potochnick, S. R., & Perreira, K. M. (2010). Depression and anxiety among first-generation immigrant Latino youth. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 198(7), 470–477.


Reece, R. M., Hanson, R. F., & Sargent, J. (2014). Treatment of child abuse: Common ground for mental health, medical, and Legal Practitioners. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Rosado, J. I., Ramirez, A., Montgomery, J., Reyes, E., & Wang, Y. (2021). Adverse childhood experiences and its association with emotional and behavioral problems in U.S. children of Latino immigrants. Child Abuse & Neglect, 112, 104887.


Widom, C. S., & Kuhns, J. B. (1996). Childhood victimization and subsequent risk for promiscuity, prostitution, and teenage pregnancy: A prospective study. American Journal of Public Health, 86(11), 1607–1612.


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