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Identify interviewee, her demographic information (place of birth, approximate age, where they grew up, family size).

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Christina Richards is a retired African-American athlete born in Havana, Florida, in 1972. She had a taste in sports, primarily athletics which she began in the 6th grade before pushing it further after joining Northside High School. They lived in a two-bedroom house before moving to a three-bedroom home after her dad joined the police department.

Christina grew up in the Tallahassee Metro area alongside her older brother and younger sister. Her mum used to work at a local restaurant in Havana, while her dad was one of the few Americans working as a cop at the Havana Police Department. Before becoming a sheriff, his father was a basketball coach at a community club in Havana. Being of the black race and the female sex, participating in sports was challenging. This was because of the 19th and 20th-century sports rules, which prohibited women from sports before the laws were amended. Discrimination because of her black race also held her from assessing different areas in sports, making it hard for her to live the life of an athlete.

She was a 4 * 100 meters relay athlete who participated and competed in different places, including the 1991 event held at Havana. Christina, who is now approximately 49, stopped participating in athletics after turning because health issues. She started having a kneel problem after winning her very first silver medal at the United States Outdoor Track and Field Championships held in California in 1995.


Retrieved from:

Mataruna-Dos-Santos, L., Sayeed Khan, M., & Ahmed Haamed Mahmoud Sayed Ahmed Abdelwa Al Shibini, M. (2018). Contemporary scenario of Muslin women and sport in the United Arab Emirates: Pathways to the vision 2021. Olimpianos – Journal Of Olympic Studies, 2(2), 449-474.


According to Mataruna-Dos-Santos et al. (2018), Male athletes dominate the sports world, and they rarely compete against female counterparts. Women’s participation in sports has become a major focus of development in the sporting world. When it comes to both professional and recreational sports, the UAE government goes out of its way to encourage the participation of women. Women in many Emirati homes are being encouraged to seek a career in athletics. While competing in major competitions like the Olympic Games, women athletes are defying prejudices.

Retrieved from:

Ünsal, E., Kaptanoğlu, S., & Kabasakal, H. (2021). The Turkish Super League meets its first female club president. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, 11(2), 1-27.


According to Ünsal et al. (2021), women are gaining recognition since the 20th century especially in the sport industry. The recognition of women in sport has been sported ion Turkey especially in football that remain a national sport. During the 2019-2020 season is when the first female became a football club president which was never usual. Football sport has been a male dominated sport but women are finding their way into the sport and performing very well making it significant to offer them support.

Retrieved from:

Taylor, K., Linden, A., & Antunovic, D. (2019). “From Beach Nymph to Gridiron Amazon”: Media Coverage of Women in American Football, 1934–1979. Communication & Sport, 9(3), 458-475.


The authors Taylor et al. (2019), stated that the American football has been a sport that is associated with boys and men for years and the women have been participating in the sport for a period of about 100 years. In the 20th century is the period where media coverage on women playing the American football started and this brought into light the aspect of women in sport. The media coverage resulted to more women feminist sports studies literature and the government focused in demonstrating women athleticism.

Retrieved from:

Osborne, C., & Skillen, F. (2020). Women in sports history: the more things change, the more they stay the same?. Sport In History, 40(4), 411-433.


According to the research, there is a tremendous progress about the increasing number of women in sports and this is well demonstrated in the community. The article expresses about the reality in the UK where in the past 10 years, women in sport are in an upward growth and this is much promising about the recognition of the women in sport. The acceptance and support of women in sports is a good empowerment that makes them also showcase their talents and capabilities and promote equity in the society.


Mataruna-Dos-Santos, L., Sayeed Khan, M., & Ahmed Haamed Mahmoud Sayed Ahmed Abdelwa Al Shibini, M. (2018). Contemporary scenario of Muslin women and sport in the United Arab Emirates: Pathways to the vision 2021. Olimpianos – Journal Of Olympic Studies, 2(2), 449-474. https://doi.org/10.30937/2526-6314.v2n2.id56
Osborne, C., & Skillen, F. (2020). Women in sports history: the more things change, the more they stay the same?. Sport In History, 40(4), 411-433. https://doi.org/10.1080/17460263.2020.1835707
Taylor, K., Linden, A., & Antunovic, D. (2019). “From Beach Nymph to Gridiron Amazon”: Media Coverage of Women in American Football, 1934–1979. Communication & Sport, 9(3), 458-475. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167479519871961
Ünsal, E., Kaptanoğlu, S., & Kabasakal, H. (2021). The Turkish Super League meets its first female club president. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, 11(2), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1108/eemcs-10-2020-0375




I interviewed Christina Richards, a retired African-American athlete born in Havana, Florida. I interviewed her regarding the various challenges that women athletics face in this industry and what is being done regarding this issue.

Question: What can you say about the efforts of various governments in encouraging women’s participation in sports?

Christina: many governments are today doing their best to encourage the participation of women in sports. For instance, female Emiratis are making remarkable gains in sport. The number of Emirati women footballers has risen from 800 players in 2014 to 2,300 players by 2020, a significant growth (Rouhani, 2018). Empowerment, opportunity, and facilitation of achievement for women at the local, regional, and worldwide levels are all available in the UAE. As part of its policy to ensure women’s rights and foster their creativity, it contributes to the advancement of its society via this.

Question: what is the major obstacle that women athletes face?

Christina: There’s a common belief that males are better at sports than women because of this. However, it’s important to note that this isn’t always the case. Everyone has a unique set of talents. Because of their gender, several males cannot participate in college athletics, regardless of the sport (Hoggins, & Görzig, 2019). Competencies are what matter. Why can’t a woman play on a men’s team if she has the necessary skills? Why not let that girl play if she believes she is capable of doing so? As our society progresses, more and more women will participate in football games alongside men.

Question: Do female athletes receive equal media coverage as their male counterparts?

Christina: Media coverage of women’s sports continues to be far less than that of men’s sports. This includes Column inches, running time, personal quotations, size and length of articles, the positioning of images, and the size of the header. It’s not uncommon to see pictures of female athletes in sexually suggestive stances.

Question: why do you think there is this kind of bias in the media despite the growing participation of women in sports?

Christina: Women’s sports have made tremendous growth over several decades. According to recent statistics, women now make up 43% of collegiate athletes and 41.5% of high school athletes. That’s a 400% increase in profit. Media coverage of female athletes’ accomplishments still needs improvement, though (Scheadler, & Wagstaff, 2018). Complaints and criticisms of a female athlete’s looks are sometimes replaced with adjectives like “sexy” or “fit,” rather than “strong” or “fit.” Female athletes were shown in the media in a way that made it clear that something had to be done about it.

Questions: What should be done to ensure equality in sports?

Christina: As a result of the shifts taking place on the field and in society about how women are seen and the possibilities accessible to them, the commercial sector of sports has seen a significant shift in its culture. There has been a tremendous amount of progress in the business sphere, and women have been recognized for their competence, aptitude, and unique viewpoint. Because of a generational and cultural transition toward a more equitable society, I believe there has been a beneficial influence. However, we must build a winning culture. Using this method, sports can see what is going well and identify difficulties and challenges early on, allowing them to take appropriate action. It’s now or never to take advantage of the growing momentum.

Thank you very much for the candid discussion.


Hoggins, K., & Görzig, A. (2019). The portrayal of Olympic athletes defies traditional gender stereotypes: A content analysis of the 2018 Winter Olympics news outlets. New Vistas, 4(2), 38-43. retrieved from:


Rouhani, N. M. (2018). Women’s sport participation in the United Arab Emirates: A case study (Doctoral dissertation, Deakin University). retrieved from:


Scheadler, T., & Wagstaff, A. (2018). Exposure to women’s sports: Changing attitudes toward female athletes. The Sport Journal, 19, 1-17. retrieved from:

Exposure-to-womens-sports-Changing-attitudes-toward-female-athletes (researchgate.net)

Running head: WOMEN IN SPORTS 1



A retired African American athlete from Havana, Florida, Christina Richards is profiled in this article. Christina Richards was born and raised in Havana, Florida. Participating in athletics was difficult since she was of the black race and of the feminine sex. This was due to the sporting restrictions in effect during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which prevented women from participating in sports until the laws were changed (V & A, 2019). Discrimination against her because of her black race also prevented her from evaluating many areas of sports, making it difficult for her to live the life of an athlete. She participated in and competed in a number of various events before her health difficulties prevented her from continuing to participate. There are a variety of issues that women encounter in the sports sector, such as discrimination based on gender, as well as what is being implemented by the government and athletes to address these challenges (Elfman, 2020). Women in sports and the challenges they experience.


Significant barriers that women athletes face in the sports industry

· The biggest difficulty that female athletes must overcome is the widespread notion that males are superior athletes than women, and as a result, women are discriminated against in the sports industry.

· In the sports sector, there is discrimination based on race, with black women being denied the same possibilities as other women.

A look at the efforts made by different governments to encourage women to participate in sports

· Different governments are empowering women, offering opportunities, and facilitating their achievements at the local, regional, and international levels in the athletics business.

· The governments are establishing legislation in place to protect women’s rights and to encourage their inventiveness in athletics, with the goal of contributing to the growth of their respective societies.

Media coverage of female athletes

· There is still a long way to go in the press coverage of female athletes compared to that of male athletes.

The implementation of measures to ensure equality in athletics is necessary

· Women must be appreciated for their ability, talent, and distinctive point of view rather than their gender.

· An industry-wide winning culture must be fostered in order to be able to recognize what is working well and identify problems and obstacles early on, allowing the industry to take necessary action to improve performance.

Working bibliography

Retrieved from:

Ahmad, N., Thorpe, H., Richards, J., & Marfell, A. (2020). Building cultural diversity in sport: a critical dialogue with Muslim women and sports facilitators. International Journal Of Sport Policy And Politics, 12(4), 637-653.


Muslim women’s involvement in sporting activities is investigated by Ahmad et al. (2020) based on focus groups with thirty eight Muslim females and fourteen sports instructors. The study found that Muslim women and sports organizations are often at odds on the goals, constraints, and tactics for making sport more culturally diverse. These requirements must be completed if women are to be able to participate in sports on an equal footing with men.

Retrieved from:

Sainz-de-Baranda, C., Adá-Lameiras, A., & Blanco-Ruiz, M. (2020). Gender Differences in Sports News Coverage on Twitter. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 17(14), 5199.


According to Sainz-de-Baranda et al. (2020), gender stereotypes affect how boys and girls view themselves and the media’s handling of sports stars differently is a major element in the preservation of sports stereotypes. The study seeks to examine if new media platforms like Twitter perpetuate gendered prejudices in sports reporting. The results showed that although Spanish women’s athletes have enjoyed an uptick in international success in recent years, it is apparent that they are ignored in the media. Apart from football, female athletes attract more media attention based on the sport they play than on their achievements.

Retrieved from;

Hartzell, A., & Dixon, M. (2019). A Holistic Perspective on Women’s Career Pathways in Athletics Administration. Journal Of Sport Management, 33(2), 79-92.


Research conducted by Hartzell, A., and Dixon, M. (2019) show that despite recent advancements, women are still underrepresented in sport leadership positions around the world. According to the study, sport organizations can reap the various and positive rewards of a much more diversified workforce which focuses on successful career advancement techniques that assist women achieve the heights for which they aspire within sport.

Retrieved from:

Hussain, U., & Cunningham, G. (2020). ‘These are “our” sports’: Kabaddi and Kho-Kho women athletes from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. International Review For The Sociology Of Sport, 56(7), 1051-1069.


According to the authors Hussain, U. and Cunningham, G. (2020), Men are more likely to participate in sports and physical activities than women. This is especially true for individuals from marginalized groups. The research examines Pakistani women from the province of Punjab who have been marginalized due to their socioeconomic status. The report’s findings suggested that participants felt confined by Pakistani culture’s and the West’s athletic paradigm’s systemic macho dominant culture.


Ahmad, N., Thorpe, H., Richards, J., & Marfell, A. (2020). Building cultural diversity in sport: a critical dialogue with Muslim women and sports facilitators. International Journal Of Sport Policy And Politics, 12(4), 637-653. https://doi.org/10.1080/19406940.2020.1827006

Elfman, L. (2020). Champion equity for women in sports. College Athletics And The Law, 17(7), 12-12.


Hartzell, A., & Dixon, M. (2019). A Holistic Perspective on Women’s Career Pathways in Athletics Administration. Journal Of Sport Management, 33(2), 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2018-0127
Hussain, U., & Cunningham, G. (2020). ‘These are “our” sports’: Kabaddi and Kho-Kho women athletes from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. International Review For The Sociology Of Sport, 56(7), 1051-1069. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690220968111
Sainz-de-Baranda, C., Adá-Lameiras, A., & Blanco-Ruiz, M. (2020). Gender Differences in Sports News Coverage on Twitter. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 17(14), 5199. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145199

V, D., & A, N. (2019). A Study on Indian Women Participating in Sports. International Journal Of Research In Arts And Science, 5(Special Issue), 47-56. https://doi.org/10.9756/bp2019.1001/06


370: WOMEN IN 20th



California State University, East




epartment of Kinesiology


Instructor: Dr.


aron L. Miller

Office: PE 103

Office Hours (via ZOOM): Thursdays, 3-5pm



This syllabus is your Bible for this course. Print it out (in color if possible, since the Course Schedule has been color-coded to aid your learning), carry it the bag that you use for your studies, and consult it every time you engage the course. Your grade depends directly on your ability to follow this syllabus. If you have a question about the syllabus, of if something confuses you, it is your responsibility to let the instructor know ASAP, preferably in the first week of class.




Although this is an online class that is delivered asynchronously, and all of the course materials are accessible via Blackboard, t


are two opportunities to engage with fellow students and ask the instructor questions via virtual means. The first is a weekly, and recommended – not required – ZOOM meeting for students to ask general questions and discuss course materials, either as a large class or if numbers require it, breakout rooms and smaller groups. The second is office hours, where you can ask more personal questions in a private ZOOM “breakout room”. See above for dates and times.


University Mission Statement: California State East Bay welcomes and supports a diverse student body with academically rich, culturally relevant learning experiences that prepare students to apply their education to meaningful lifework, and to be socially responsible contributors to society.

College of Education and Allied Studies Mission Statement: To prepare collaborative leaders, committed to social justice and democracy, who will influence a highly technological and diverse world

Department of Kinesiology Mission Statement: To prepare graduates who are knowledgeable, professional, and take a multidisciplinary approach to promoting physical activity.


This course will examine the experience of girls and women in 20th century sport from a social, cultural and historical perspective, with an emphasis on the constructs of gender, race, and sexuality, and how these constructs mediate the female sport experience. Women’s sport provides us with a lens to explore a range of issues including religion, social and economic structures, gender, race, and ideas concerning the body. Course materials will include a combination of award-winning scholarship and popular sources to examine the historical and current status of women in sport and factors that influence their participation. The main text, which will be supplemented by the instructor with other readings and multimedia resources, all of which will be uploaded to the course Blackboard page, is Susan Cahn, 2015. Coming on Strong, Univ. of Illinois Press, and may be available online through the university library. Following are some questions that this course will raise: Are sports a realm for men only, or can participate just as freely? Do sports reinforce or break down gender stereotypes? Is there social value in financially supporting women’s (professional) sports? How do we in contemporary society treat women athletes, and what does that treatment say about our values? How is gender differentiation constructed through sport and the culture of sport? Why was Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972 a landmark piece of federal legislation, and what have been its consequences for females? What are the employment trends over the past twenty-five years in women’s intercollegiate coaching and athletic administrations? What sociocultural sources of sexism exist in American society? Why does sex-testing reinforce patriarchal relations?


After completing this course, students will be able to:

– critically analyze sport as one of America’s most pervasive cultural institutions, particularly cases and incidents from sports history that illustrate how our ideas/practices regarding physical activity and physical education are socially constructed.

– trace the historical development of women’s involvement in sport, and be able to articulate reasons why and how sport/physical activity/notions of women’s bodies have changed/stayed the same throughout history.

– analyze the social, cultural and ideological issues with which female sport participants are confronted, and how women have shaped their identities through sports participation;

– identify how dominant norms have prohibited full participation by females in sport;

– identify the ways in which women resist the gendered status quo via their sport experiences; and

– present information effectively and clearly in written format.


There is a textbook for this course Cahn, Susan. Coming on Strong. 2015. Univ. of Illinois Press. (May be available as an e-book through the CSUEB library.)

This course is taught completely online and is delivered asynchronously, which means the onus will be upon the online learner to apprise himself/herself of the assignments due, read the syllabus clearly to understand how they should be done in order to receive a good grade, and then take it upon himself/herself to finish these assignments on time and in a satisfactory manner. The instructor is always available via email, office hours, or by appointment to answer questions; however, please note that due to the instructor’s heavy teaching load at CSUEB and another university, he has limited his ability to give individualized feedback. I am available via email, office hours, and/or by appointment to answer questions and address concerns, but please write in full sentences and be patient in receiving a reply. I will do my best to respond to your messages within one week. Due to my heavy teaching load (six classes each term) at two universities, it is not always possible to reply more quickly than that. Feedback on assignments may be given in aggregate, rather than personalized. If you’re interested in learning more about the reasons why I must have such a heavy teaching load, please see https://www.forbes.com/sites/noodleeducation/2015/05/28/more-than-half-of-college-faculty-are-adjuncts-should-you-care/#3ff5


ec1600 or

The Delphi Project on the Changing Faculty and Student Success

. If you find this problematic, please write a letter expressing your views to the university president, your state representative, or the state governor, and talk to taxpayers about the importance of properly funding public higher education.

How to do well in this course

Read the syllabus very closely. Use a calendar to enter due dates, or set reminders with your phone/computer. Do the assigned readings, “attend” our Blackboard (BB) site regularly, and contribute thoughtfully to share your views and illuminate the understandings of others via the Discussion Board (DB). Take it upon yourself to finish all assignments on time and in a satisfactory manner, and show your willingness to help others in your DB posts. When you read and take notes, focus on incorporating the material into your daily worldview. On the DB, do more than memorize and regurgitate “facts”. Be actively engaged and critically evaluate the class materials. What is the author saying? How does he/she support the argument being made? Try to compare and contrast the readings with your own experiences. Do your experiences reflect what the researchers, documentaries, and authors claim in the course materials? Why or why not?

Many CSUEB students write very well, and are able dexterously weave knowledge of course materials into essays. Some, however, write rather shallow posts that miss the nuanced perspectives of the course materials and demonstrate very little effort in consuming the course materials and thinking about it critically. While I am certain that you are all very busy with other classes and other (family/work) commitments, if you want to do well in this course (e.g. receive an A or B), it is not enough to simply do the work. Rather, it is extremely important to keep up with the readings, especially as it is an online course, and read each one twice. It is my experience as an instructor of online education that these courses actually require more student effort than in-person courses, since students have less guidance on a routine basis than you would if you saw the instructor in person routinely. Therefore, I recommend setting aside a specific block of time each week for each online class you take, just as you would set it aside for an in person class. It will help to schedule this time directly into your diary, just as you would with an in-person class.


There are a number of readings in this course. You will want to read each reading in your desired format (online using Adobe or another format or printing out the readings), as long at this format allows you to easily take plenty of time with the material, write notes, make comments in the text, write down/type out things you do not understand as you are reading, etc. These readings will form the basis for our online discussions and quizzes throughout the quarter – so take them seriously – be sure to spend plenty of time reading them very closely!

Please read every assigned course material very carefully. Reading these materials will constitute the vast majority of your time in this class (probably 3-6 hours per week). If you do not carefully read everything, this fact will soon make itself apparent in your weekly posts, exams, etc.

Log on often! A common question with an online class is, “How many times should I log on to the Bb course site?” I don’t have a standard answer for that, because some of it depends on your schedule, how you take material in, etc. But my general advice is don’t let this class get away from you! An online course is “out of sight” and can be easily forgotten. I suggest you write down/input into your calendar all due dates and times for this course. Remember, too, that any 4-unit college course could take up to 12 hours/week by the time you complete readings and other assignments. If you can’t or simply don’t want to post to the Discussion Board every week for the entire quarter, then please drop this course and give your spot to someone on the wait list!


PLEASE check your horizon email account often, since several times throughout the quarter I will use this pathway to communicate with you, either individually or an email to the entire class.


“Netiquette” is online communication etiquette. Our online classroom is an academic environment, where we can safely share our points of view, expressed with respect for others. Here are some basic guidelines that all participants should follow:

Express your opinions politely, even if you disagree with someone. Be open and willing to accept others points of view.

Course discussions and other shared content is private and copyright protected. Do not disseminate this content outside of the online classroom unless granted permission by the author(s).

Do not use “texting” abbreviations when communicating in the online classroom. Be professional. Use concise, well-constructed language. Follow the rules of spelling and grammar.

Avoid sarcasm and humor as these can be easily misinterpreted, especially by individuals of different cultures than your own.

Do not send messages that you write when you are angry or upset. Reread every post before you send it!

Do not use all capital letters as it is considered SHOUTING.

Sign every post you make so others can replay to you directly.

Construct your messages in a text editor and transfer them to the LMS after proofing them for Netiquette.

* Follow your instructors specific requirements or rubric for course communication.


Success in this course is contingent upon all students remaining open, being willing to fully engage in discussions, and opening oneself up to the challenge of existing beliefs, understandings and conceptualizations. Much learning comes from sharing perspectives with others, so there will be group work. If you don’t understand what someone is saying, respectfully ask them to clarify. Consider why your classmates may agree or disagree with the course materials. Be empathetic. Making connections among your experiences, your classmates’ experiences, and the course materials will help make this course more useful to your education, and possibly to your life. Last but not least, draw connections among different readings, in order to enhance your understanding of the broader fields of sports humanities and social science (of which this course is a part). As your instructor, I respectfully ask that you show tolerance of and respect for each other in all your interactions. If you do, you will find that these are virtuous characteristics that allow for deep critical thinking, and by extension, individual as well as societal growth. The University is committed to maintaining a safe and healthy living and learning environment for students, faculty, and staff. Each member of the campus community should choose behaviors that contribute toward this end. Please read the following for details:



There are various assignments that you must complete to pass this class. All are important to stimulate your learning , specifically your reading comprehension skills, oral presentation skills, interview skills, and ability to demonstrate critical reflection.

A) Exams

B) Oral presentation assignment, to be done in an assigned group on a special topic of your choosing.

C) Blackboard Discussion Board Posts

D) Online participation

A. Exams:

a. Exams: There are 2 difficult exams in this course (midterm and final). Both will be timed and will include highly specific true/false and multiple-choice questions. You can prepare for these exams by reading/watching all required course materials very closely and taking notes of the readings as you read. Then, revisit your notes before the exam to refresh your memory. There may not be enough time for you to consult the textbook/course materials during the exam, so make sure you are prepared ahead of time. As John Wooden famously said, “failure to prepare is preparing to fail”. See relevant dates under Course Schedule.

a. Students must take the exams on the day they are scheduled. The only exceptions will be:

1. Personal illness or injury, which can be documented by the appropriate authority (e.g. Medical Doctor).

2. Death or serious illness to a member of the student’s immediate family which can be documented by an appropriate person.


Oral History Research Paper

a. The major research and writing assignment is a 1250 – 1650 word independent oral history research paper (approx 10 pp.), double-spaced, Times New Roman 12 point font, 0.5” margins on all sides of the page.

b. In order to receive a high score, you must do in-person interviews with someone who has direct experience and knowledge of women’s sports in an era of the 20th century other than the current age. (i.e. please do not interview someone about the 2000s!)

c. This assignment will be scaffolded, so that you can hand it in at intervals and stay engaged with the course as you go.

d. Interview an individual (family member or close family friend) who is at least one generation older than you.

e. From the information obtained through this “oral history,” place the individual’s life – and their physical activity/physical education/sport experiences – in socio-historical context.

f. Your job is to explain what their leisure/physical education/sport experiences of your interviewee looked like, and why their experiences looked the way they did in relation to the surrounding culture and the historical moment. In other words, to explain how the person’s athletic or physical activity experiences were shaped or influenced by a) their identity (class, race, ethnicity, gender, religion, physical disability), and b) the time period/place they lived, as well as how a) and b) relate to each other.

g. To help guide you, you can directly answer the questions:

i. How did the time period shape their leisure/physical education/sport experiences?

ii. How did the person’s identity shape their leisure/physical education/sport experiences?

iii. How did their leisure/physical education/sport experiences shape the person’s identity?

iv. How did their leisure/physical education/sport experiences, as well as the leisure/physical education/sport experiences of their peers, shape the time period?

h. It is NOT necessary that the person have been an athlete.

i. All essays must:

i. Identify/introduce interviewee;

ii. Summarize the interview;

iii. Include citations of secondary (academic) sources related to the historical moment and place in which the interviewee lived;

iv. Include a bibliography, introductory paragraph, thesis statement, and body paragraphs;

v. Paper length is 1250 – 1650 words. Endnotes are in addition to this word requirement. In other words, I expect that the TEXT of the paper (final draft) will be a minimum of 1250 words / maximum of 1650 words. No exceptions to this word requirement – failure to follow the word min/max will result in a significantly lower grade.

vi. To support your interview and contextualize the experiences of your interviewee, please find high-quality historical research and scholarly sources and reference them in your paper. By high-quality research and scholarly sources, I mean you must use evidence from at least three of the following categories:

1) Any carefully observed direct observation of sports

2) Any interviews or conversations with sporting people (this could be contemporary people, to offer contrast with your interviewee)

3) Any literature (short stories, novels), television shows, or films about sports in historical or contemporary society

4) High-quality survey data regarding attitudes and behavior regarding sports in historical or contemporary society

5) High-quality statistics (demographic, economic, etc.) regarding sports in historical or contemporary society

6) Any research done by scholars of sport.

Note: Your sources may include no more than one source from the list of OPTIONAL readings listed in this syllabus.

Note: Please email me if you are unable to determine the quality of the publication or data).

Questions to keep in mind while you write:

1) What is the argument I am making about my interviewee?

2) How do I support it?

3) How can I strengthen it?

4) How does this argument relate to our course textbook?

5) How should I cite references properly?

6) How can I polish my paper before submitting it?

7) Can I ask a friend/family member/loved-one-that-is-not-a-dog-or-cat to review it for me before submitting?

8) Can I express myself in English writing without concern (i.e. do I worry that a native English speaker may not understand what I am trying to say)? If not, can I consult a native English speaker for assistance?

Please type your papers using a word processor unless you have immaculate handwriting. Never plagiarize, ghostwrite, or dry lab. (Consult a dictionary if you do not know what these words mean). Finally, it should go without saying, but please do not hand in a first draft. I take off points for typos and grammatical mistakes, since they indicate carelessness and a lack of attention to detail. Students will receive a high grade if they communicate their thoughts effectively, and that requires understanding and properly using the written (i.e. not spoken) English language.

C. Blackboard Discussion Posts and Responses:

a. Weekly readings and the summary reports (which you will post on the Discussion Board, and then respond to two other students’ posts) you write about them will help you develop your reading comprehension and writing skills. For each chapter that you read in this course, you must complete a discussion board post. Completing a topic discussion board means completion of an introductory post and making two responses post to another student’s post. Extra credit may be given to students who respond to more than one other student’s post, especially if it is clear that the student has found a way to respectfully and civilly correct another student’s mistakes. Remember: we are a learning community!

i. Spend time writing both posts, making sure they are well thought out, thorough, organized, well written, etc. Some students prefer to draw up an outline before they begin writing. Others like to heavily revise and proofread after a rough draft. Either is fine, but please do one or the other, or both.

ii. Try to connect what you are saying directly to a specific reading (pg. number is great to have!) or topic content posted by the professor. The posts will constitute the best piece of evidence I have with regard to how much effort you are putting into the course, how much learning is taking place, and how you are able to articulate your ideas…so make these posts great!

iii. Note: The reason why I do not provide specific questions for these posts is because we are focusing primarily on one book for this asynchronous class, and so these posts are my indication of how much you are understanding the material therein. The best way to write the posts is to take notes while you read, and then organize those notes into a summary of what you have read. I am afraid that if I asked specific questions about each chapter, it will actually limit how much critical thinking you would do in this process. If you have further questions, please let me know. 

D. Online Participation

You are expected to be an active participant in this course, which includes in-person attendance as well as participation on Blackboard. “Active” online means checking in regularly, asking the instructor for clarification when necessary, completing all Blackboard assignments on time, participating in forums, showing respect for your peers and instructor at all times, and providing thoughtful observations about course materials in your tests and essays.



Grades will be determined by calculating the accumulated points from the essay, exams, and assignments.
Please note that simply meeting the requirements for the assignments does not guarantee an “A.” Work that is excellent or outstanding merits that grade. The total points will be calculated and the grades will be assigned accordingly:

























Below 60

There are 400 possible points:

Active participation, including Blackboard discussion board posts and responses

100 + possible extra credit

Oral History Research Paper

150 (5 submissions x 30 points)

Midterm Exam 75

Final Exam 75

Total Possible Points Total: 400


Your grade is based on your ability to follow the guidelines set forth in this syllabus. Handing assignments in on time is the first and perhaps most important requirement. If you do so, you will likely do very well in the class. This class is not graded on a curve. Any one can receive a good grade, but to do so you need to demonstrate your understanding of ALL of the course materials, participate regularly, actively and respectfully in the discussion forums, and produce high-quality and original written work of your own.

A special note about INCOMPLETES: In accordance with University policy, I’ll only grant an incomplete for an unforeseen incident that comes up in your life (documentation may be required). I will not grant an incomplete simply because you didn’t take this course seriously enough and thus didn’t make time for it – and thus wish to “take an incomplete” and finish the coursework later.


Exams will be a combination of true-false, multiple choice, short answer, and essay. Some of the questions may be rather specific, so make sure you read each required article carefully. Exams may be given online.


Grades for writing assignments will be determined by considering structure, content, flow and writing quality, which I measure based on your usage of proper grammar, spelling accuracy, sentence and paragraph construction, punctuation, and the presentation of citations in a consistent style of your choice.


10-9: answered question completely and in a clear and articulate manner; used relevant materials accurately; represented author’s (of our course materials) arguments accurately

8: answered question with minor issues in clarity or logical structure of essay; used relevant materials accurately; represented author’s (of our course materials) arguments accurately

7: answered question, but not completely. Often key concepts need to be clearly explained and explicitly tied back to answering the question. Relevant materials were either incomplete or not entirely accurate. Author’s arguments were not represented with a high level of accuracy.

6: answered question only partially. Relevant materials were incomplete or inaccurate; Author’s arguments were incomplete or inaccurate; or a list of facts were given without explaining their significance in answering the question

5-0: Did not answer question. either another question was addressed, or the attempt to address the specific question was not supported by relevant and accurate information



Cahn, Susan. Coming on Strong. 2015. Univ. of Illinois Press. (May be available as an e-book through the CSUEB library.)

***Note: Dates and materials listed below are subject to change at the instructor’s discretion. Often schedules change to allow for further class discussion where necessary and/or desirable, or to accommodate new, timely, and relevant current affairs. Coming to class (or checking in online if this is an online class) regularly is your best bet to know where we are.










1a. Introduction to class

1. Read the Syllabus carefully



1b. Introduction to course content

1. Cahn, Introduction, pp. 1-6



The New Type of Athletic Girl

Cahn. Chapter 1, pp. 7-30

Video: Oldest Women’s Basketball Film Footage 1904 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zy6zRKIGQ3Y

DUE: Sunday 2/6 by 11:59pm – Oral history paper Submission #1: identify interviewee, include a paragraph (150-200 words) that details demographic information about your subject (place of birth, approximate age, where they grew up, family size, etc). Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu.



Grassroots Growth and Sexual Sensation in the Flapper Era

Cahn, Chapter 2, pp.31-54

Video: Flappers – the Roaring Twenties




Games of Strife – the battle over women’s competitive sport

Cahn, Chapter 3, pp. 55-82

DUE: Sunday 2/20 by 11:59pm – Oral history paper Submission #2: working annotated bibliography of at least four (4) academic/scholarly (i.e. not journalism) sources, which you believe will help to contextualize your subject’s experiences. Please provide a short – 2-3 sentences – annotation for each source, regarding how you see each source connected to your subject. You can find the sources through the library. These must be sources that are NOT listed in this syllabus. Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu



Order on the Court – the Campaign to suppress women’s basketball

Cahn, Chapter 4, pp. 83-109



“Cinderellas” of Sport; Black Women in Track and field

Cahn, Chapter 5, pp. 110-139

Midterm Quiz – will cover Weeks 2 –7 Take online 3/6 anytime before 11:59pm



No Freaks, No Amazons, No Boyish Bobs: The All-American Girls Baseball League

Cahn, Chapter 6, pp. 140-163

Film “A League of their Own” (1 DVD copy on reserve at library (DVD 101))

DUE: Sunday 3/13 by 11:59pm– Oral history paper Submission #3: interview summary. I expect to see each question you asked and a summary of the answers you received. Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu.



Beauty and the Butch: The Mannish Athlete and the Lesbian Threat

Cahn, Chapter 7, pp. 164-184



Play it, don’t say it: Lesbian identity and community in women’s sport

Cahn, Chapter 8, pp. 185-206

Film “Training Rules” (2 DVD copies on reserve at library (ICDVD30; ICDVD30 c.2))

DUE: Sunday 3/27 by 11:59pm – Oral history paper Submission #4: opening paragraph, thesis statement, outline of entire essay (in bullet point format), working (annotated) bibliography (continued). I’ll expect you to use at least four (4) academic sources. Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu.




Women Competing/Gender Contested

Cahn, Chapter 9, pp. 207-245

Film: “Billie Jean King, American Masters”. https://www.amazon.com/gp/video/detail/B00JUIZTMM/ref=pd_cbs_318_1



You’ve come a long way, maybe: A Revolution in women’s sport

Cahn, Chapter 10, pp. 246-280

Acosta, Vivian R. and Linda Jean Carpenter. 2009. Are we there yet?

seven years later, Title IX hasn’t fixed it all



Are we there yet? The Paradox of Progress

Cahn, Epilogue, pp. 281-314

Friedman, Hilary Levey. 2013.
Soccer Isn’t for Girly‐Girls? How Parents Pick the Sports Their Daughters Play
. The Atlantic. Aug 6, 2013.

Film: “Too Fast to Be a Woman The Story of Caster Semenya” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-UX0LE_tCg



Media coverage

Film “Media Coverage & Female Athletes” (PBS and University of Minnesota Tucker Center)



Work on your paper and study for the exam

DUE: 5/8 by 11:59pm – Oral history paper Submission #5: Final Draft. Email to instructor aaron.miller@csueastbay.edu. INCLUDE ALL PREVIOUS ORAL HISTORY SUBMISSIONS ALONGSIDE


Final Exam – will cover weeks 8-15

Take online 5/8 anytime before 11:59pm


***Please note that you are required to watch three films during the quarter. The first, A League of Their Own is assigned for week 5. This is a fairly easy film to get (Netflix, etc). Even though you may have seen it, I suggest you watch it one more time. The second film is a documentary titled Training Rules and we will discuss it week 8. The third is an educational film on Media Coverage and Female Athletes from the Tucker Center. We will cover this week 9 and it is available here. In addition, a copy of the first 2 films will be available in the media reserve area of the library (each 2 hours, no overnight). Plan ahead!



Information on what to do in an emergency situation (earthquake, electrical outage, fire, extreme heat, severe storm, hazardous materials, terrorist attack) may be found at:




All students must submit their own work. Our catalog defines plagiarism as ‘taking the words or substance of another and either copying or paraphrasing the work without giving credit to the source through footnotes, quotation marks, or reference citations’. Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty that is theft of another’s ideas and an affront to the course and the students who participate honestly. CSU East Bay does not condone any form of academic dishonesty. Academic dishonesty includes but is not limited to plagiarism and/or representing someone else’s work as your own, whether it be another student or outside resources. According to the CSUEB Policy on Academic Dishonesty one or more of the following actions is considered appropriate according to the Professor’s discretion: a warning; 2) a requirement that work be resubmitted under qualified conditions and with a possible grade penalty; 3) a requirement that an exam be retaken under qualified conditions and with a possible grade penalty; 4) an adjustment in the grade of an assignment; 5) an adjustment in the grade for a course. Grade adjustments include, of course, the possibility of assigning an F. The use of grades to address questions of academic dishonesty is at the sole discretion of the faculty. Tips to avoid plagiarizing can be found here.

If the instructor feels the nature and severity of the offense warrant it, the instructor should refer the case to the Director of Student Development and Judicial Affairs (DSDJA) or equivalent administrator by checking the appropriate box on the Academic Dishonesty Incident Report (ADIR). Upon such a referral, the SDO will determine if further action beyond the instructor’s action should be taken. Available administrative sanctions include warning, probation, suspension, and expulsion. The imposition of such sanctions is at the sole discretion of the Director of Student Development and Judicial Affairs or equivalent administrator

Any time an instructor takes action under the provisions of Section 4.1, an Academic

Dishonesty Incident Report must be completed. This report (attachment 1) describes the details of the infraction and the action taken by the instructor. The report is filed with the Academic Affairs Office, and a copy given to the student. Academic Dishonesty Incident Report(s) will be kept on file in the Academic Affairs office for five years or until the student completes his or her course of studies (whichever occurs first). The ADIR is not part of the student’s official transcript. Overall, I expect high professional standards from students. To achieve the goals of this course and enhance our learning, we all must maintain academic honesty. You can retrieve the campus academic honesty document


. By enrolling in this class the student agrees to uphold the standards of academic integrity described in the catalog.


Equal access to education means equal opportunity to learn. Under section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, students with verifiable disabilities who are otherwise qualified have a right to equal access to classes at

If you have a documented disability and wish to discuss academic accommodations, or if you would need assistance in the event of an emergency evacuation, please contact either Professor as soon as possible. Students with disabilities needing accommodation should speak with Accessibility Services. 



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