Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Skeleton and Muscles
Bone is an organ that is constantly remodelling, growing and repairing itself. Bone contributes to the homeostasis of the body providing support, protection, production of blood cells and the storage of nutrients, minerals, lipids and triglycerides. Bone is comprised of a mineral called calcium and consists of a number of tissues: bone or osseous tissue, nervous tissue, adipose tissue, epithelium, cartilage and dense connective tissues. Typical bone structure is the diaphysis (shaft), epiphysis (end), articular cartilage (connective tissue), periosteum (fibrous membrane) and marrow cavity (where bone marrow is stored).
Figure 1: Long bone structure diagram
There are two major types of bone. Trabecular bone gives supporting strength to the ends of weight-bearing bones and contains many tiny spaces that are filled with marrow. Cortical bone on the outside forms the shaft of the long bone. Each bone contains two types of osseous tissue. Compact bone is dense and solid and is always found on the surface of the bone. Spongy bone has porous structure, and is found in the interior of bones.
The function of bone is to:
The skeleton is the structural framework of bones which gives shape and support to the body. Different bones are connected by joints to allow function and movement. The skeleton is comprised of two parts; the axial and appendicular skeleton. Bone is the major organ of the skeletal system and has a number of functions:
Complete a table similar to the one below.
|Joint||Joint type||Movement range|
|Joint||Joint type||Movement range|
|Hip||Ball and socket joint||This joint allows flexion and extension, kicking the leg backward and forward. The hip joint also can adduct and abduct the leg, lifting the leg to the side and lowering it. Finally rotation, the leg can turn out, then in.|
|Shoulder||Ball and socket joint||Ball and socket joints are multiaxial joints because they can move bones along several axes. The muscles that surround the shoulder joint permits the humerus to move away from the body’s midline (abduction), toward the midline (adduction), forward (flexion), and backwards (extension). The humerus can also move around the joint in a full circle (circumduction) and rotate both medially and laterally around their axis.|
|Wrist||Gliding joint||The wrist joint has movement along two axes. It flexes and extends, but also radially (towards the thumb side) and ulnarly (towards the little finger side) deviates from side to side.|
|Elbow||Hinge joint||The elbow joint permits movement along one plane, the flexion and extension of the forearm relative to the upper arm. The elbow allows the wrist to rotate by pivoting the radius around the ulna.|
|Ankle||Hinge joint||The synovial hinge joint permits plantar flexion in which the foot is pointed downwards and dorsiflexion in which it is raised. Inversion and eversion allows the foot to move inwards towards the midline of the body or away from it.|
|Atlanto-axial||Pivot joint||Flexion allows the head to touch the sternum with chin, extension to point up with chin, lateral bending by way of bringing the ear close to the shoulder and rotation, turning of the head to the left, then right.|
Word Count: TAQ 2 = 270
NB: I have not included a fused joint such as the suture in this table as the criteria asks for freely movable joints and this joint has no free movement.
Running involves the whole skeleton:
Movements that take place during running are due to the contraction of skeletal muscles pulling on bones which move at flexible pivot points, or joints. These contractions are:
Lower body – running involves the hip, knee and ankle joints. Each joint produces two actions, one when the leg is in contact with the ground (driving phase) and one when the leg is not in contact with the ground (recovery phase). Primary muscles used are:
|Joints Involved||Action||Agonist Muscle|
|Hip||Extension, hyperextension||Gluteal muscles
|Joints Involved||Action||Agonist Muscle|
|Ankle||Dorsi flexion||Tibialis anterior|
When working at a computer deep stability/core muscles are used more than the abdominals. The head and neck facilitate stability and the senses and the respiratory muscles are vital. Joints around the shoulder and thoracic spine are crucial for allowing fine motor skills into the periphery.
Associated muscle movements are:
Spine/abdomen – When sitting the external obliques, erector spinae, rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis and internal obliques are used. The erector spinae muscles work to maintain the correct “hollow” in the lumbar spine. The iliopsoas muscles pull the torso forward to stop it falling backward.
Shoulder – The muscles of the shoulder bridge transitions from the torso into the head/neck area and the upper extremities of the arms and hands.
Hip – The anterior hip muscles are shortened and the hamstring muscles are inactive. This stops the hips from flexing during forward bending and forces the lower back to bend beyond its strong middle range.
Elbow – The elbow permits movement along one plane, namely the flexion and extension of the forearm relative to the upper arm. The muscles provide both strength and flexibility to the arm.
Hand/wrist – More than 30 individual muscles in the hand and forearm work together to provide the hands with unsurpassed flexibility, precise control, and gripping strength. The muscles can be broken down into three main regions: the thenar, hypothenar and intermediate muscles.
Skeletal muscles have complicated structures that allow them to move, what are these structures and how do they allow muscles to carry out their roles?
Skeletal muscle is attached directly or indirectly through tendons to bones, cartilages, ligaments or fascia. Skeletal muscles are striated and cylindrical fibres run in parallel the length of the muscle and contain many nuclei. Skeletal muscle is controlled by the nervous system and is voluntary because it can be made to contract or relax by conscious control. Generally an artery and one or two of the major veins accompany each nerve, penetrating each skeletal muscle and branching through connective tissue within the muscle.
Skeletal muscles have three major functions:
Movement – This is the muscles reaction to a nervous electrical impulse. The muscle can respond to a stimulus and is able to shorten powerfully. An electrical impulse, or action potential, is carried by a nerve cell to a muscle cell. When the action potential reaches the end of the nerve cell, it is translated into a chemical signal and travels to a specified muscle cell. The muscle cell contracts, or shortens, in response to the signal it receives from the nerve cell. Skeletal muscle returns to its original shape after contracting or lengthening.
Stabilisation – Joints are made when bones meet. The ends that meet are covered in a smooth cartilage that reduces friction upon movement of the joint. Ligaments connect the joint together to attach bone to bone. Tendons connect bone to muscle and the tendons are held tight by the muscles. The muscles maintain a small amount of contraction, even when resting and this is necessary for holding joints together. Skeletal muscle is also important for maintaining posture. Our muscles make small adjustments all the time to keep us sitting or standing up straight.
Temperature – Skeletal muscle makes up about 40% of the body’s muscle mass. Skeletal muscle generates heat as a by-product of muscle activity and this heat is vital for maintaining your normal body temperature.
‘Movement requires muscles and all muscles have antagonistic pairs’. Using this as the title write a short account of how muscle contraction and antagonism is vital for the co-ordinated movement of an organism.
Muscles are made up of two major protein filaments: a thick filament composed of the protein myosin and a thin filament composed of the protein actin. Muscle contraction occurs when these filaments slide over one another in a series of repetitive events. The body needs energy for the contraction of muscles. This energy is obtained from the oxidation of food substances such as glucose in the mitochondria of the muscle tissue.
Usually muscles work in pairs, the agonist contracting and the antagonist working in opposition. This is called reciprocal inhibition. However the eccentric action of controlled lengthening can occur when using gravity and antagonistic co-contraction is not required. For example in the case of a drawbridge, the agonist is the lifting of the bridge, as the muscle contracts (shortens) concentrically the bridge pulls up. Eccentric action is the relaxing of the agonist and controlled lengthening, in this example the lowering of the drawbridge. This can be control either working against (using the antagonist muscle) or in this example lowering to gravity.
Antagonistic muscles oppose contraction to create control and stability and make the smooth co-ordination of movement possible.
6 Types of Synovial Joints | Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/74183-types-synovial-joints/. [Accessed 02 February 2015].
BBC Science & Nature – Human Body and Mind – Skeleton Layer. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/shapeandstructure/femur.shtml. [Accessed 30 January 2015].
Bone Structure . 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/sciences/anatomy-and-physiology/bones-and-skeletal-tissues/bone-structure. [Accessed 28 January 2015].
Bones & Joints of the Shoulder. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.shoulderdoc.co.uk/article.asp?article=1177. [Accessed 30 January 2015].
Cancellous Bone: Definition, Structure & Function | Education Portal. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/cancellous-bone-definition-structure-function.html. [Accessed 30 January 2015].
How Muscles Work. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.montana.edu/craigs/How%20Muscles%20Work.htm. [Accessed 31 January 2015].
HUMAN BEING :: ANATOMY :: SKELETON :: TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS image – Visual Dictionary Online. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://visual.merriam-webster.com/human-being/anatomy/skeleton/types-synovial-joints_1.php. [Accessed 02 February 2015].
Human skeletal system | anatomy | Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547358/human-skeletal-system. [Accessed 30 January 2015].
Introductory Anatomy: Bones. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/chb/lectures/anatomy3.html. [Accessed 30 January 2015].
Knee Joint – Anatomy Pictures and Information. 2015. ONLINE] Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/image/skel16.html. [Accessed 30 January 2015].
Major Skeletal Muscle Functions – Video & Lesson Transcript | Education Portal. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/major-skeletal-muscle-functions.html. [Accessed 31 January 2015].
Muscle Roles and Contraction Types — PT Direct. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ptdirect.com/training-design/anatomy-and-physiology/skeletal-muscle-roles-and-contraction-types. [Accessed 31 January 2015].
Muscles that Cause Movement at the Knee Joint. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/the-muscular-system-10/muscles-of-the-lower-limb-107/muscles-that-cause-movement-at-the-knee-joint-579-9335/. [Accessed 31 January 2015].
Muscles Used When Running. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.spryfeet.com/2010/04/05/muscles-used-when-running/. [Accessed 31 January 2015].
Normal Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_musculoskeletal_pain/hic_Normal_Structure_and_Function_of_the_Musculoskeletal_System. [Accessed 30 January 2015].
Physiology – Skeletal System. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/physiol.htm. [Accessed 02 February 2015].
Physiology of muscle contraction. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/biotechvictor1950/physiology-of-muscle-contraction-17064052. [Accessed 31 January 2015].
Skeletal System: Anatomy and Physiology | Skeleton Anatomy | Quizzes. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/skeletalsystem/skeleton/menu/menu.html. [Accessed 02 February 2015].
Skeletal System. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://hes.ucfsd.org/gclaypo/skelweb/skel01.html. [Accessed 02 February 2015].
Skeletal System. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://homes.bio.psu.edu/faculty/strauss/anatomy/skel/skeletal.htm. [Accessed 02 February 2015].
Skeletal System – Labeled Diagrams of the Human Skeleton. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/image/skelfov.html. [Accessed 02 February 2015].
STRETCHING AND FLEXIBILITY – Normal Ranges of Joint Motion. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://people.bath.ac.uk/masrjb/Stretch/stretching_8.html. [Accessed 30 January 2015].
Support and Movement: Skeletal System – Bone Function. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2001_saladin/folder_structure/su/m2/s1/index.htm. [Accessed 02 February 2015].
The Skeletal System. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.strengthandfitnessuk.com/the-skeletal-system. [Accessed 02 February 2015].
The Muscles Used to Sit & Stand | LIVESTRONG.COM. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/137037-the-muscles-used-sit-stand/. [Accessed 31 January 2015].
Types of Joints – HowStuffWorks. 2015. ONLINE] Available at: http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/musculoskeletal/bone11.htm. [Accessed 30 January 2015].
Types of Muscle Contraction During Running | Healthy Living – azcentral.com. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://healthyliving.azcentral.com/types-muscle-contraction-during-running-13660.html. [Accessed 31 January 2015].
Types of Muscle Contraction During Running | LIVESTRONG.COM. 2015.[ONLINE] Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/484796-types-of-muscle-contraction-during-running/. [Accessed 31 January 2015].
Keith L. Moore, 1999. Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 4th Edition. 4th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
René Fester Kratz, 2010. Biology for Dummies. 2nd Edition. For Dummies.
Sandra Reynolds Tortora Gerard J.; Grabo, 2002. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 10th Edition Edition. Wiley Publishing Inc.
|Figure 1: Long bone structure diagram||Long Bone Diagram | Search Results | search. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://kabarhosting.com/tag/long-bone-diagram. [Accessed 03 February 2015].|
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more