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Reflection 50% of Blog Project

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For this portion – it is individually done.

Each person in the group will write a reflection.  It will be done in 3 paragraphs.  Due by 4/8 midnight through Canvas.

1st Paragraph:  What did you learn about history?  What did you research?  What did you find interesting and why? 

2nd Paragraph:  What did you learn about group dynamics?  How do you feel about your group?  Did you learn anything from other group members?  This is the time to tell me about your group.

Save Time On Research and Writing
Hire a Pro to Write You a 100% Plagiarism-Free Paper.
Get My Paper

3rd Paragraph:  What did you learn about the writing process?  What did you think about this project?  What do you feel is the MOST valuable lesson you learned from this project?  What would you do differently?

This is 50% of your overall grade on the Service Learning Project.  The blog and reflection will be worth a test grade.  It is worth 25% of your total grade.  

Quanah Parker group

History 1301-51027: United States History 1

Prof. Lisa Blank

04/03/2022

The Last Great Frontier in the Indian Resistance

Intro

Quanah Parker, the last chief of the Quahada Comanche Indians, son of Peta Nocona and

Cynthia Ann Parker

.  From early life, Quanah Parker depicted selfless leadership when he led 700 youths against a group of buffalo hunters, who were constantly damaging community resources (Hosner, 2021). Later, Quanah became chief of the Quahada Comanches and created a sense of optimism and hope.Despite not being born into the tribe, Quanah joined this fierce band of warriors and became infamous as the leader of an uncontested force in the Texas plains. To the Americans, the Quahadas were fearsome renegades who refused to give up their land and stole American resources. To the Native Americans, Quanah was the last frontier in the Indian resistance.

Body

The fact he was half-Comanche and half-white (his father was Kwahadi Chief Peta Nocona, his mother captive Cynthia Ann Parker) made him especially intriguing to a curious American public. During the three decades, he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, but after Comanche military power was finally crushed in the mid-1870s, he made an amazing transition to a man of peace. Raiding and trading were their way of life-for goods, horses, food, and captives. Imported to the New World by the Spanish conquistadores, horses proved to be a technological breakthrough that transformed Comanche life. Once they mastered the horse, the newly mobile Comanches expanded their field of operations. They quickly turned New Mexico into what historian Pekka Hamalainen calls “a vast hinterland of extractive raiding,” rampaged through Texas and crossed the Rio Grande into the vast, unprotected underbelly of northern Mexico. Floating across the High Plains like vast schools of giant, rumbling fish, two to three million buffalo roamed Comancheria. They were the heart of the economy. Quanah improved the ranching sector by investing heavily in it and mobilizing other investors to expand its productivity and profitability. Here, Quanah created favorable conditions for White ranchers to help expand the sector. Next, Parker improved the educational sector by reserving the land and constructing learning institutions using this framework as a guide. After that, Quanah mobilized Indian teenagers and youths to enroll in these schools and acquire western education (Hosner, 2021). As a result, many youths, including his children, acquired western education in reservation educational centers or off-reservation boarding schools.

Quannah acquired the basic habits of ranching, education and cultivation. Quannah was known for serving as a Judge, He bargained with white investors on many business agreements which made him successful. Through the practice of Ghost Dance which originated in Nevada with the Paiute tribe, Ghost dance diffused quickly to other Indian tribes in the southwest. The Ghost dance was a religious revival uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs which caused the return of the buffalo. Parker’s attempt at preventing the ghost dance disperse was another successful attempt.

In an effort to contain and enclose the surviving Native nations from white civilization, the U.S. government wrote up a treaty. Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches were to live together harmoniously in one reservation (Fixico, 358). After refusing to sign the medicine lodge treaty, Quanah and his Comanche band were considered fugitives of the Llano Estacado (Llano river area). The treaty forced all surrounding Indian nations into a reservation between the Washita and red rivers, with the agreement that white buffalo hunters would not hunt in that land, and the government would provide any non-local resources (Fixico, 358). However, any resources sent to the Indians often did not make the trip, and white outlaws on reservation land easily stole from Indian land with no repercussions. Quanah’s bravery brought Indians together and eventually he led the fight for the return of their land in the Red River War (Hosmer, 1). Despite a scathing loss, his efforts were not in vain. His bravery and unrelenting will is still honored to this day, and he used this respect to continue to lead the Kiowa-Comanches into a peaceful future until his untimely death.

The Comanches remained a nomadic people throughout their free existence. Buffalo, their lifeblood, provided food, clothing, and shelter. Their predominantly meat diet was supplemented with wild roots, fruits, and nuts, or with produce obtained by trade with neighboring agricultural tribes, principally the Wichita and Caddo groups to the east and the Pueblo tribes to the west. Because of their skills as traders, the Comanches controlled much of the commerce of the Southern Plains. They bartered buffalo products, horses, and captives for manufactured items and foodstuffs(Lipscomb, 4).  In their middleman role, Comanches also supplied horses and goods derived from buffalo hunting in exchange for the agricultural surplus of other groups, such as the Wichita bands, and firearms from European-American traders(Klos ,8).

Despite his unwanted losses in trying to secure the land for his people, Parker continued to become a very influential role model even after the separation of the Kiowa-Comanche reservation. Being able to use Indian-white warfare gave him a huge advantage, it made him into a very successful person in his later life. But as life continues there comes an end to many great things. On February 23, 1911 Quanah had unfortunately died due to an unknown illness.  However, before passing Quanah was able to relocate the remains of his mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, to Oklahoma. During the time of this event he spoke for her advising his people to “Follow after white way, get education, know work, make a living” (Hagan). At the time of his passing, two of Quanah’s wives were at his side. It was only right to have buried him beside his mother in the “Post Oak Mission cemetery” (Hagan).  In his funeral he was dressed in all Comanche regalia attire and was buried with a large amount of money. Yet years later his grave was robbed due to the money buried with him. It was then decided to relocate him and his mother to “The Fort Still post cemetery”. Here Quanah was acknowledged and buried with all military honors, and in the section “Chief’s Knoll”. In his first burial it was known to be the largest ever witnessed in part of where he had lived in Oklahoma.

Conclusion

Quanah Parker remains a legend among the Comanches. He paved the road for Indian and white cohabitation without violence, ensuring a future for his people. And yet all throughout his life he managed to stick to his roots , and encouraged upholding the key points of Indian culture in this new way of life.

Works Cited

“American Indians.” TSHA,

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/indians

“Comanche Indians.” TSHA, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/comanche-indians. 

Donald L. Fixico. Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty [3 Volumes] : An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

“Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Oklahoma, William T. Hagan University of. “Parker, Quanah (1853? – 1911).” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, Houghton Mifflin, 1st edition, 1996. Credo Reference, https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmenai/parker_quanah_1853_1911/0?institutionId=1779. Accessed 31 Mar. 2022.

Stout, Joseph A., J.R. “Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.” Great Plains Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, 2012, pp. 143-144. ProQuest,

https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/empire-summer-moon-quanah-parker-rise-fall/docview/1021245902/se-2?accountid=7079

.

hosmer, brian c. “Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, 7 Jan. 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Reflection 50% of Blog Project

For this portion – it is individually done.

Each person in the group will write a reflection.  It will be done in 3 paragraphs.  Due by 4/8 midnight through Canvas.

1st Paragraph:  What did you learn about history?  What did you research?  What did you find interesting and why? 

2nd Paragraph:  What did you learn about group dynamics?  How do you feel about your group?  Did you learn anything from other group members?  This is the time to tell me about your group.

3rd Paragraph:  What did you learn about the writing process?  What did you think about this project?  What do you feel is the MOST valuable lesson you learned from this project?  What would you do differently?

This is 50% of your overall grade on the Service Learning Project.  The blog and reflection will be worth a test grade.  It is worth 25% of your total grade.  

Quanah Parker group

History 1301-51027: United States History 1

Prof. Lisa Blank

04/03/2022

The Last Great Frontier in the Indian Resistance

Intro

Quanah Parker, the last chief of the Quahada Comanche Indians, son of Peta Nocona and

Cynthia Ann Parker

.  From early life, Quanah Parker depicted selfless leadership when he led 700 youths against a group of buffalo hunters, who were constantly damaging community resources (Hosner, 2021). Later, Quanah became chief of the Quahada Comanches and created a sense of optimism and hope.Despite not being born into the tribe, Quanah joined this fierce band of warriors and became infamous as the leader of an uncontested force in the Texas plains. To the Americans, the Quahadas were fearsome renegades who refused to give up their land and stole American resources. To the Native Americans, Quanah was the last frontier in the Indian resistance.

Body

The fact he was half-Comanche and half-white (his father was Kwahadi Chief Peta Nocona, his mother captive Cynthia Ann Parker) made him especially intriguing to a curious American public. During the three decades, he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, but after Comanche military power was finally crushed in the mid-1870s, he made an amazing transition to a man of peace. Raiding and trading were their way of life-for goods, horses, food, and captives. Imported to the New World by the Spanish conquistadores, horses proved to be a technological breakthrough that transformed Comanche life. Once they mastered the horse, the newly mobile Comanches expanded their field of operations. They quickly turned New Mexico into what historian Pekka Hamalainen calls “a vast hinterland of extractive raiding,” rampaged through Texas and crossed the Rio Grande into the vast, unprotected underbelly of northern Mexico. Floating across the High Plains like vast schools of giant, rumbling fish, two to three million buffalo roamed Comancheria. They were the heart of the economy. Quanah improved the ranching sector by investing heavily in it and mobilizing other investors to expand its productivity and profitability. Here, Quanah created favorable conditions for White ranchers to help expand the sector. Next, Parker improved the educational sector by reserving the land and constructing learning institutions using this framework as a guide. After that, Quanah mobilized Indian teenagers and youths to enroll in these schools and acquire western education (Hosner, 2021). As a result, many youths, including his children, acquired western education in reservation educational centers or off-reservation boarding schools.

Quannah acquired the basic habits of ranching, education and cultivation. Quannah was known for serving as a Judge, He bargained with white investors on many business agreements which made him successful. Through the practice of Ghost Dance which originated in Nevada with the Paiute tribe, Ghost dance diffused quickly to other Indian tribes in the southwest. The Ghost dance was a religious revival uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs which caused the return of the buffalo. Parker’s attempt at preventing the ghost dance disperse was another successful attempt.

In an effort to contain and enclose the surviving Native nations from white civilization, the U.S. government wrote up a treaty. Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches were to live together harmoniously in one reservation (Fixico, 358). After refusing to sign the medicine lodge treaty, Quanah and his Comanche band were considered fugitives of the Llano Estacado (Llano river area). The treaty forced all surrounding Indian nations into a reservation between the Washita and red rivers, with the agreement that white buffalo hunters would not hunt in that land, and the government would provide any non-local resources (Fixico, 358). However, any resources sent to the Indians often did not make the trip, and white outlaws on reservation land easily stole from Indian land with no repercussions. Quanah’s bravery brought Indians together and eventually he led the fight for the return of their land in the Red River War (Hosmer, 1). Despite a scathing loss, his efforts were not in vain. His bravery and unrelenting will is still honored to this day, and he used this respect to continue to lead the Kiowa-Comanches into a peaceful future until his untimely death.

The Comanches remained a nomadic people throughout their free existence. Buffalo, their lifeblood, provided food, clothing, and shelter. Their predominantly meat diet was supplemented with wild roots, fruits, and nuts, or with produce obtained by trade with neighboring agricultural tribes, principally the Wichita and Caddo groups to the east and the Pueblo tribes to the west. Because of their skills as traders, the Comanches controlled much of the commerce of the Southern Plains. They bartered buffalo products, horses, and captives for manufactured items and foodstuffs(Lipscomb, 4).  In their middleman role, Comanches also supplied horses and goods derived from buffalo hunting in exchange for the agricultural surplus of other groups, such as the Wichita bands, and firearms from European-American traders(Klos ,8).

Despite his unwanted losses in trying to secure the land for his people, Parker continued to become a very influential role model even after the separation of the Kiowa-Comanche reservation. Being able to use Indian-white warfare gave him a huge advantage, it made him into a very successful person in his later life. But as life continues there comes an end to many great things. On February 23, 1911 Quanah had unfortunately died due to an unknown illness.  However, before passing Quanah was able to relocate the remains of his mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, to Oklahoma. During the time of this event he spoke for her advising his people to “Follow after white way, get education, know work, make a living” (Hagan). At the time of his passing, two of Quanah’s wives were at his side. It was only right to have buried him beside his mother in the “Post Oak Mission cemetery” (Hagan).  In his funeral he was dressed in all Comanche regalia attire and was buried with a large amount of money. Yet years later his grave was robbed due to the money buried with him. It was then decided to relocate him and his mother to “The Fort Still post cemetery”. Here Quanah was acknowledged and buried with all military honors, and in the section “Chief’s Knoll”. In his first burial it was known to be the largest ever witnessed in part of where he had lived in Oklahoma.

Conclusion

Quanah Parker remains a legend among the Comanches. He paved the road for Indian and white cohabitation without violence, ensuring a future for his people. And yet all throughout his life he managed to stick to his roots , and encouraged upholding the key points of Indian culture in this new way of life.

Works Cited

“American Indians.” TSHA,

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/indians

“Comanche Indians.” TSHA, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/comanche-indians. 

Donald L. Fixico. Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty [3 Volumes] : An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

“Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Oklahoma, William T. Hagan University of. “Parker, Quanah (1853? – 1911).” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, Houghton Mifflin, 1st edition, 1996. Credo Reference, https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmenai/parker_quanah_1853_1911/0?institutionId=1779. Accessed 31 Mar. 2022.

Stout, Joseph A., J.R. “Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.” Great Plains Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, 2012, pp. 143-144. ProQuest,

https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/empire-summer-moon-quanah-parker-rise-fall/docview/1021245902/se-2?accountid=7079

.

hosmer, brian c. “Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, 7 Jan. 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Reflection 50% of Blog Project

For this portion – it is individually done.

Each person in the group will write a reflection.  It will be done in 3 paragraphs.  Due by 4/8 midnight through Canvas.

1st Paragraph:  What did you learn about history?  What did you research?  What did you find interesting and why? 

2nd Paragraph:  What did you learn about group dynamics?  How do you feel about your group?  Did you learn anything from other group members?  This is the time to tell me about your group.

3rd Paragraph:  What did you learn about the writing process?  What did you think about this project?  What do you feel is the MOST valuable lesson you learned from this project?  What would you do differently?

This is 50% of your overall grade on the Service Learning Project.  The blog and reflection will be worth a test grade.  It is worth 25% of your total grade.  

Quanah Parker group

History 1301-51027: United States History 1

Prof. Lisa Blank

04/03/2022

The Last Great Frontier in the Indian Resistance

Intro

Quanah Parker, the last chief of the Quahada Comanche Indians, son of Peta Nocona and

Cynthia Ann Parker

.  From early life, Quanah Parker depicted selfless leadership when he led 700 youths against a group of buffalo hunters, who were constantly damaging community resources (Hosner, 2021). Later, Quanah became chief of the Quahada Comanches and created a sense of optimism and hope.Despite not being born into the tribe, Quanah joined this fierce band of warriors and became infamous as the leader of an uncontested force in the Texas plains. To the Americans, the Quahadas were fearsome renegades who refused to give up their land and stole American resources. To the Native Americans, Quanah was the last frontier in the Indian resistance.

Body

The fact he was half-Comanche and half-white (his father was Kwahadi Chief Peta Nocona, his mother captive Cynthia Ann Parker) made him especially intriguing to a curious American public. During the three decades, he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, but after Comanche military power was finally crushed in the mid-1870s, he made an amazing transition to a man of peace. Raiding and trading were their way of life-for goods, horses, food, and captives. Imported to the New World by the Spanish conquistadores, horses proved to be a technological breakthrough that transformed Comanche life. Once they mastered the horse, the newly mobile Comanches expanded their field of operations. They quickly turned New Mexico into what historian Pekka Hamalainen calls “a vast hinterland of extractive raiding,” rampaged through Texas and crossed the Rio Grande into the vast, unprotected underbelly of northern Mexico. Floating across the High Plains like vast schools of giant, rumbling fish, two to three million buffalo roamed Comancheria. They were the heart of the economy. Quanah improved the ranching sector by investing heavily in it and mobilizing other investors to expand its productivity and profitability. Here, Quanah created favorable conditions for White ranchers to help expand the sector. Next, Parker improved the educational sector by reserving the land and constructing learning institutions using this framework as a guide. After that, Quanah mobilized Indian teenagers and youths to enroll in these schools and acquire western education (Hosner, 2021). As a result, many youths, including his children, acquired western education in reservation educational centers or off-reservation boarding schools.

Quannah acquired the basic habits of ranching, education and cultivation. Quannah was known for serving as a Judge, He bargained with white investors on many business agreements which made him successful. Through the practice of Ghost Dance which originated in Nevada with the Paiute tribe, Ghost dance diffused quickly to other Indian tribes in the southwest. The Ghost dance was a religious revival uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs which caused the return of the buffalo. Parker’s attempt at preventing the ghost dance disperse was another successful attempt.

In an effort to contain and enclose the surviving Native nations from white civilization, the U.S. government wrote up a treaty. Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches were to live together harmoniously in one reservation (Fixico, 358). After refusing to sign the medicine lodge treaty, Quanah and his Comanche band were considered fugitives of the Llano Estacado (Llano river area). The treaty forced all surrounding Indian nations into a reservation between the Washita and red rivers, with the agreement that white buffalo hunters would not hunt in that land, and the government would provide any non-local resources (Fixico, 358). However, any resources sent to the Indians often did not make the trip, and white outlaws on reservation land easily stole from Indian land with no repercussions. Quanah’s bravery brought Indians together and eventually he led the fight for the return of their land in the Red River War (Hosmer, 1). Despite a scathing loss, his efforts were not in vain. His bravery and unrelenting will is still honored to this day, and he used this respect to continue to lead the Kiowa-Comanches into a peaceful future until his untimely death.

The Comanches remained a nomadic people throughout their free existence. Buffalo, their lifeblood, provided food, clothing, and shelter. Their predominantly meat diet was supplemented with wild roots, fruits, and nuts, or with produce obtained by trade with neighboring agricultural tribes, principally the Wichita and Caddo groups to the east and the Pueblo tribes to the west. Because of their skills as traders, the Comanches controlled much of the commerce of the Southern Plains. They bartered buffalo products, horses, and captives for manufactured items and foodstuffs(Lipscomb, 4).  In their middleman role, Comanches also supplied horses and goods derived from buffalo hunting in exchange for the agricultural surplus of other groups, such as the Wichita bands, and firearms from European-American traders(Klos ,8).

Despite his unwanted losses in trying to secure the land for his people, Parker continued to become a very influential role model even after the separation of the Kiowa-Comanche reservation. Being able to use Indian-white warfare gave him a huge advantage, it made him into a very successful person in his later life. But as life continues there comes an end to many great things. On February 23, 1911 Quanah had unfortunately died due to an unknown illness.  However, before passing Quanah was able to relocate the remains of his mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, to Oklahoma. During the time of this event he spoke for her advising his people to “Follow after white way, get education, know work, make a living” (Hagan). At the time of his passing, two of Quanah’s wives were at his side. It was only right to have buried him beside his mother in the “Post Oak Mission cemetery” (Hagan).  In his funeral he was dressed in all Comanche regalia attire and was buried with a large amount of money. Yet years later his grave was robbed due to the money buried with him. It was then decided to relocate him and his mother to “The Fort Still post cemetery”. Here Quanah was acknowledged and buried with all military honors, and in the section “Chief’s Knoll”. In his first burial it was known to be the largest ever witnessed in part of where he had lived in Oklahoma.

Conclusion

Quanah Parker remains a legend among the Comanches. He paved the road for Indian and white cohabitation without violence, ensuring a future for his people. And yet all throughout his life he managed to stick to his roots , and encouraged upholding the key points of Indian culture in this new way of life.

Works Cited

“American Indians.” TSHA,

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/indians

“Comanche Indians.” TSHA, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/comanche-indians. 

Donald L. Fixico. Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty [3 Volumes] : An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

“Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Oklahoma, William T. Hagan University of. “Parker, Quanah (1853? – 1911).” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, Houghton Mifflin, 1st edition, 1996. Credo Reference, https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmenai/parker_quanah_1853_1911/0?institutionId=1779. Accessed 31 Mar. 2022.

Stout, Joseph A., J.R. “Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.” Great Plains Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, 2012, pp. 143-144. ProQuest,

https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/empire-summer-moon-quanah-parker-rise-fall/docview/1021245902/se-2?accountid=7079

.

hosmer, brian c. “Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, 7 Jan. 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Reflection 50% of Blog Project

For this portion – it is individually done.

Each person in the group will write a reflection.  It will be done in 3 paragraphs.  Due by 4/8 midnight through Canvas.

1st Paragraph:  What did you learn about history?  What did you research?  What did you find interesting and why? 

2nd Paragraph:  What did you learn about group dynamics?  How do you feel about your group?  Did you learn anything from other group members?  This is the time to tell me about your group.

3rd Paragraph:  What did you learn about the writing process?  What did you think about this project?  What do you feel is the MOST valuable lesson you learned from this project?  What would you do differently?

This is 50% of your overall grade on the Service Learning Project.  The blog and reflection will be worth a test grade.  It is worth 25% of your total grade.  

Quanah Parker group

History 1301-51027: United States History 1

Prof. Lisa Blank

04/03/2022

The Last Great Frontier in the Indian Resistance

Intro

Quanah Parker, the last chief of the Quahada Comanche Indians, son of Peta Nocona and

Cynthia Ann Parker

.  From early life, Quanah Parker depicted selfless leadership when he led 700 youths against a group of buffalo hunters, who were constantly damaging community resources (Hosner, 2021). Later, Quanah became chief of the Quahada Comanches and created a sense of optimism and hope.Despite not being born into the tribe, Quanah joined this fierce band of warriors and became infamous as the leader of an uncontested force in the Texas plains. To the Americans, the Quahadas were fearsome renegades who refused to give up their land and stole American resources. To the Native Americans, Quanah was the last frontier in the Indian resistance.

Body

The fact he was half-Comanche and half-white (his father was Kwahadi Chief Peta Nocona, his mother captive Cynthia Ann Parker) made him especially intriguing to a curious American public. During the three decades, he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, but after Comanche military power was finally crushed in the mid-1870s, he made an amazing transition to a man of peace. Raiding and trading were their way of life-for goods, horses, food, and captives. Imported to the New World by the Spanish conquistadores, horses proved to be a technological breakthrough that transformed Comanche life. Once they mastered the horse, the newly mobile Comanches expanded their field of operations. They quickly turned New Mexico into what historian Pekka Hamalainen calls “a vast hinterland of extractive raiding,” rampaged through Texas and crossed the Rio Grande into the vast, unprotected underbelly of northern Mexico. Floating across the High Plains like vast schools of giant, rumbling fish, two to three million buffalo roamed Comancheria. They were the heart of the economy. Quanah improved the ranching sector by investing heavily in it and mobilizing other investors to expand its productivity and profitability. Here, Quanah created favorable conditions for White ranchers to help expand the sector. Next, Parker improved the educational sector by reserving the land and constructing learning institutions using this framework as a guide. After that, Quanah mobilized Indian teenagers and youths to enroll in these schools and acquire western education (Hosner, 2021). As a result, many youths, including his children, acquired western education in reservation educational centers or off-reservation boarding schools.

Quannah acquired the basic habits of ranching, education and cultivation. Quannah was known for serving as a Judge, He bargained with white investors on many business agreements which made him successful. Through the practice of Ghost Dance which originated in Nevada with the Paiute tribe, Ghost dance diffused quickly to other Indian tribes in the southwest. The Ghost dance was a religious revival uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs which caused the return of the buffalo. Parker’s attempt at preventing the ghost dance disperse was another successful attempt.

In an effort to contain and enclose the surviving Native nations from white civilization, the U.S. government wrote up a treaty. Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches were to live together harmoniously in one reservation (Fixico, 358). After refusing to sign the medicine lodge treaty, Quanah and his Comanche band were considered fugitives of the Llano Estacado (Llano river area). The treaty forced all surrounding Indian nations into a reservation between the Washita and red rivers, with the agreement that white buffalo hunters would not hunt in that land, and the government would provide any non-local resources (Fixico, 358). However, any resources sent to the Indians often did not make the trip, and white outlaws on reservation land easily stole from Indian land with no repercussions. Quanah’s bravery brought Indians together and eventually he led the fight for the return of their land in the Red River War (Hosmer, 1). Despite a scathing loss, his efforts were not in vain. His bravery and unrelenting will is still honored to this day, and he used this respect to continue to lead the Kiowa-Comanches into a peaceful future until his untimely death.

The Comanches remained a nomadic people throughout their free existence. Buffalo, their lifeblood, provided food, clothing, and shelter. Their predominantly meat diet was supplemented with wild roots, fruits, and nuts, or with produce obtained by trade with neighboring agricultural tribes, principally the Wichita and Caddo groups to the east and the Pueblo tribes to the west. Because of their skills as traders, the Comanches controlled much of the commerce of the Southern Plains. They bartered buffalo products, horses, and captives for manufactured items and foodstuffs(Lipscomb, 4).  In their middleman role, Comanches also supplied horses and goods derived from buffalo hunting in exchange for the agricultural surplus of other groups, such as the Wichita bands, and firearms from European-American traders(Klos ,8).

Despite his unwanted losses in trying to secure the land for his people, Parker continued to become a very influential role model even after the separation of the Kiowa-Comanche reservation. Being able to use Indian-white warfare gave him a huge advantage, it made him into a very successful person in his later life. But as life continues there comes an end to many great things. On February 23, 1911 Quanah had unfortunately died due to an unknown illness.  However, before passing Quanah was able to relocate the remains of his mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, to Oklahoma. During the time of this event he spoke for her advising his people to “Follow after white way, get education, know work, make a living” (Hagan). At the time of his passing, two of Quanah’s wives were at his side. It was only right to have buried him beside his mother in the “Post Oak Mission cemetery” (Hagan).  In his funeral he was dressed in all Comanche regalia attire and was buried with a large amount of money. Yet years later his grave was robbed due to the money buried with him. It was then decided to relocate him and his mother to “The Fort Still post cemetery”. Here Quanah was acknowledged and buried with all military honors, and in the section “Chief’s Knoll”. In his first burial it was known to be the largest ever witnessed in part of where he had lived in Oklahoma.

Conclusion

Quanah Parker remains a legend among the Comanches. He paved the road for Indian and white cohabitation without violence, ensuring a future for his people. And yet all throughout his life he managed to stick to his roots , and encouraged upholding the key points of Indian culture in this new way of life.

Works Cited

“American Indians.” TSHA,

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/indians

“Comanche Indians.” TSHA, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/comanche-indians. 

Donald L. Fixico. Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty [3 Volumes] : An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

“Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Oklahoma, William T. Hagan University of. “Parker, Quanah (1853? – 1911).” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, Houghton Mifflin, 1st edition, 1996. Credo Reference, https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmenai/parker_quanah_1853_1911/0?institutionId=1779. Accessed 31 Mar. 2022.

Stout, Joseph A., J.R. “Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.” Great Plains Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, 2012, pp. 143-144. ProQuest,

https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/empire-summer-moon-quanah-parker-rise-fall/docview/1021245902/se-2?accountid=7079

.

hosmer, brian c. “Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, 7 Jan. 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Reflection 50% of Blog Project

For this portion – it is individually done.

Each person in the group will write a reflection.  It will be done in 3 paragraphs.  Due by 4/8 midnight through Canvas.

1st Paragraph:  What did you learn about history?  What did you research?  What did you find interesting and why? 

2nd Paragraph:  What did you learn about group dynamics?  How do you feel about your group?  Did you learn anything from other group members?  This is the time to tell me about your group.

3rd Paragraph:  What did you learn about the writing process?  What did you think about this project?  What do you feel is the MOST valuable lesson you learned from this project?  What would you do differently?

This is 50% of your overall grade on the Service Learning Project.  The blog and reflection will be worth a test grade.  It is worth 25% of your total grade.  

Quanah Parker group

History 1301-51027: United States History 1

Prof. Lisa Blank

04/03/2022

The Last Great Frontier in the Indian Resistance

Intro

Quanah Parker, the last chief of the Quahada Comanche Indians, son of Peta Nocona and

Cynthia Ann Parker

.  From early life, Quanah Parker depicted selfless leadership when he led 700 youths against a group of buffalo hunters, who were constantly damaging community resources (Hosner, 2021). Later, Quanah became chief of the Quahada Comanches and created a sense of optimism and hope.Despite not being born into the tribe, Quanah joined this fierce band of warriors and became infamous as the leader of an uncontested force in the Texas plains. To the Americans, the Quahadas were fearsome renegades who refused to give up their land and stole American resources. To the Native Americans, Quanah was the last frontier in the Indian resistance.

Body

The fact he was half-Comanche and half-white (his father was Kwahadi Chief Peta Nocona, his mother captive Cynthia Ann Parker) made him especially intriguing to a curious American public. During the three decades, he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, but after Comanche military power was finally crushed in the mid-1870s, he made an amazing transition to a man of peace. Raiding and trading were their way of life-for goods, horses, food, and captives. Imported to the New World by the Spanish conquistadores, horses proved to be a technological breakthrough that transformed Comanche life. Once they mastered the horse, the newly mobile Comanches expanded their field of operations. They quickly turned New Mexico into what historian Pekka Hamalainen calls “a vast hinterland of extractive raiding,” rampaged through Texas and crossed the Rio Grande into the vast, unprotected underbelly of northern Mexico. Floating across the High Plains like vast schools of giant, rumbling fish, two to three million buffalo roamed Comancheria. They were the heart of the economy. Quanah improved the ranching sector by investing heavily in it and mobilizing other investors to expand its productivity and profitability. Here, Quanah created favorable conditions for White ranchers to help expand the sector. Next, Parker improved the educational sector by reserving the land and constructing learning institutions using this framework as a guide. After that, Quanah mobilized Indian teenagers and youths to enroll in these schools and acquire western education (Hosner, 2021). As a result, many youths, including his children, acquired western education in reservation educational centers or off-reservation boarding schools.

Quannah acquired the basic habits of ranching, education and cultivation. Quannah was known for serving as a Judge, He bargained with white investors on many business agreements which made him successful. Through the practice of Ghost Dance which originated in Nevada with the Paiute tribe, Ghost dance diffused quickly to other Indian tribes in the southwest. The Ghost dance was a religious revival uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs which caused the return of the buffalo. Parker’s attempt at preventing the ghost dance disperse was another successful attempt.

In an effort to contain and enclose the surviving Native nations from white civilization, the U.S. government wrote up a treaty. Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches were to live together harmoniously in one reservation (Fixico, 358). After refusing to sign the medicine lodge treaty, Quanah and his Comanche band were considered fugitives of the Llano Estacado (Llano river area). The treaty forced all surrounding Indian nations into a reservation between the Washita and red rivers, with the agreement that white buffalo hunters would not hunt in that land, and the government would provide any non-local resources (Fixico, 358). However, any resources sent to the Indians often did not make the trip, and white outlaws on reservation land easily stole from Indian land with no repercussions. Quanah’s bravery brought Indians together and eventually he led the fight for the return of their land in the Red River War (Hosmer, 1). Despite a scathing loss, his efforts were not in vain. His bravery and unrelenting will is still honored to this day, and he used this respect to continue to lead the Kiowa-Comanches into a peaceful future until his untimely death.

The Comanches remained a nomadic people throughout their free existence. Buffalo, their lifeblood, provided food, clothing, and shelter. Their predominantly meat diet was supplemented with wild roots, fruits, and nuts, or with produce obtained by trade with neighboring agricultural tribes, principally the Wichita and Caddo groups to the east and the Pueblo tribes to the west. Because of their skills as traders, the Comanches controlled much of the commerce of the Southern Plains. They bartered buffalo products, horses, and captives for manufactured items and foodstuffs(Lipscomb, 4).  In their middleman role, Comanches also supplied horses and goods derived from buffalo hunting in exchange for the agricultural surplus of other groups, such as the Wichita bands, and firearms from European-American traders(Klos ,8).

Despite his unwanted losses in trying to secure the land for his people, Parker continued to become a very influential role model even after the separation of the Kiowa-Comanche reservation. Being able to use Indian-white warfare gave him a huge advantage, it made him into a very successful person in his later life. But as life continues there comes an end to many great things. On February 23, 1911 Quanah had unfortunately died due to an unknown illness.  However, before passing Quanah was able to relocate the remains of his mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, to Oklahoma. During the time of this event he spoke for her advising his people to “Follow after white way, get education, know work, make a living” (Hagan). At the time of his passing, two of Quanah’s wives were at his side. It was only right to have buried him beside his mother in the “Post Oak Mission cemetery” (Hagan).  In his funeral he was dressed in all Comanche regalia attire and was buried with a large amount of money. Yet years later his grave was robbed due to the money buried with him. It was then decided to relocate him and his mother to “The Fort Still post cemetery”. Here Quanah was acknowledged and buried with all military honors, and in the section “Chief’s Knoll”. In his first burial it was known to be the largest ever witnessed in part of where he had lived in Oklahoma.

Conclusion

Quanah Parker remains a legend among the Comanches. He paved the road for Indian and white cohabitation without violence, ensuring a future for his people. And yet all throughout his life he managed to stick to his roots , and encouraged upholding the key points of Indian culture in this new way of life.

Works Cited

“American Indians.” TSHA,

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/indians

“Comanche Indians.” TSHA, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/comanche-indians. 

Donald L. Fixico. Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty [3 Volumes] : An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

“Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Oklahoma, William T. Hagan University of. “Parker, Quanah (1853? – 1911).” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, Houghton Mifflin, 1st edition, 1996. Credo Reference, https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmenai/parker_quanah_1853_1911/0?institutionId=1779. Accessed 31 Mar. 2022.

Stout, Joseph A., J.R. “Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.” Great Plains Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, 2012, pp. 143-144. ProQuest,

https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/empire-summer-moon-quanah-parker-rise-fall/docview/1021245902/se-2?accountid=7079

.

hosmer, brian c. “Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, 7 Jan. 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Reflection 50% of Blog Project

For this portion – it is individually done.

Each person in the group will write a reflection.  It will be done in 3 paragraphs.  Due by 4/8 midnight through Canvas.

1st Paragraph:  What did you learn about history?  What did you research?  What did you find interesting and why? 

2nd Paragraph:  What did you learn about group dynamics?  How do you feel about your group?  Did you learn anything from other group members?  This is the time to tell me about your group.

3rd Paragraph:  What did you learn about the writing process?  What did you think about this project?  What do you feel is the MOST valuable lesson you learned from this project?  What would you do differently?

This is 50% of your overall grade on the Service Learning Project.  The blog and reflection will be worth a test grade.  It is worth 25% of your total grade.  

Quanah Parker group

History 1301-51027: United States History 1

Prof. Lisa Blank

04/03/2022

The Last Great Frontier in the Indian Resistance

Intro

Quanah Parker, the last chief of the Quahada Comanche Indians, son of Peta Nocona and

Cynthia Ann Parker

.  From early life, Quanah Parker depicted selfless leadership when he led 700 youths against a group of buffalo hunters, who were constantly damaging community resources (Hosner, 2021). Later, Quanah became chief of the Quahada Comanches and created a sense of optimism and hope.Despite not being born into the tribe, Quanah joined this fierce band of warriors and became infamous as the leader of an uncontested force in the Texas plains. To the Americans, the Quahadas were fearsome renegades who refused to give up their land and stole American resources. To the Native Americans, Quanah was the last frontier in the Indian resistance.

Body

The fact he was half-Comanche and half-white (his father was Kwahadi Chief Peta Nocona, his mother captive Cynthia Ann Parker) made him especially intriguing to a curious American public. During the three decades, he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, but after Comanche military power was finally crushed in the mid-1870s, he made an amazing transition to a man of peace. Raiding and trading were their way of life-for goods, horses, food, and captives. Imported to the New World by the Spanish conquistadores, horses proved to be a technological breakthrough that transformed Comanche life. Once they mastered the horse, the newly mobile Comanches expanded their field of operations. They quickly turned New Mexico into what historian Pekka Hamalainen calls “a vast hinterland of extractive raiding,” rampaged through Texas and crossed the Rio Grande into the vast, unprotected underbelly of northern Mexico. Floating across the High Plains like vast schools of giant, rumbling fish, two to three million buffalo roamed Comancheria. They were the heart of the economy. Quanah improved the ranching sector by investing heavily in it and mobilizing other investors to expand its productivity and profitability. Here, Quanah created favorable conditions for White ranchers to help expand the sector. Next, Parker improved the educational sector by reserving the land and constructing learning institutions using this framework as a guide. After that, Quanah mobilized Indian teenagers and youths to enroll in these schools and acquire western education (Hosner, 2021). As a result, many youths, including his children, acquired western education in reservation educational centers or off-reservation boarding schools.

Quannah acquired the basic habits of ranching, education and cultivation. Quannah was known for serving as a Judge, He bargained with white investors on many business agreements which made him successful. Through the practice of Ghost Dance which originated in Nevada with the Paiute tribe, Ghost dance diffused quickly to other Indian tribes in the southwest. The Ghost dance was a religious revival uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs which caused the return of the buffalo. Parker’s attempt at preventing the ghost dance disperse was another successful attempt.

In an effort to contain and enclose the surviving Native nations from white civilization, the U.S. government wrote up a treaty. Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches were to live together harmoniously in one reservation (Fixico, 358). After refusing to sign the medicine lodge treaty, Quanah and his Comanche band were considered fugitives of the Llano Estacado (Llano river area). The treaty forced all surrounding Indian nations into a reservation between the Washita and red rivers, with the agreement that white buffalo hunters would not hunt in that land, and the government would provide any non-local resources (Fixico, 358). However, any resources sent to the Indians often did not make the trip, and white outlaws on reservation land easily stole from Indian land with no repercussions. Quanah’s bravery brought Indians together and eventually he led the fight for the return of their land in the Red River War (Hosmer, 1). Despite a scathing loss, his efforts were not in vain. His bravery and unrelenting will is still honored to this day, and he used this respect to continue to lead the Kiowa-Comanches into a peaceful future until his untimely death.

The Comanches remained a nomadic people throughout their free existence. Buffalo, their lifeblood, provided food, clothing, and shelter. Their predominantly meat diet was supplemented with wild roots, fruits, and nuts, or with produce obtained by trade with neighboring agricultural tribes, principally the Wichita and Caddo groups to the east and the Pueblo tribes to the west. Because of their skills as traders, the Comanches controlled much of the commerce of the Southern Plains. They bartered buffalo products, horses, and captives for manufactured items and foodstuffs(Lipscomb, 4).  In their middleman role, Comanches also supplied horses and goods derived from buffalo hunting in exchange for the agricultural surplus of other groups, such as the Wichita bands, and firearms from European-American traders(Klos ,8).

Despite his unwanted losses in trying to secure the land for his people, Parker continued to become a very influential role model even after the separation of the Kiowa-Comanche reservation. Being able to use Indian-white warfare gave him a huge advantage, it made him into a very successful person in his later life. But as life continues there comes an end to many great things. On February 23, 1911 Quanah had unfortunately died due to an unknown illness.  However, before passing Quanah was able to relocate the remains of his mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, to Oklahoma. During the time of this event he spoke for her advising his people to “Follow after white way, get education, know work, make a living” (Hagan). At the time of his passing, two of Quanah’s wives were at his side. It was only right to have buried him beside his mother in the “Post Oak Mission cemetery” (Hagan).  In his funeral he was dressed in all Comanche regalia attire and was buried with a large amount of money. Yet years later his grave was robbed due to the money buried with him. It was then decided to relocate him and his mother to “The Fort Still post cemetery”. Here Quanah was acknowledged and buried with all military honors, and in the section “Chief’s Knoll”. In his first burial it was known to be the largest ever witnessed in part of where he had lived in Oklahoma.

Conclusion

Quanah Parker remains a legend among the Comanches. He paved the road for Indian and white cohabitation without violence, ensuring a future for his people. And yet all throughout his life he managed to stick to his roots , and encouraged upholding the key points of Indian culture in this new way of life.

Works Cited

“American Indians.” TSHA,

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/indians

“Comanche Indians.” TSHA, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/comanche-indians. 

Donald L. Fixico. Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty [3 Volumes] : An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

“Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Oklahoma, William T. Hagan University of. “Parker, Quanah (1853? – 1911).” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, Houghton Mifflin, 1st edition, 1996. Credo Reference, https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmenai/parker_quanah_1853_1911/0?institutionId=1779. Accessed 31 Mar. 2022.

Stout, Joseph A., J.R. “Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.” Great Plains Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, 2012, pp. 143-144. ProQuest,

https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/empire-summer-moon-quanah-parker-rise-fall/docview/1021245902/se-2?accountid=7079

.

hosmer, brian c. “Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, 7 Jan. 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Reflection 50% of Blog Project

For this portion – it is individually done.

Each person in the group will write a reflection.  It will be done in 3 paragraphs.  Due by 4/8 midnight through Canvas.

1st Paragraph:  What did you learn about history?  What did you research?  What did you find interesting and why? 

2nd Paragraph:  What did you learn about group dynamics?  How do you feel about your group?  Did you learn anything from other group members?  This is the time to tell me about your group.

3rd Paragraph:  What did you learn about the writing process?  What did you think about this project?  What do you feel is the MOST valuable lesson you learned from this project?  What would you do differently?

This is 50% of your overall grade on the Service Learning Project.  The blog and reflection will be worth a test grade.  It is worth 25% of your total grade.  

Quanah Parker group

History 1301-51027: United States History 1

Prof. Lisa Blank

04/03/2022

The Last Great Frontier in the Indian Resistance

Intro

Quanah Parker, the last chief of the Quahada Comanche Indians, son of Peta Nocona and

Cynthia Ann Parker

.  From early life, Quanah Parker depicted selfless leadership when he led 700 youths against a group of buffalo hunters, who were constantly damaging community resources (Hosner, 2021). Later, Quanah became chief of the Quahada Comanches and created a sense of optimism and hope.Despite not being born into the tribe, Quanah joined this fierce band of warriors and became infamous as the leader of an uncontested force in the Texas plains. To the Americans, the Quahadas were fearsome renegades who refused to give up their land and stole American resources. To the Native Americans, Quanah was the last frontier in the Indian resistance.

Body

The fact he was half-Comanche and half-white (his father was Kwahadi Chief Peta Nocona, his mother captive Cynthia Ann Parker) made him especially intriguing to a curious American public. During the three decades, he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, but after Comanche military power was finally crushed in the mid-1870s, he made an amazing transition to a man of peace. Raiding and trading were their way of life-for goods, horses, food, and captives. Imported to the New World by the Spanish conquistadores, horses proved to be a technological breakthrough that transformed Comanche life. Once they mastered the horse, the newly mobile Comanches expanded their field of operations. They quickly turned New Mexico into what historian Pekka Hamalainen calls “a vast hinterland of extractive raiding,” rampaged through Texas and crossed the Rio Grande into the vast, unprotected underbelly of northern Mexico. Floating across the High Plains like vast schools of giant, rumbling fish, two to three million buffalo roamed Comancheria. They were the heart of the economy. Quanah improved the ranching sector by investing heavily in it and mobilizing other investors to expand its productivity and profitability. Here, Quanah created favorable conditions for White ranchers to help expand the sector. Next, Parker improved the educational sector by reserving the land and constructing learning institutions using this framework as a guide. After that, Quanah mobilized Indian teenagers and youths to enroll in these schools and acquire western education (Hosner, 2021). As a result, many youths, including his children, acquired western education in reservation educational centers or off-reservation boarding schools.

Quannah acquired the basic habits of ranching, education and cultivation. Quannah was known for serving as a Judge, He bargained with white investors on many business agreements which made him successful. Through the practice of Ghost Dance which originated in Nevada with the Paiute tribe, Ghost dance diffused quickly to other Indian tribes in the southwest. The Ghost dance was a religious revival uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs which caused the return of the buffalo. Parker’s attempt at preventing the ghost dance disperse was another successful attempt.

In an effort to contain and enclose the surviving Native nations from white civilization, the U.S. government wrote up a treaty. Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches were to live together harmoniously in one reservation (Fixico, 358). After refusing to sign the medicine lodge treaty, Quanah and his Comanche band were considered fugitives of the Llano Estacado (Llano river area). The treaty forced all surrounding Indian nations into a reservation between the Washita and red rivers, with the agreement that white buffalo hunters would not hunt in that land, and the government would provide any non-local resources (Fixico, 358). However, any resources sent to the Indians often did not make the trip, and white outlaws on reservation land easily stole from Indian land with no repercussions. Quanah’s bravery brought Indians together and eventually he led the fight for the return of their land in the Red River War (Hosmer, 1). Despite a scathing loss, his efforts were not in vain. His bravery and unrelenting will is still honored to this day, and he used this respect to continue to lead the Kiowa-Comanches into a peaceful future until his untimely death.

The Comanches remained a nomadic people throughout their free existence. Buffalo, their lifeblood, provided food, clothing, and shelter. Their predominantly meat diet was supplemented with wild roots, fruits, and nuts, or with produce obtained by trade with neighboring agricultural tribes, principally the Wichita and Caddo groups to the east and the Pueblo tribes to the west. Because of their skills as traders, the Comanches controlled much of the commerce of the Southern Plains. They bartered buffalo products, horses, and captives for manufactured items and foodstuffs(Lipscomb, 4).  In their middleman role, Comanches also supplied horses and goods derived from buffalo hunting in exchange for the agricultural surplus of other groups, such as the Wichita bands, and firearms from European-American traders(Klos ,8).

Despite his unwanted losses in trying to secure the land for his people, Parker continued to become a very influential role model even after the separation of the Kiowa-Comanche reservation. Being able to use Indian-white warfare gave him a huge advantage, it made him into a very successful person in his later life. But as life continues there comes an end to many great things. On February 23, 1911 Quanah had unfortunately died due to an unknown illness.  However, before passing Quanah was able to relocate the remains of his mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, to Oklahoma. During the time of this event he spoke for her advising his people to “Follow after white way, get education, know work, make a living” (Hagan). At the time of his passing, two of Quanah’s wives were at his side. It was only right to have buried him beside his mother in the “Post Oak Mission cemetery” (Hagan).  In his funeral he was dressed in all Comanche regalia attire and was buried with a large amount of money. Yet years later his grave was robbed due to the money buried with him. It was then decided to relocate him and his mother to “The Fort Still post cemetery”. Here Quanah was acknowledged and buried with all military honors, and in the section “Chief’s Knoll”. In his first burial it was known to be the largest ever witnessed in part of where he had lived in Oklahoma.

Conclusion

Quanah Parker remains a legend among the Comanches. He paved the road for Indian and white cohabitation without violence, ensuring a future for his people. And yet all throughout his life he managed to stick to his roots , and encouraged upholding the key points of Indian culture in this new way of life.

Works Cited

“American Indians.” TSHA,

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/indians

“Comanche Indians.” TSHA, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/comanche-indians. 

Donald L. Fixico. Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty [3 Volumes] : An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

“Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Oklahoma, William T. Hagan University of. “Parker, Quanah (1853? – 1911).” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, Houghton Mifflin, 1st edition, 1996. Credo Reference, https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmenai/parker_quanah_1853_1911/0?institutionId=1779. Accessed 31 Mar. 2022.

Stout, Joseph A., J.R. “Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.” Great Plains Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, 2012, pp. 143-144. ProQuest,

https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/empire-summer-moon-quanah-parker-rise-fall/docview/1021245902/se-2?accountid=7079

.

hosmer, brian c. “Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, 7 Jan. 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Reflection 50% of Blog Project

For this portion – it is individually done.

Each person in the group will write a reflection.  It will be done in 3 paragraphs.  Due by 4/8 midnight through Canvas.

1st Paragraph:  What did you learn about history?  What did you research?  What did you find interesting and why? 

2nd Paragraph:  What did you learn about group dynamics?  How do you feel about your group?  Did you learn anything from other group members?  This is the time to tell me about your group.

3rd Paragraph:  What did you learn about the writing process?  What did you think about this project?  What do you feel is the MOST valuable lesson you learned from this project?  What would you do differently?

This is 50% of your overall grade on the Service Learning Project.  The blog and reflection will be worth a test grade.  It is worth 25% of your total grade.  

Quanah Parker group

History 1301-51027: United States History 1

Prof. Lisa Blank

04/03/2022

The Last Great Frontier in the Indian Resistance

Intro

Quanah Parker, the last chief of the Quahada Comanche Indians, son of Peta Nocona and

Cynthia Ann Parker

.  From early life, Quanah Parker depicted selfless leadership when he led 700 youths against a group of buffalo hunters, who were constantly damaging community resources (Hosner, 2021). Later, Quanah became chief of the Quahada Comanches and created a sense of optimism and hope.Despite not being born into the tribe, Quanah joined this fierce band of warriors and became infamous as the leader of an uncontested force in the Texas plains. To the Americans, the Quahadas were fearsome renegades who refused to give up their land and stole American resources. To the Native Americans, Quanah was the last frontier in the Indian resistance.

Body

The fact he was half-Comanche and half-white (his father was Kwahadi Chief Peta Nocona, his mother captive Cynthia Ann Parker) made him especially intriguing to a curious American public. During the three decades, he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, but after Comanche military power was finally crushed in the mid-1870s, he made an amazing transition to a man of peace. Raiding and trading were their way of life-for goods, horses, food, and captives. Imported to the New World by the Spanish conquistadores, horses proved to be a technological breakthrough that transformed Comanche life. Once they mastered the horse, the newly mobile Comanches expanded their field of operations. They quickly turned New Mexico into what historian Pekka Hamalainen calls “a vast hinterland of extractive raiding,” rampaged through Texas and crossed the Rio Grande into the vast, unprotected underbelly of northern Mexico. Floating across the High Plains like vast schools of giant, rumbling fish, two to three million buffalo roamed Comancheria. They were the heart of the economy. Quanah improved the ranching sector by investing heavily in it and mobilizing other investors to expand its productivity and profitability. Here, Quanah created favorable conditions for White ranchers to help expand the sector. Next, Parker improved the educational sector by reserving the land and constructing learning institutions using this framework as a guide. After that, Quanah mobilized Indian teenagers and youths to enroll in these schools and acquire western education (Hosner, 2021). As a result, many youths, including his children, acquired western education in reservation educational centers or off-reservation boarding schools.

Quannah acquired the basic habits of ranching, education and cultivation. Quannah was known for serving as a Judge, He bargained with white investors on many business agreements which made him successful. Through the practice of Ghost Dance which originated in Nevada with the Paiute tribe, Ghost dance diffused quickly to other Indian tribes in the southwest. The Ghost dance was a religious revival uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs which caused the return of the buffalo. Parker’s attempt at preventing the ghost dance disperse was another successful attempt.

In an effort to contain and enclose the surviving Native nations from white civilization, the U.S. government wrote up a treaty. Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches were to live together harmoniously in one reservation (Fixico, 358). After refusing to sign the medicine lodge treaty, Quanah and his Comanche band were considered fugitives of the Llano Estacado (Llano river area). The treaty forced all surrounding Indian nations into a reservation between the Washita and red rivers, with the agreement that white buffalo hunters would not hunt in that land, and the government would provide any non-local resources (Fixico, 358). However, any resources sent to the Indians often did not make the trip, and white outlaws on reservation land easily stole from Indian land with no repercussions. Quanah’s bravery brought Indians together and eventually he led the fight for the return of their land in the Red River War (Hosmer, 1). Despite a scathing loss, his efforts were not in vain. His bravery and unrelenting will is still honored to this day, and he used this respect to continue to lead the Kiowa-Comanches into a peaceful future until his untimely death.

The Comanches remained a nomadic people throughout their free existence. Buffalo, their lifeblood, provided food, clothing, and shelter. Their predominantly meat diet was supplemented with wild roots, fruits, and nuts, or with produce obtained by trade with neighboring agricultural tribes, principally the Wichita and Caddo groups to the east and the Pueblo tribes to the west. Because of their skills as traders, the Comanches controlled much of the commerce of the Southern Plains. They bartered buffalo products, horses, and captives for manufactured items and foodstuffs(Lipscomb, 4).  In their middleman role, Comanches also supplied horses and goods derived from buffalo hunting in exchange for the agricultural surplus of other groups, such as the Wichita bands, and firearms from European-American traders(Klos ,8).

Despite his unwanted losses in trying to secure the land for his people, Parker continued to become a very influential role model even after the separation of the Kiowa-Comanche reservation. Being able to use Indian-white warfare gave him a huge advantage, it made him into a very successful person in his later life. But as life continues there comes an end to many great things. On February 23, 1911 Quanah had unfortunately died due to an unknown illness.  However, before passing Quanah was able to relocate the remains of his mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, to Oklahoma. During the time of this event he spoke for her advising his people to “Follow after white way, get education, know work, make a living” (Hagan). At the time of his passing, two of Quanah’s wives were at his side. It was only right to have buried him beside his mother in the “Post Oak Mission cemetery” (Hagan).  In his funeral he was dressed in all Comanche regalia attire and was buried with a large amount of money. Yet years later his grave was robbed due to the money buried with him. It was then decided to relocate him and his mother to “The Fort Still post cemetery”. Here Quanah was acknowledged and buried with all military honors, and in the section “Chief’s Knoll”. In his first burial it was known to be the largest ever witnessed in part of where he had lived in Oklahoma.

Conclusion

Quanah Parker remains a legend among the Comanches. He paved the road for Indian and white cohabitation without violence, ensuring a future for his people. And yet all throughout his life he managed to stick to his roots , and encouraged upholding the key points of Indian culture in this new way of life.

Works Cited

“American Indians.” TSHA,

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/indians

“Comanche Indians.” TSHA, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/comanche-indians. 

Donald L. Fixico. Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty [3 Volumes] : An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

“Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Oklahoma, William T. Hagan University of. “Parker, Quanah (1853? – 1911).” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, Houghton Mifflin, 1st edition, 1996. Credo Reference, https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmenai/parker_quanah_1853_1911/0?institutionId=1779. Accessed 31 Mar. 2022.

Stout, Joseph A., J.R. “Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.” Great Plains Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, 2012, pp. 143-144. ProQuest,

https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/empire-summer-moon-quanah-parker-rise-fall/docview/1021245902/se-2?accountid=7079

.

hosmer, brian c. “Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, 7 Jan. 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Reflection 50% of Blog Project

For this portion – it is individually done.

Each person in the group will write a reflection.  It will be done in 3 paragraphs.  Due by 4/8 midnight through Canvas.

1st Paragraph:  What did you learn about history?  What did you research?  What did you find interesting and why? 

2nd Paragraph:  What did you learn about group dynamics?  How do you feel about your group?  Did you learn anything from other group members?  This is the time to tell me about your group.

3rd Paragraph:  What did you learn about the writing process?  What did you think about this project?  What do you feel is the MOST valuable lesson you learned from this project?  What would you do differently?

This is 50% of your overall grade on the Service Learning Project.  The blog and reflection will be worth a test grade.  It is worth 25% of your total grade.  

Quanah Parker group

History 1301-51027: United States History 1

Prof. Lisa Blank

04/03/2022

The Last Great Frontier in the Indian Resistance

Intro

Quanah Parker, the last chief of the Quahada Comanche Indians, son of Peta Nocona and

Cynthia Ann Parker

.  From early life, Quanah Parker depicted selfless leadership when he led 700 youths against a group of buffalo hunters, who were constantly damaging community resources (Hosner, 2021). Later, Quanah became chief of the Quahada Comanches and created a sense of optimism and hope.Despite not being born into the tribe, Quanah joined this fierce band of warriors and became infamous as the leader of an uncontested force in the Texas plains. To the Americans, the Quahadas were fearsome renegades who refused to give up their land and stole American resources. To the Native Americans, Quanah was the last frontier in the Indian resistance.

Body

The fact he was half-Comanche and half-white (his father was Kwahadi Chief Peta Nocona, his mother captive Cynthia Ann Parker) made him especially intriguing to a curious American public. During the three decades, he was the main interpreter of white civilization to his people, but after Comanche military power was finally crushed in the mid-1870s, he made an amazing transition to a man of peace. Raiding and trading were their way of life-for goods, horses, food, and captives. Imported to the New World by the Spanish conquistadores, horses proved to be a technological breakthrough that transformed Comanche life. Once they mastered the horse, the newly mobile Comanches expanded their field of operations. They quickly turned New Mexico into what historian Pekka Hamalainen calls “a vast hinterland of extractive raiding,” rampaged through Texas and crossed the Rio Grande into the vast, unprotected underbelly of northern Mexico. Floating across the High Plains like vast schools of giant, rumbling fish, two to three million buffalo roamed Comancheria. They were the heart of the economy. Quanah improved the ranching sector by investing heavily in it and mobilizing other investors to expand its productivity and profitability. Here, Quanah created favorable conditions for White ranchers to help expand the sector. Next, Parker improved the educational sector by reserving the land and constructing learning institutions using this framework as a guide. After that, Quanah mobilized Indian teenagers and youths to enroll in these schools and acquire western education (Hosner, 2021). As a result, many youths, including his children, acquired western education in reservation educational centers or off-reservation boarding schools.

Quannah acquired the basic habits of ranching, education and cultivation. Quannah was known for serving as a Judge, He bargained with white investors on many business agreements which made him successful. Through the practice of Ghost Dance which originated in Nevada with the Paiute tribe, Ghost dance diffused quickly to other Indian tribes in the southwest. The Ghost dance was a religious revival uniting Indians to restore ancestral customs which caused the return of the buffalo. Parker’s attempt at preventing the ghost dance disperse was another successful attempt.

In an effort to contain and enclose the surviving Native nations from white civilization, the U.S. government wrote up a treaty. Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches were to live together harmoniously in one reservation (Fixico, 358). After refusing to sign the medicine lodge treaty, Quanah and his Comanche band were considered fugitives of the Llano Estacado (Llano river area). The treaty forced all surrounding Indian nations into a reservation between the Washita and red rivers, with the agreement that white buffalo hunters would not hunt in that land, and the government would provide any non-local resources (Fixico, 358). However, any resources sent to the Indians often did not make the trip, and white outlaws on reservation land easily stole from Indian land with no repercussions. Quanah’s bravery brought Indians together and eventually he led the fight for the return of their land in the Red River War (Hosmer, 1). Despite a scathing loss, his efforts were not in vain. His bravery and unrelenting will is still honored to this day, and he used this respect to continue to lead the Kiowa-Comanches into a peaceful future until his untimely death.

The Comanches remained a nomadic people throughout their free existence. Buffalo, their lifeblood, provided food, clothing, and shelter. Their predominantly meat diet was supplemented with wild roots, fruits, and nuts, or with produce obtained by trade with neighboring agricultural tribes, principally the Wichita and Caddo groups to the east and the Pueblo tribes to the west. Because of their skills as traders, the Comanches controlled much of the commerce of the Southern Plains. They bartered buffalo products, horses, and captives for manufactured items and foodstuffs(Lipscomb, 4).  In their middleman role, Comanches also supplied horses and goods derived from buffalo hunting in exchange for the agricultural surplus of other groups, such as the Wichita bands, and firearms from European-American traders(Klos ,8).

Despite his unwanted losses in trying to secure the land for his people, Parker continued to become a very influential role model even after the separation of the Kiowa-Comanche reservation. Being able to use Indian-white warfare gave him a huge advantage, it made him into a very successful person in his later life. But as life continues there comes an end to many great things. On February 23, 1911 Quanah had unfortunately died due to an unknown illness.  However, before passing Quanah was able to relocate the remains of his mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, to Oklahoma. During the time of this event he spoke for her advising his people to “Follow after white way, get education, know work, make a living” (Hagan). At the time of his passing, two of Quanah’s wives were at his side. It was only right to have buried him beside his mother in the “Post Oak Mission cemetery” (Hagan).  In his funeral he was dressed in all Comanche regalia attire and was buried with a large amount of money. Yet years later his grave was robbed due to the money buried with him. It was then decided to relocate him and his mother to “The Fort Still post cemetery”. Here Quanah was acknowledged and buried with all military honors, and in the section “Chief’s Knoll”. In his first burial it was known to be the largest ever witnessed in part of where he had lived in Oklahoma.

Conclusion

Quanah Parker remains a legend among the Comanches. He paved the road for Indian and white cohabitation without violence, ensuring a future for his people. And yet all throughout his life he managed to stick to his roots , and encouraged upholding the key points of Indian culture in this new way of life.

Works Cited

“American Indians.” TSHA,

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/indians

“Comanche Indians.” TSHA, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/comanche-indians. 

Donald L. Fixico. Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty [3 Volumes] : An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty. ABC-CLIO, 2008.

“Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

Oklahoma, William T. Hagan University of. “Parker, Quanah (1853? – 1911).” Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin, edited by Frederick E. Hoxie, Houghton Mifflin, 1st edition, 1996. Credo Reference, https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmenai/parker_quanah_1853_1911/0?institutionId=1779. Accessed 31 Mar. 2022.

Stout, Joseph A., J.R. “Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.” Great Plains Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 2, 2012, pp. 143-144. ProQuest,

https://ezp.tccd.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/empire-summer-moon-quanah-parker-rise-fall/docview/1021245902/se-2?accountid=7079

.

hosmer, brian c. “Parker, Quanah (Ca. 1845–1911).” TSHA, 7 Jan. 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/parker-quanah. 

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