14. Explain how the temperature at the Earth’s surface can be greater than the radiative equilibrium temperature of the planet. (Hint: where does much of the warming due to absorption of visible solar radiation happen?)15. The temperature of the material that emits photons that escape the planet, and make it to outer space is what determines the radiative equilibrium temperature. From where is most of the radiation from Earth emitted out to space?22. There are large quantities of methane gas (CH4) stored in the permafrost soils (soils that remain frozen throughout the year), located in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. When permafrost soils thaw (or melt), the stored methane gas is released into the atmosphere.c. If a significant fraction of the permafrost soils thaws, describe the feedback process involving the storage of methane within permafrost soils. Make sure you clearly state whether it is a positive feedback, a negative feedback, or neither with respect to changes in temperature.d. Most climate models do not include this possible feedback. How would including this feedback mechanism act to change the models’ predictions of future climate change?
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