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Uber in China

The attachmnet about Uber and its competitive entry into the Chinese market (p. 560 in the textbook), look at the transportation ride-sharing sector of the market. Reflecting on this week’s content focusing on ethical leadership, strategy, and alliances, and  responding to the following questions.

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  1. Why did Uber want to expand into China and what was so appealing about the Chinese market?
  2. What advantages did Didi have to help it win its competitive battle with Uber?
  3. What are the pros and cons of the merger between Didi and Uber China, comparing and contrasting their different expansion strategies and tactics while taking into consideration ethical leadership and alliances?
  4. Assume you have been hired by Didi to evaluate Uber’s leadership team and the company culture they foster. Include in your evaluation the strengths of the Uber management team as well as the weaknesses that Didi could capitalize on in order to make Didi’s company more appealing to customers. 

Importance note to follow:

1.  Your well-written should be 5-6 pages in length, not including the title and reference pages. To make it easier to read and therefore grade.

2.  make sure you clearly delineate each section of your answer so it can be matched with the relevant question. 

3.  Use APA7 style guidelines, citation reference at least four references as appropriate. 

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4.  Make sure no plagiarism. 

In-Depth Integrative Case 4.1
How Didi Fought Uber in China and Won; Next, Taking On the
World

Introduction
Technology is constantly evolving, and firms who have leveraged the unprecedented growth
rate of modern innovation have seen quick success. Didi Chuxing, China’s largest ridesharing
servicer, is no exception. With roots dating back to 2012, Didi has quickly gained Chinese
support, and with over 7.4 billion rides completed in 2017, Didi’s emphasis on technology has
allowed the young ridesharing firm to gain monopolistic authority within China.1

Rising transportation demand in China has created intense ridesharing competition within
China, and Didi’s early expansion efforts were obstructed by competitors, most notably Uber,
who entered China in 2014. With locations in over 60 countries, Uber had the experience
needed to quickly gain a foothold within China. Hefty subsidies, discounts, and marketing
promotions propelled the competitive battle between Uber and Didi, and the immediate
influence of Uber’s reputation led to a quick deterioration of Didi’s market dominance.
Nonetheless, governmental protectionism, strong Chinese partners, and a unique cultural
landscape in China presented Didi with the competitive edge needed to halt Uber’s expansion.2

Fierce opposition weakened revenues, and each firm reported losses exceeding US$1 billion
within the first year of competition.3 As a result, in August of 2016, Uber and Didi agreed to
US$35 billion alliance in which Didi would acquire Uber China. In return, Uber would receive an
initial 5.89 percent stake in the combined company, and with preferred equity interest, Uber’s
total position amounted to 17.7 percent.4 This announcement effectively halted Uber’s effort
to compete head-on with Didi in China and confirmed Didi’s dominance over the Chinese
ridesharing market.

The acquisition of Uber China meant only temporary peace to cut throat ridesharing
competition, and new wars are beginning to emerge as the two firms each strive to gain global
ridesharing dominance. Uber is now faced with a difficult situation as Chinese authority and
growing revenue streams inch Didi closer to global superiority. As Didi prepares to expand into
international markets, it is only a matter of time before these two players clash once again.5

An Evolving Chinese Ridesharing Market
China has quickly become the world’s largest provider of ridesharing services, and in 2017, a
total of 20.81 billion rides were offered through these platforms. Today, ridesharing accounts
for almost 2 percent of all transportation within China.6 While ridesharing may retain only a
modest presence, it is nonetheless the fastest growing method of transportation in the nation

as these services have been available for less than a decade. Rapid growth justifies China’s
US$30 billion ride hailing market valuation, and continued development has led analysts to
believe that this market will double in size by the end of 2020.7

Ridesharing within China offers a sustainable solution to China’s road congestion and emission
pollution issues. According to the World Bank, China’s transportation sector accounts for nearly
55 percent of oil consumption, and transportation related carbon emissions amounted to
nearly 900 million tons in 2016.8 Furthermore, a recent study conducted by the Asian
Development Bank found that 7 of the 10 most polluted cities in the world are located in China.
The World Health Organization has additionally reported that only 1 percent of all Chinese
cities meet air quality standards, and in some cities, particulate matter pollution is more than
10 times the WHO limit.9

Chinese consumers are more willing to try new products and are more accepting of new
technology, leading to a quick embrace of ride hailing services by both Chinese citizens and
governments. A recent study by Bain and Company noted that 62 percent of Chinese
respondents listed e-hailing services as their primary driver of increased mobility preferences.
Conversely, less progressive nations such as the U.S. and Germany had only 29 percent and 23
percent of respective respondents list e-hailing as a mobility preference contributor.10

Governmental vehicle limitations have also contributed to mounting ridesharing support. In an
effort to curb pollution and congestion, China has implemented many regulations aimed at
limiting the number of vehicles on the road. In Beijing for instance, a city with some of the most
congested roads in the world, citizens are only eligible to drive on predefine dates based on
their license plates numbers. Furthermore, mounting taxes, fees, and restraints associated with
purchasing and operating a vehicle have forced many to rethink transportation.11 In 2016, the
country legalized ridesharing, thus becoming the first developed country to nationally do so.
This legislation would require all drivers to pass national background checks and car
inspections, and China’s willingness to embrace ridesharing shows its eagerness to improve
domestic transportation options.12

Didi Chuxing: Building a Better Journey
Growing transportation concerns within China increased the demand for new and innovative
methods of travel. As a result, in 2012, rideshare servicer Didi Dache was established. Founded
by Cheng Wei, a former Alibaba employee who had grown tired of the difficulty associated with
hailing a cab during rush hour, Didi Dache received early national embrace.13 Ridesharing
expanded quickly, and by 2015, China’s rideshare servicers were transporting over 150 million
monthly users. Early success was headed by both Didi Dache and competitor Kuaidi Dache, and
the combined position of these two firms amounted to nearly 95 percent of China’s ridesharing
market.14

Competition between these two service leaders grew in hostility, and by February of 2015, the
firms agreed to end their competitive battle through a merger. The merged company would

rebrand itself as Didi Kuaidi, later to be changed to Didi Chuxing, and valuations for the newly
formed ridesharing monopoly were placed at around US$6 billion.15 Merging not only ended
competition, but it also allowed for multiple legal and regulatory advantages, especially in
China’s more restrictive cities like Shanghai and Beijing where drivers were prohibited from
using multiple ridesharing apps.16 Additionally, Uber’s expansion into China in 2014 meant that
combining resources and knowledge would be the only way either company could survive. By
the time the merger was finalized, the combined firm controlled an 80 percent majority of
China’s private car hailing market.17

Didi Chuxing now offers upscale limousine rides, food delivery services, inner city busing, and
bike sharing in addition to its typical express ridesharing. While Didi has yet to expand outside
of China, heavy international investments have allowed the firm to gain a global footprint. Didi
now has relationships with Lyft in America, Ola in India, GrabTaxi in Southeast Asia, 99 in Latin
America, and Taxify in Europe (see Figure 1).18

Figure 1 Didi Chuxing’s Global Partnerships

Source: Bhuiyan, Johana, and Rani Molla. “Didi is Chasing Uber Around the World.” Vox, August
10, 2017. https://www.vox.com/2017/8/10/16114736/didi-china-ride-hail-compares-uber-
globally.

Didi Chuxing has the goal of “building a better journey,” and the firm’s vision of “Becoming a
global leader in the revolution of transportation and automotive technology” describes how the
firm plans to achieve this ambition. These ideas are central to the firm’s nearly 10,000
employees, half of which are engineers and data scientists.19 Didi has supported its vision
through heavy investments in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and electronic vehicles.
Innovation has spawned expansion, and investments by Apple have resulted in a shared Silicon
Valley research and development lab that focuses on AI advancement and self-driving

technology. For Didi, this lab is only one of three research facilities, and the firm has been using
machine learning and data collection to improve the fluidity of its services since its founding.20

Didi Chuxing’s emphasis on improving its services through innovation is most clearly
demonstrated through its Smart Transportation Brain technology. Through a partnership with
the Chinese government, Didi has been able to combine its camera and sensor data with
governmental road reports to proactively manage traffic in real time. For instance, data sharing
has led to the installation of smart traffic lights that decrease road congestion. The severity of
transportation issues within China has led to governmental backing as both Didi and the
Chinese government share similar goals of traffic alleviation. Governmental support, mixed with
an environment that encourages ridesharing, [has] greatly contributed to Didi’s dominance
within China.21

Managing Mounting Threats
While Didi’s capabilities have created success, generating a consistent profit remains a major
challenge for the firm. Cheng Wei has often hinted at the private firm’s stressed financial
situation, and in 2018, Didi was rumored to have a net loss of US$1.6 billion. High losses are a
result of rider subsidies, and Didi is known for underpricing competitors and attracting new
users through deep discounts. Driver shortages—a result of regulations that prohibit migrant
workers from driving—have also cut into revenue.22 Although most ridesharing competitors,
like Uber, have yet to generate a profit, the extent of Didi’s losses in such a concentrated
market are particularly worrisome for the firm.23

Didi’s per ride revenue averages around 16 cents, and with as many as 30 million daily rides
given, the profit potential for the company is enormous. Nonetheless, post subsidy profit can
be as little as 1.6 cents and total 2018 subsidies were estimated at US$1.7 billion. The firm has
only been able to survive in such a loss heavy environment due to the support of strong
domestic partners and partnerships with Alibaba, Softbank, Tencent, and Apple. These
investments have generated US$12 billion of on-hand cash, which continues to fund subsidies,
tech innovation, and expand the firm’s international presence. While Didi may remain a loss
leader for some time, the growing ubiquity of the firm’s presence will most likely lead to profits
in the long run.24

Recent attacks against riders have weakened Didi’s perception of safety. Even though Didi’s
accident rates are far lower than that of a traditional taxis, there has been much backlash
against the firm ever since two female passengers were killed by Didi drivers in early 2018. Both
incidents were directly linked to faults within Didi’s platform, such as the firm’s lack of
receptiveness to user complaints. In response to these attacks, Didi announced that it would
not focus on profits until all safety concerns were addressed. Didi has since introduced random
biometric ID testing in addition to the selfie-based login system previously used to identify
drivers and added an in-app SOS button that is linked to a special police response team focused
on dealing with transportation threats. Wei hopes that these efforts will revitalize Didi’s
damaged image.25

Negative backlash has not halted Didi’s push forward, and international support is growing so
rapidly that valuation estimates have begun to rival that of Uber.26 Similarly, Fortune magazine
has ranked Didi 53rd on its 2018 list of companies changing the world due to the progress the
firm has made in limiting road congestion and decreasing transportation-induced
environmental impacts.27 Didi’s influence has led to Cheng Wei being listed as Forbes Asia’s
2016 Businessman of the year, and this innovative mentality has also resulted in Didi being
ranked 4th on CBNC’s 2018 Disruptor 50 list, a ranking that presents the top companies
changing their respective industries.28

China’s Business Environment
Rapid growth has expanded individual wealth, and more than half of all households within
China will be considered middle class by 2022. The nation’s per capita disposable income is now
around 28,000 yuan, or 4,000 dollars.29 Increasing wealth has shifted preferences and
discretionary spending has grown 13.4 percent since 2010. As wages and consumption rise, the
population is beginning to spend more on entertainment, relaxation, and travel—all of which
influence ridesharing demand.30 New spending patterns have also attracted foreign firms, and
many now invest heavily in this high-growth market. Within the last 10 years alone, China has
received over 20 percent of all developing countries’ FDI, and with over US$100 billion invested
annually, China has become one of the most heavily targeted nations in the world.31

Although China has opened its markets, cultural and regulatory obstacles have nonetheless
obstructed many foreign firms’ entrances. China operates under a hybrid economic system,
meaning that some sectors are market-based, while others remain state-owned and protected.
Most industries fall in the middle of this spectrum and governmental backing of domestic firms
has limited the entrance of foreign competitors.32 Foreign tech and retail giants, such as
Google and Walmart, have faced many restrictions within China, and the nation uses
protectionism as a tactic to grow local economies. This protectionist emphasis explains why
Chinese firms consistently outperform foreign rivals.33

Business etiquette varies significantly within China, and many western firms have historically
found it difficult to operate within the nation’s rigid business environment. Within China,
leadership is synonymous to loyalty and it is taboo for subordinates to question upper
management. Strict group structures heavily influence the way in which management operates,
and many Chinese communities believe that western leadership hierarchies are too relaxed.
These leadership differences were key contributors to the early hostilities felt between Didi
Chuxing and Uber, and different mentalities fueled the passion each enterprise felt over
establishing its own cultural precedent within China’s ridesharing industry.34

China’s business environment has similarly impacted the way ridesharing has been addressed
within the nation. On a national level, regulations require that ridesharing firms hire local
residents, and that both drivers and vehicles obtain specific certifications. Drivers must have a
minimum of three years driving experience and no criminal record, and they must be licensed

by local taxi authorities. As compared to other nations, China is much more open to ridesharing,
and it was the first country to nationally address the industry. This openness demonstrates
both executive level support for domestic growth and a culturally progressive mindset.
Governmental support of ridesharing was ultimately an important factor of Uber’s market
entrance.35

Uber: Setting the World in Motion
Founded by Travis Kalanick and Garrett Camp in 2009, Uber is now regarded as a ridesharing
pioneer and global industry leader. Since Uber’s first San Francisco ride in 2010, Page 563the
firm has prioritized development, and in just 10 years, Uber has become one of the world’s
most valuable private startups. While valuations peaked at US$72 billion in 2017, many still
regard Uber as a leader in the future of transportation, and many more believe that its
aggressive demeanor will lead to both domestic and international success.36

Established as a taxi service, Uber now offers a multitiered platform of transportation and
logistic solutions, including shipping, food delivery, electronic bikes, and limousines. This
diversification has expanded Uber’s potential and has grown the company beyond ridesharing.
Today, services like Uber Eats now make up 17 percent of total business.37 Furthermore, with a
mission that reads, “To ignite opportunity by setting the world in motion,” Uber and its 2
million global drivers focus on bettering the future of transportation. In doing so, Uber has
emphasized technology advancement and is currently investing in innovative travel solutions,
ranging from autonomous vehicles to flying cars.38

In 2018 alone, ridesharing services in the U.S. generated US$15.6 billion, and revenues are
anticipated to reach US$26.3 billion by 2023. Additionally, the U.S. currently has 50 million
registered ridesharing users, and 11 million new riders are estimated to emerge within the next
five years.39 For Uber, the bulk of its business remains domestic, and while premiums are
generally higher in the U.S., market growth is more promising internationally. For instance, a
major consideration of international ridesharing growth is vehicles per capita. The United States
has one of the highest vehicle per capita rates, and 88 percent of U.S. citizens own a car,
compared to about 10 percent globally.40 This disparity in transportation accessibility has
caused many American ridesharing firms to expand into foreign nations, such as China, where
the market potential is larger. Higher demand for ridesharing internationally has led to
expedited foreign growth, and by 2025, the global ridesharing industry will be 10 times larger
than that of the U.S.41

Uber has focused on international expansion since its inception. In December of 2011, a little
more than a year after the firm’s first San Francisco ride, Uber expanded into Paris. Within the
next two years, the firm grew its operations across 6 continents. Today, Uber is active in over
600 cities in 70 unique countries (see Figure 2). Nevertheless, almost a third of these locations
are within North America, and Uber’s largest presence remains domestic.42 As a result, most of
the firm’s income is generated within the U.S., and despite a growing international focus, over
57 percent of Uber’s revenues will come from North America by 2022.43

Figure 2 Uber’s Operations Around the Globe

Source: Bhuiyan, Johana, and Rani Molla. “Didi is Chasing Uber Around the World.” Vox, August
10, 2017. https://www.vox.com/2017/8/10/16114736/didi-china-ride-hail-compares-uber-
globally.

Foreign competition and international backlash have inhibited Uber’s success, and while the
firm is becoming globally known, many foreign developments have been ineffective. Uber’s
expansion techniques have typically involved offering deep discounts while leveraging the
prestige associated with its brand.44 Uber rarely makes local adjustments, and the firm has
often been criticized for not adapting to the cultural, economic, and political environments of
an area it expands into. As a result, many have questioned the speed of Uber’s expansion and
condemn the company for not taking the time to properly adapt to the nuances of the locations
it enters. Uber’s expansive setbacks can be linked to its “think local to expand global” attitude
and many believe that the largest inhibitor to Uber’s success has been its inability to adapt.45

Many have also questioned the legal and societal aspects of Uber’s services, and fierce
lobbying, especially by taxi unions, has disrupted international expansion. Opposition has led to
violent protests and state-wide bans in places like Hungary, Italy, and France. In Morocco, Uber
drivers have claimed that disputes with taxi servicers have resulted in physical harm, threats,
and unlawful detainment. As attacks become more common, many passengers question the
safety of the service.46

Growing opposition and overly eager expansion plans have damaged Uber’s financial position,
and costly battles within less open-minded countries have slowed revenue growth. While self-
reported financial statements show that revenues reached US$11.3 billion in 2018, many
speculators are concerned with the firm’s slowing growth. Furthermore, after deducting
expenses, Uber showed a net loss of US$1.8 billion in 2018. This loss can be mainly attributed to
unsuccessful international expansions, brand damage control, and regulatory lawsuits.47 Along

with revenue concerns, Uber has also been plagued by leadership scandals. Travis Kalanick, co-
founder and CEO of Uber, was known to support a workplace culture that tolerated both
discrimination and sexual harassment. Kalanick was forced to step down after the firm’s five
largest investors threatened to pull their funding.48 Traditionally, Uber’s overall leadership has
placed a high focus on growth, resulting in a hostile company culture, which one former
employee described as “Hobbesian.” Growth has always undermined employee well-being, and
“workers were often pitted against one another while a blind eye was turned to infractions
from top performers.” Corrupt leadership and a toxic work environment have resulted in
multiple lawsuits, new management, and faulty expansive efforts.49

Uber’s Milestones

2009

•Travis Kalanick and Garrett Camp launch UberCab.
•UberCab is rebranded as Uber.

2010

•Travis Kalanick replaces Ryan Graces as CEO.
•The Uber app launches on iPhone and Android.
•Uber performs its first ever ride, taking a single passenger across San Francisco.
•Domestic expansion begins and services are offered in cities such as New York and
Chicago.

2011

•First international launch in Paris, France.
•First round of funding results in over US$11 million of investments.
•Expands into France.
•Ridesharing becomes primary focus through the launching of UberX.

2012

•Competitor Lyft is founded.
•Expands into Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
•Begins looking for opportunities in Asia, taking off in Taipei, Taiwan.
•Targets Central and South American through Mexico City expansion.

2013

•Establishes a global mindset by launching in Johannesburg, South Africa.
•USA Today names Uber Tech Company of the year.
•Expands into India, Mexico, Germany, South Africa, Taiwan, and the United Arab
Emirates.
•Enters China.
•Chinese firm Baidu backs Uber with a US$600 million investment.
•UberRush launches as a courier service that uses bicycle messengers to deliver
packages.
•UberPool begins allowing travelers to share rides.

2014 •UberMilitary is founded to help returning veterans gain employment
opportunities.
•Enters its 100th City
•Expands into Austria, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Czech Republic, China,
Columbia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Panama,

Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Spain, South Korea, Sweden, and
Switzerland.
•Didi Chuxing is founded through a merger between Kuaidi Dache and Didi Dache.
•Didi and Lyft form a US$100 million partnership.
•Ola, Grab, Didi, and Lyft announce the Joint Global Technology and Service
Alliance to battle Uber.
•UberCargo launches as a bulk shipping platform.
•UberFresh is rebranded as UberEats, growing the firm’s position in food delivery
services.
•Specific locations begin accepting cash fees.

2015

•First autonomous robotics research facility opens.
•First public acquisition occurs when Uber purchases map startup deCarta.
•Domestic regulatory pressures grow after California’s Labor Commission classifies
Uber drivers as employees.
•Performs its one billionth ride.
•Enters its 300th city.
•Expands into Costa Rica, Croatia, Estonia, Ghana, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Macao,
Morocco, Peru, Romania, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and Uganda.
•China becomes the first country to nationally deem ridesharing legal.
•Didi Chuxing announces its acquisition of Uber China.
•Scheduled ride services launch allowing passengers to book rides up to 30 days in
advance.
•Street mapping begins as a way to improve and maximize route logistics.
•First self-driving vehicle pilot takes place.

2016 •Regulatory uncertainty rises in the U.S. forces Uber to leave cities like Austin,
Texas.
•Global regulatory disputes temporarily force Uber out of countries such as Italy,
Israel, and the UK.
•Performs its two billionth ride just six months after hitting one billion trips.
•Enters its 500th city.
•Expands into: Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Guatemala, Pakistan, Tanzania,
Uganda, and Ukraine.
•UberFreight launches, connecting trucking companies and drivers with shippers.
•Passengers under 17 become eligible to use Uber.
•Passengers are now able to tip drivers.
•Launches Visa-sponsored Uber credit card.
•Walmart announces home delivery through Uber partnership.
•Partners with NASA to work on the development of flying vehicles.

2017 •Travis Kalanick is forced to resign as CEO amidst rumors of workplace
discrimination and sexual misconduct.
•Dara Khosrowshahi replaces Kalanick as CEO.
•Alphabet files a lawsuit against Uber claiming theft of self-driving vehicle
intellectual property.

2018 •Travis Kalanick is forced to resign as CEO amidst rumors of workplace
discrimination and sexual misconduct.
•Dara Khosrowshahi replaces Kalanick as CEO.
•Alphabet files a lawsuit against Uber claiming theft of self-driving vehicle
intellectual property.

A New Challenger in China
Despite governmental uncertainty, cultural differences, and other variable entry barriers, Uber
launched in China in February of 2014. Attracted by China’s ridesharing market potential, Uber
hoped to capitalize on the nation’s transportation limitations and growing population.
Furthermore, in order to overcome the legal ambiguity of ridesharing in China, Uber entered
the nation through partnerships with multiple domestic vehicle leasing servicers and
technology companies. The largest of these partners was Chinese tech giant Baidu, and Uber
reworked its internal platform to run on Baidu Maps. This partnership was crucial to Uber’s
entrance, as Uber typically relies on Google Maps to operate, which is banned in China.50 Prior
to entrance, Uber was valued at US$17 billion, and this valuation more than doubled after a
year of operating within China.51

Growing competition in the U.S. ridesharing industry, along with pressure by other
transportation services, pushed Uber to look for opportunities outside of the U.S. Widespread
unification of cab drivers led to country-wide lawsuits, collective lobbying efforts, and
governmental complaints. Taxi unions fought to retain their dominance by emphasizing
ridesharing’s safety concerns and lack of regulation. By 2015, ridesharing companies like Uber
had managed to gain a substantial 29 percent market share, while car rental agencies and taxis
held onto 36 percent and 35 percent shares, respectively.52

Uber viewed the lack of widespread Chinese competition as an additional reason to enter the
market. Prior to entrance, the only major players within China were Kuaidi Dache and Didi
Dache, which would soon merge to form Didi Chuxing. Furthermore, China’s large population
and low vehicles rates meant that Didi and taxi servicers combined could still not meet the
nation’s high transportation demand. As a result, taxi driver backlash and protests were not as
concerning, and Uber anticipated that competitive battles over costumer acquisitions would be
less fierce.53

The appeals of the Chinese market allowed Uber to quickly grow, and aggressive expansion
techniques led to the rapid diffusion of Uber’s brand. By June of 2016, five of Uber’s ten largest
cities by volume were in China. In less than two years, Uber had expanded into 60 of the
nation’s most populous cities, and it had hoped to double its presence by 2017.54 Two years
after expansion, Uber also announced that it possessed a modest 30 percent market share
within China, and Uber’s American image had gradually gained familiarity throughout the
nation. Chinese competencies had grown faster than those in North America, and ride volume
in China quickly surpassed that of the U.S. However, costs had also grown much faster, and

quick growth resulted in unsustainable expenses and unexpectedly fierce competitive
battles.55

Ridesharing Difficulties in a Foreign Landscape
Despite early success, Uber quickly found itself amongst a tide of swelling threats.
Governmental and societal backlash emerged as the ridesharing firm grew in popularity. In
addition to growing city-wide mandates, the national government begun to discuss the
possibility of enacting countrywide regulations shortly after Uber’s entrance. Mounting
pressure to regulate and add safety standards threatened Uber’s position. Furthermore, since
there was no formal ruling on the legality of ridesharing at the time of Uber’s entrance, many
wrongly believed that the service was illegal. This lack of clarity resulted in general hesitation by
both drivers and riders.56

In addition to legal and societal opposition, Uber also faced the realities of significant marketing
expenses, driver incentives, and passenger discounts.57 Finding drivers within China had been
much harder than in other international locations due to the nation’s many local and national
vehicle restrictions, including the prohibition of immigrants and out of city workers from
driving. To attract drivers, Uber was forced to pay pricey sign-on bonuses and increase the
percentage of fares that drivers kept.58

At the time of Uber’s entrance, Didi had been using deep subsidies as a tactic to buy passenger
loyalty, expand into new locations, and promote the general image of ridesharing, and Uber
was forced to respond with even more aggressive price cuts. Increased rider incentives, such as
promotional rides and sign up bonuses, meant that Uber was losing money on each ride it
performed. Losses amounted to over US$1 billion in Uber’s first year of entrance.59

In order to support these losses, Uber and Didi both needed to attract funding and investments.
Baidu had been financing Uber China since its inception, and aggressive investment lobby
efforts by Didi resulted in funding from Chinese conglomerates such as Tencent and Alibaba. In
2016 alone, Didi accumulated US$7.3 billion in backing, with most of this funding coming from
Apple, Alibaba, and China Life Insurance. Uber China responded with similar efforts that
resulted in US$5 billion of investments from companies like Toyota and Tiger Global
Management.60

Over time Uber’s tactics put pressure on Didi, and by 2016, Didi’s market share had shrunk from
a near monopoly to 60 percent. Furthermore, in the wake of this competitive battle, smaller
companies such as Yidao and Shenzhou begun to emerge, gradually taking their own cut out of
China’s ridesharing market.61 As Uber gained experience in China, it [began] expanding into
smaller and less wealthy tier 3 and 4 cities. The cost of maintenance and acquisition rose with
these expansions as these locations had been isolated from Uber’s impact so far. Expansion and
discounts were required to gain business, but this strategy hurt Uber by adding to its
substantial annual loses. Using subsidies to prioritize growth led to unsustainable losses and
unrealistic demand, and it allowed Didi to gain advantages over Uber.62

A Winning Battle: Didi’s Advantages over Uber
Despite aggressive attempts by Uber to gain a long-lasting position within China, Didi had
multiple advantages that allowed for its long-term sustainability. Didi could better weather the
storm of rampant losses, and its domestic edge would prove to be too impactful for Uber to
compete with.63

Didi Chuxing’s two years of prior experience within China proved to be one of the most
impactful advantages for the firm.64 Didi had historical data on what services, attributes, and
marketing strategies enticed Chinese customers best. While Uber did have more experience
expanding into international locations, China was completely unlike any market it had ever
entered. Didi’s first-to-market entrance countered Uber’s typical business model and left the
firm in an unfamiliar position.65

Having a longer history within China also meant that Didi had a larger presence. While Uber had
hoped to expand into its 100th Chinese location by 2017, Didi was already present in over 400
cities a year prior. Didi was active in nearly as many locations within China as Uber was
globally.66 More importantly, by 2016 Didi was profitable in nearly half of its locations. At the
same time, high subsidies and startup costs made Uber unprofitable in every Chinese city it
entered.67

More cities meant more daily rides, and by the end of 2015, Didi was performing more than
three times as many trips as Uber. Didi was also offering millions of more rides through private
transportation services like taxis, buses, and limousines. These other transportation steams
further diversified Didi’s capabilities, revenue, and image. Didi’s ranged competences allowed
for greater volume, a more widespread presence, and added service offerings. This, in turn,
translated into more experience, more employees, and more drivers early on.68

A Chinese focus also served as a distinct advantage for Didi. By 2016, Uber was active in over 50
unique countries, and each nation presented its own cultural aspects, societal issues, and
regulatory hurdles. And as a result, Uber had to emerge itself in many different global
landscapes. Losses, lawsuits, and protests experienced in countries thousands of miles away all
impacted Uber China. Conversely, Didi was only active within China, and while Uber was
concerned with international failures, Didi could direct all of its efforts at one nation.69

Being a Chinese-based firm presented Didi with more tangible benefits as well.70 Didi had the
support of China’s Investment Corporation, which is particularly important for success within
China as the government will often sway lawsuits and promote legal regulations that benefit
the firms it backs. As a result, CNBC described Uber’s lack of consideration of Chinese
particularities as its greatest weakness, and one analyst noted that, “You can’t win, within
China. When you have great technology and a great business model, but don’t understand
some of those local business premises, West Coast aggressiveness will only get you so far.”71

With funding that outweighed Uber’s by as much as US$2.3 billion, Didi’s investments were
directed at stimulating Chinese growth, and Didi was better positioned to provide deeper
subsidies and discounts. Uber’s investments, however, were often globally scattered, thus
spreading the company thin.72 Didi also formed partnerships with multiple global ridesharing
firms such as Lyft, Ola, and Grab. Didi even strategically invested US$100 million into Lyft in
order to indirectly attack Uber’s domestic operations and distract the firm from its Chinese
battle. Similar investments went to Ola in India and Grab in Singapore.73

Another significant tech investment for Didi came from Apple in 2016, totaling US$1 billion.
While Uber’s investments prioritized discounts, Didi’s funding was directed at improving user
experience and other long-term projects.74 Expanded product offerings like city-wide bike
sharing, different car rental classes, carpooling options, and busing lines revitalized the firm.
Didi’s progressive minded leadership constantly looked for ways to improve, while Uber’s
leadership only sought out ways to win. This carefully organized mentality meant larger growth
and a longer life for Didi, and Uber’s plan to use its size and experience to bully its way into
China was fruitless.75

Presenting an Acquisition Proposal
After two years of consecutive US$1 billion losses within China, Uber admitted defeat. Kalanick
had noted that, “China is only possible with profitability,” and he hoped that an alliance would
give Uber the profitability needed to succeed.76

While Didi was better positioned to survive the price war, cooperation with Uber was becoming
increasingly necessary for long-term sustainability.77 Growing pressure by investors to cut
mounting losses within China finally forced Uber to begin negotiations with Didi in May of 2016.
While dialogue was slow at first, Didi quickly prioritized forming an alliance after a rumor
emerged that Lyft had begun working with Page 567Qatalyst Partners LP, a boutique
investment bank known for helping tech companies merge. Fearing a potential Lyft-Uber
merger, Didi sped up negotiations, and on August 1, 2016, Didi and Uber came to an
agreement.78 Prior to the agreement Didi had 42 million users while Uber China had 10 million.
An alliance between the two created an unbreakable ridesharing powerhouse within China.79

In return for the acquisition of Uber’s Chinese operations, Uber gained a 17.7 percent stake in
Didi. Additionally, Uber’s investors were given a 2.3 percent stake, taking the combined position
up to 20 percent. The deal made Uber the largest stakeholder in Didi, and with Uber China
being valued at US$8 billion, Didi’s total value skyrocketed to US$36 billion (see Figure 3).80

Figure 3 Valuation History: Uber vs Didi

Sources: “Battle of the Decacorns: Uber vs. Didi Chuxing’s Valuations over Time.” CB Insights,
August 5, 2016. https://www.cbinsights.com/research/uber-vs-didi-chuxing-valuation-history;
“China’s Ride-Hailing App Didi Gets $500 Million Funding from the Parent of Booking.com.”
Reuters, July 17, 2018. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/17/chinas-ride-hailing-app-didi-gets-
500-million-funding-from-the-paren.html; “How Uber Could Justify a $120 Billion Valuation.”
Forbes, December 3, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2018/12/03/how-
uber-could-justify-a-120-billion-valuation/#6c2a57e97f9b.

In addition to being given a dominant position in China’s largest ridesharing firm, Uber China
also retained its brand. While Didi did maintain control of Uber China, Uber would remain
within the nation under an independent image. Uber’s app could still be used in China, and the
firm could move forward with its vision of becoming a globally renowned company despite the
fact that its Chinese operations were now under Didi’s jurisdiction. The agreement also
required Didi to invest US$1 billion into Uber’s global locations. Although Uber had received
significantly greater funding in the past, this contribution would be the largest individual
investment Didi had ever made. Additionally, Kalanick would gain a position on Didi’s board of
directors while Wei was granted a spot on Uber’s board.81

Didi’s acquisition of Uber China altered the ridesharing landscape for consumers. While
consumers had typically been the ones to experience the benefits of decreased rates and deep
subsidies, the acquisition of Uber China would ultimately mean the undoing of these incentives.
By 2017, nationwide ridesharing prices had increased. For instance, Beijing, Shanghai, and
Shenzhen saw 12.4 percent, 17.7 percent, and 22.5 percent increases in fare prices,
respectively. Rising prices allowed Didi to implement a new long-run focus on customer

experience, which would ultimately benefit consumers through enhanced technology, services,
and offerings.82

While consumers would experience long-run benefits, Didi and Uber both saw more immediate
gains. Uber was able to shift its focus away from a losing battle and redirect its energy towards
areas of already established success. At the same time, any success by Didi would result in
greater returns on investment for Uber. A growing global presence has been connected to
Uber’s durability, and a newly secured position in China would promote Uber’s long-run
position. With the hopes of going public soon, Uber had realized that losses in China blemished
its financial statements. By eliminating the threat of concentrated losses, Uber was able to
dramatically enhance its financial position and make itself more presentable to investors. As a
result, Uber received a win in a battle that it would have otherwise lost.83

Most importantly, this acquisition allowed Didi to realign its position with its original goals and
values. While Didi had remained focus on advancement even in the midst of its competitive
battle, a price war had nonetheless distracted the firm from its original intentions. The Wall
Street Journal noted that the elimination of this competitive threat, “freed up substantial
resources for bold initiatives focused on the future of cities: from self-driving technology to
food and logistics.”84

While each party benefited substantially, this acquisition did bring about concerns. The
monopolistic power that Didi had acquired through this merger was immediately subjected to
antitrust concerns. Large market dominance and substantial funding meant that no newly
emerged competitor would be able to reasonably compete with Didi, and China’s antitrust
regulators quickly found fault with this monopolistic authority. By the end of 2016, China’s
Ministry of Commerce had announced that it would investigate Didi’s position.85

A New Global Leader
The success Didi experienced within China secured the firm’s position as a global ridesharing
leader, and future initiatives will only further strengthen the firm’s image.86 Didi’s profound
knowledge of city congestion and its development strategies, which have proven successful, are
expected to be leveraged in the next phase of growth. China is the only nation with over 100
cities that have a population of at least 1 million, and Didi’s familiarity with transportation
logistics in such a dense area will ensure success in other populous markets.87 With over 550
million users and 31 million drivers, Didi has learned how to successfully handle volume, and as
the firm expands, it should be able to easily control any costs associated with increasing its
size.88

The growing appeal of international expansion can also be linked to the growing threat of
competition within China. While the superiority of Didi’s operations have historically led to a
near dominance within this market, new rivals continuously emerge in attempts to weaken
Didi’s authority. For instance, Alibaba-owned mapping firm, AutoNavi, has recently challenged
Didi with its own ride hailing service. This young ridesharing firm has leveraged its strong

backing from Alibaba and has begun implementing its own City Brain platform, which takes
advantage of its proprietary transportation data to improve ride logistics.89

Didi is facing growing competition in all aspects of its business. For instance, Meituan Dianping
has recently overtaken Didi’s title of world’s largest food delivery servicer by withdrawing from
ridesharing to solely focus on delivery. Niche competitors are taking on specialized challenges
and are finding creative ways to attack specific aspects of Didi’s service lines. Furthermore, new
competitors have mainly been domestic, and these firms have deep local knowledge and
stronger cultural appeal, something which Uber never challenged Didi with. While these young
firms may not possess the same size and authority as Uber, local synergistic advantages put
them in an ideal position to challenge Didi.90

Didi currently manages three distinct research and development centers in which it funnels
investments into vehicle logistics. While Didi’s engineers and data scientists have made
significant strides in hardware improvements, most of the firm’s research involves software
advancement and data collection. Self-driving vehicles and electric cars have been given a long-
term focus, and current ventures in data manipulation have allowed Didi to grow its present
position. Investments have allowed Didi to capture realtime data, which it then uses to
maximize travel routes and ride times. Today, the firm’s research mostly involves smart
learning, and practices such as artificial intelligence, computer vision, and natural language
processing all aim at bettering the user experience in anticipation of new competitive battles.91

Dominance within China, a history of growth, and a strong technological position will fuel Didi’s
next wave of expansion. Partnerships appear to be only one aspect of Didi’s global endeavors,
and the firm aims to enter foreign markets under its own brand. While Didi has emphasized
growth, unlike Uber, it has been much less aggressive with expansion. Strategic investments
and partnerships contrast significantly from Uber’s strategy of entering independently and
using price cuts to knock down local competitors. While Uber has seen success in this strategy,
it has seen just as much failure. As Didi moves forward, it believes that its cautiousness will
allow it to avoid Uber’s mistakes, and one Didi spokesperson noted that, “Didi is pursuing a
flexible approach to international expansion rather than a one-size-fits-all strategy.” While Uber
has aimed for entrance speed, Didi realizes that a flexible long-term strategy will avoid conflicts
and generate defendable growth, something which Uber lacks in many of its markets.92

Reigniting a War
As Didi advances towards global ridesharing dominance, it finds itself once again running into
conflicts with Uber. Unlike in China, however, Didi has now become the aggressor.93

With a new focus on international expansion, Didi has targeted Mexico as its first independent
location outside of China. However, opposition follows expansion, and this time around, Uber is
the local monopolistic leader. With an estimated 87 percent market share, Mexico is one of
Uber’s most profitable and protected global locations. Like Didi’s position in China, Uber
dominates within Mexico, and there are no clear local competitors for Didi to partner with even

if it wanted to. Mexico is also the fourth largest market for Uber in terms of users, and only the
U.S., Brazil, and India rival the nation’s volume. While Didi has been attacking Uber’s
dominance within its other principal markets, all of Didi’s past oppositions have been through
partnerships. Since its 2013 entrance, Uber has invested over US$500 million into Mexico, and
stronger blockades have been recently built in anticipation of Didi’s arrival.94

Didi has hit the ground running as it enters Mexico, and dynamic tactics have quickly allowed
the firm to gain a strong reputation within the nation. For instance, Didi has been aggressively
poaching top employees from Uber’s Mexican management team in order to gain insider
information on Uber’s tactics and strategies. Didi employees have Page 569also been
registering as Uber drivers and passengers and are riding incognito within Uber vehicles in
order to gain insight into Uber’s operations. Speaking with Uber’s users and employees has
given Didi firsthand accounts of the flaws and strengths of Uber’s services, and Didi plans on
tailoring its products around Uber’s flaws. With this information, Didi has announced a wider
array of services, and the firm hopes to expand into popular Mexican transportation
alternatives such as bikes, scooters, and motorcycles, all of which Uber has yet to offer.95

Didi has also used driver feedback to alter fee collection processes, and the firm announced
that it would not be accepting cash payments within Mexico. Didi hopes that electronic
payments will help the firm attract drivers, especially considering that thieves have recently
begun targeting Ubers for the surplus cash they tend to have on hand during rides.
Subsequently, Didi believes that its heavy investments in data collection and ridesharing
technology will ensure quicker, more superior services. Didi has been highly methodical as it
enters Mexico, which varies greatly from the “expand now, plan later” strategy that Uber used
in China. As a result of careful planning, Didi has already begun to successfully rival Uber’s
position.96

Despite well-thought out tactics and past successes against Uber, a difficult situation lies ahead
for Didi. Rivaling Uber in Mexico is fundamentally different than anything Didi has ever
attempted. Mexico is Didi’s first effort at building an operation without any partnerships, and
Didi will have no local authority to guide it through this competitive battle. One analyst noted
that, “It is fundamentally different when you’re jumping across an ocean,” and Didi’s lack of
experience with local regulatory and cultural complexities may impede the firm. It is already
clear that the firm has much to learn about western lifestyle. For instance, while recruiting Uber
employees, Didi reportedly hosted interviews during the week of Christmas, a time where most
of Mexico is on vacation. Didi thus far has had difficulty altering its image, and this difficulty is
only exacerbated by the fact that Latin American consumers tend to prefer U.S. brands over
Chinese ones. As a result, Chinese companies have historically struggled in Latin America.
Furthermore, rather than competing on price, Didi hopes that improving services, safety, and
speed will attract customers, yet the Mexican market already appears to be highly price
dependent. To be successful within Mexico, Didi will have to completely alter its image and step
away from its heritage; however, this may prove to be difficult for the firm, especially
considering the success that its culture has brought it during past fights against Uber.97

Uber is prepared to do whatever it takes to retain its dominance. Whether it be increasing
spending on marketing and customer acquisition or investing more heavily in service offerings
and technology, Uber is equipped for the long run. While Didi does have significant bankroll,
the firm may still have difficulty overcoming the complexities of market expansion. With
positions flipped, foreigner Didi will now have to fight against the advantages that allowed it to
succeed in China. While Didi believes that an established position in China will allow it to
overcome any struggles that international expansion may present, Didi’s efforts may
nonetheless end up paralleling those of Uber. As the two firms prepare for the next battle, the
only certainty is the clash—yet the experiences that Didi and Uber have learned from China
may guide them in what is to come.

Questions for Review
1.What was so appealing about the Chinese ridesharing landscape? Specifically, why did Uber
want to enter China?

2.What are some potential threats that American firms face when conducting business within
China? In your opinion, do you think these concerns discredit entrance?

3.What advantages did Didi have to help it win its competitive battle with Uber?

4.What were some of the benefits Didi and Uber China received by merging? Can you think of
any potential detriments?

5.Compare and contrast Uber and Didi’s expansion tactics. Going forward, do you think Uber
should reevaluate this strategy? Provide justification for both sides of the argument.

6.Do you believe Didi or Uber has a more stable financial outlook? Why?

Exercise
After working for Uber Mexico for nearly five years, you and a few other members of Uber
Mexico’s senior management team have been recruited by Didi Chuxing’s Global Expansion
group. Attracted by Didi’s cultural environment and a higher salary, you decide to leave Uber.

Didi is eager to gain insight into Uber’s cultural environment, and as your first assignment, you
have been tasked with assessing and analyzing your previous employer. Specifically, you have
been asked to carefully consider and evaluate Uber’s leadership team and the company culture
that they foster. What has Uber’s management team been doing well, and what weaknesses
can Didi capitalize on in order to make its own company more appealing?

Finally, given your experience with Uber’s Mexican operations, your new employer also asks
you to evaluate the cultural landscape and business environment of Mexico. In relation to Uber,
what has the company done right in Mexico, what should Didi attempt to replicate, and what
mistakes can Didi avoid? How can Didi’s leadership adjust its offerings to be more culturally
relevant?

This case was prepared by Matthew Sepe of Villanova University under the supervision of
Professor Jonathan Doh as the basis for class discussion.

ENDNOTES
1.“Didi Completes 7.43b Rides in 2017,” China Daily, September 1, 2018,
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201801/09/WS5a541c98a31008cf16da5e76.html.

2.Shlomo Freund, “A Short History of Uber in China: Was It a Failure,” Forbes, August 15, 2016,
https://www.forbes.com/sites/shlomofreund/2016/08/15/a-short-history-of-uber-in-china-
was-it-a-failure.

3.Leslie Hook, “Uber’s Battle for China,” Financial Times, June 2016,
https://ig.ft.com/sites/uber-in-china.

4.Jon Russell and Ingrid Lunden, “Confirmed: Didi Buys Uber China in a Bid for Profit, Will Keep
Uber Brand,” TechCrunch, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/08/01/Didi-Chuxing-confirms-it-
is-buying-Ubers-business-in-china.

5.“Didi Completes 7.43b Rides in 2017.”

6.Laura Wood, “Chinese Ride Sharing Market 2017-2018 & 2025,” Cision, June 6, 2018,
https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/chinese-ride-sharing-market-2017-2018–2025-
major-players-are-didi-dida-aa-pinche-laihui-and-tiantian-300661068.html.

7.Sherisse Pham, “China’s $30 Billion Ride-Hailing Market Could Double by 2020,” CNN
Business, May 15, 2018, https://money.cnn.com/2018/05/15/technology/china-ride-hailing-
market/index.html.

8.“Reducing Traffic Congestion and Emission in Chinese Cities,” World Bank, November 16,
2018, https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2018/11/16/reducing-traffic-congestion-
and-emission-in-chinese-cities.

9.Natascha Kuter, “China Acts to Combat Pollution and Traffic Chaos,” DW News, February 26,
2013, https://www.dw.com/en/china-acts-to-combat-pollution-and-traffic-chaos/a-16629782.

10.Raymond Tsang, Pierre-Henri Boutot, and Dorothy Cai, “China’s Mobility Industry Picks Up
Speed,” Bain, 2018, http://www.bain.cn/pdfs/201805140617002187 .

11.Peal Chen, “Beijing’s Car Plate Policies,” Global Times, April 17, 2018,
http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1098345.shtml.

12.Emma Hinchliffe, “Uber Is Now Legal in China, but Drivers Have to Play by a New Set of
Rules,” Mashable, July 28, 2016, https://mashable.com/2016/07/28/uber-legal-
china/#sSxO2wEMSiqB.

13.Chris Ciaccia, “Didi Chuxing—the Chinese Ride-Sharing Giant,” Investopedia, October 5,
2018, https://www.investopedia.com/articles/small-business/012517/didi-chuxing.asp.

14.John Russell, “China’s Top Two Taxi-Hailing Services Confirm That They Will Merge,”
TechCrunch, 2015, https://techcrunch.com/2015/02/13/kuaidi-dache-didi-dache-merge.

15.Ibid.

16.Catherine Shu, “China’s Two Biggest Taxi Apps Reportedly Considering a Merger,”
TechCrunch, 2015, https://techcrunch.com/2015/02/13/kuaidi-didi-dache.

17.Charles Custer, “Didi Kuaidi Partners with Lyft and Invests $100M to Take on Uber,” Tech in
Asia, September 16, 2015, https://www.techinasia.com/didi-kuaidi-partners-lyft-uber.

18.“Didi Chuxing Invests in Brazil Rival 99,” CNBC, January 4, 2017,
https://www.cnbc.com/2017/01/04/didi-chuxing-invests-in-brazil-rival-99.html.

19.Bernard Marr, “AI in China: How Uber Rival Didi Chuxing Uses Machine Learning to
Revolutionize Transportation,” Forbes, November 26, 2018,
https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2018/11/26/ai-in-china-how-uber-rival-didi-
chuxing-uses-machine-learning-to-revolutionize-transportation/#732f0f1.

20.Kirsten Korosec, “Uber Rival Didi Chuxing Sets Up Shop in Silicon Valley,” Fortune, March 8,
2017, http://fortune.com/2017/03/08/didi-chuxing-silicon-valley.

21.Masha Borak, “Didi Is Using Its New AI Brain to Crack the Toughest Puzzle, Our Cities,”
Technode, January 26, 2018, https://technode.com/2018/01/26/didi-ai-brain.

22.“Didi Chuxing Loses Rmb4bn in First Half of Year,” Financial Times, September 10, 2018,
https://www.ft.com/content/7f6c55dc-b4c5-11e8-bbc3-ccd7de085ffe.

23.Rita Liao, “China’s Didi Reportedly Lost a Staggering $1.6 Billion in 2018,” TechCrunch,
February, 2018, https://techcrunch.com/2019/02/14/didi-reported-1-6-billion-loss.

24.“Didi Chuxing Loses Rmb4bn in First Half of Year.”

25.Jon Russell, “China’s Didi Chuxing Adds More Safety Features Following Passenger Murder,”
TechCrunch, October 2018, https://techcrunch.com/2018/09/26/chinas-didi-chuxing-adds-
more-safety-features-following-passenger-murder.

26.“Is $80 Billion Valuation Achievable for Didi Chuxing’s IPO,” Forbes, December 24, 2018,
https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2018/12/24/is-80-billion-valuation-
achievable-for-didi-chuxings-ipo/#12fd7ae56211.

27.“Changing the World,” Fortune, 2018, http://fortune.com/change-the-world/didi-chuxing.

28.“How Do Uou Say “Uber” in Mandarin,” CNBC, May 22, 2018,
https://www.cnbc.com/2018/05/22/didi-chuxing-2018-disruptor-50.html.

29.“China’s Resident Disposable Income Rises 6.5% in 2018,” China Daily, January 21, 2019,
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201901/21/WS5c4569f1a3106c65c34e5a1f.html.

30.“Meet the Chinese Consumer of 2020,” McKinsey, March 2012,
https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/asia-pacific/meet-the-chinese-consumer-of-
2020.

31.“China GDP Current US$,” World Bank, 2018,
https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2017&locations=CN&start=1960
&view=chart.

32.Jeff Spross, “What It’s like to Do Business in China,” The Week, August 6, 2018,
https://theweek.com/articles/788219/what-like-business-china.

33.Thomas Lee, “Why China Protects Its Homegrown Tech Companies,” San Francisco
Chronicle, October 23, 2015, https://www.sfchronicle.com/business/article/Why-China-
protects-its-homegrown-tech-companies-6587101.php.

34.“Chinese Business Management Style,” World Business Culture, March 23, 2017,
https://www.worldbusinessculture.com/country-profiles/china/culture/business-management-
style.

35.Tekendra Parmar, “New Regulations May Hurt China’s Ride-Hailing Business Didi,” Fortune,
November 15, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/11/14/didi-chuxing-regulations-china-uber-ride-
hailing.

36.Shlomo Freund, “A Short History of Uber in China: Was It a Failure,” Forbes, August 15, 2016,
https://www.forbes.com/sites/shlomofreund/2016/08/15/a-short-history-of-uber-in-china-
was-it-a-failure/#516b27d73386.

37.Dan Blystone, “The Story of Uber,” Investopedia, March 31, 2019,
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/personal-finance/111015/story-uber.asp.

38.“About Us,” Uber, https://www.uber.com/us/en/about.

39.“Ride Hailing,” Statista, 2019, https://www.statista.com/outlook/368/ride-hailing#market-
globalRevenue.

40.Tanvi Misra, “Global Car, Motorcycle, and Bike Ownership, in 1 Infographic,” City Lab, April
17, 2015, https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2015/04/global-car-motorcycle-and-bike-
ownership-in-1-infographic/390777.

41.“Ride Sharing Market by Type,” Markets and Markets, 2018,
https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/new-reports.html.

42.Harry Wyatt, “Uber Cities,” Uber Estimator, 2019, https://uberestimator.com/cities.

43.“Uber Technologies: Statistics and Facts,” Statista, May 2018,
https://www.statista.com/topics/4826/uber-technologies.

44.John Colley, “How Uber Crashed in China,” Smart Company, August 3, 2016,
https://www.smartcompany.com.au/startupsmart/advice/business-planning/how-uber-
crashed-in-china.

45.Suhas Manangi, “Uber’s Global Expansion Strategy: Think Local to Expand Global,” LinkedIn,
July 31, 2017, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/ubers-global-expansion-strategy-think-local-
expand-work-manangi.

46.Biz Carson, “Where Uber Is Winning the World and Where It Has Lost,” Forbes, September
19, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/bizcarson/2018/09/19/where-uber-is-winning-the-
world-and-where-it-has-lost/#f6a16714d6ed.

47.Paayal Zaveri and Deirdre Bosa, “Uber’s Growth Slowed Dramatically in 2018,” CNBC,
February 15, 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/02/15/uber-2018-financial-results.html.

48.Mike Isaac, “Uber Founder Travis Kalanick Resigns as CEO,” New York Times, June 21, 2017,
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/21/technology/uber-ceo-travis-kalanick.html.

49.Mike Isaac, “Inside Uber’s Aggressive Unrestrained Workplace Culture,” New York Times,
February 22, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/22/technology/uber-workplace-
culture.html?module=inline.

50.Yibo Dai, “Why Uber Survives and Thrives in China,” The Medium, January 19, 2016,
https://medium.com/yibo-look-into-china/why-uber-survives-and-thrives-in-china-part-1-
9b78bc085e5c.

51.Carlos Barria, “Here’s How Uber Can Win in the Stiffly Competitive Chinese Car Service
Market,” Business Insider, August 25, 2014, https://www.businessinsider.com/uber-china-
2014-8.

52.Luz Lazo, “Cab Companies Unite against Uber and Other Ride Share Services,” Washington
Post, August 10, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/cab-
companies-unite-against-uber-and-other-ride-share-services.

53.Dai, “Why Uber Survives and Thrives in China.”

54.Davey Alba, “Uber Hits 2 Billion Rides as Growth in China Soars,” Wired, July 18, 2016,
https://www.wired.com/2016/07/uber-hits-2-billion-rides-growth-china-soars-now.

55.Hook, “Uber’s Battle for China.”

56.Ibid.

57.Deborah Findlings, “What Stands between Uber and Success in China,” CNBC, September 15,
2015, https://www.cnbc.com/2015/09/15/what-stands-between-uber-and-success-in-
china.html.

58.Colley, “How Uber Crashed in China.”

Page 572
59.“Uber Losing 1 Billion a Year to Compete in China,” Reuters, February 18, 2016,
https://www.reuters.com/article/uber-china-idUSKCN0VR1M9.

60.Rebecca Feng, “Uber China Hopes to Gain Market Share by Entering Travel Industry,”
Forbes, June 22, 2016, https://www.forbes.com/sites/rebeccafeng/2016/06/22/uber-china-
hopes-to-gain-market-share-by-entering-travel-industry/#15fefa8a357e.

61.Hook, “Uber’s Battle for China.”

62.Colley, “How Uber Crashed in China.”

63.Sophia Yan, “Uber Is Losing 1 Billion a Year in China,” CNN Business, February 19, 2016,
https://money.cnn.com/2016/02/19/technology/uber-losing-1-billion-china/index.html.

64.Russell, “China’s Top Two Taxi-Hailing Services Confirm That They Will Merge.”

65.Hook, “Uber’s Battle for China.”

66.Charles Riley and Shen Lu, “Uber Is Planning a Huge Expansion in China,” CNN Business,
September 8, 2015, https://money.cnn.com/2015/09/08/technology/uber-china/index.html.

67.Eva Dou, “Didi Says It Turns a Profit in More Than Half Its Cities,” Wall Street Journal, June 3,
2016, https://www.wsj.com/articles/didi-turns-a-profit-in-more-than-half-its-cities-executive-
says-1464932408.

68.Erik Crouch, “China’s Ride Wars: Uber vs. Didi,” Tech in Asia, October 30, 2015,
https://www.techinasia.com/infographic-didi-kuaidi-uber.

69.Deborah Findlings, “What Stands between Uber and Success in China,” CNBC, September 15,
2015, https://www.cnbc.com/2015/09/15/what-stands-between-uber-and-success-in-
china.html.

70.Biz Carson, “9 Incredibly Popular Websites That Are Still Blocked in China,” Business Insider,
July 23, 2015, https://www.businessinsider.com/websites-blocked-in-china-2015-7#facebook-4.

71.Deborah Findling, “What Stands between Uber and Success in China?” CNBC, September 15,
2015, https://www.cnbc.com/2015/09/15/what-stands-between-uber-and-success-in-
china.html.

72.Rebecca Feng, “Uber China Hopes to Gain Market Share by Entering Travel Industry,”
Forbes, June 22, 2016, https://www.forbes.com/sites/rebeccafeng/2016/06/22/uber-china-
hopes-to-gain-market-share-by-entering-travel-industry/#15fefa8a357e.

73.Sarah Buhr, “China’s Didi Kuaidi Put 100M into Lyft, Inks Ridesharing Alliance to Rival Uber,”
TechCrunch, 2015, https://techcrunch.com/2015/09/16/ubers-rivals-didi-kuadi-and-lyft-form-
international-ridesharing-partnership.

74.Julia Love, “Apple Invests 1 Billion in Chinese Ride Hailing Service Didi Chuxing,” Reuters,
May 12, 2016, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-apple-china/apple-invests-1-billion-in-
chinese-ride-hailing-service-didi-chuxing-idUSKCN0Y404W.

75.James Crabtree, “Didi Chuxing Took on Uber and Won. Now It’s Taking On the World,”
Wired, February 9, 2018, https://www.wired.co.uk/article/didi-chuxing-china-startups-uber.

76.Rick Carew, “The Road to the Uber Didi Deal,” Wall Street Journal, August 2, 2016,
https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-road-to-the-uber-didi-deal-1470129702.

77.Avery Hartmans, “Here’s What Made Didi Finally Want to Merge with Uber in China,”
Business Insider, August 2, 2016, https://www.businessinsider.com/why-didi-merged-with-
uber.

78.Carew, “The Road to the Uber Didi Deal.”

79.“Didi Merger with Uber Grows Monthly Active User Base by 40% in China,” NewZoo,
https://newzoo.com/insights/articles/didi-merger-with-uber-grows-monthly-active-user-base-
by-40-in-china.

80.Carew, “The Road to the Uber Didi Deal.”

81.Alyssa Abkowitz, “Uber Sells China Operations to Didi Chuxing,” Wall Street Journal, August
1, 2016, https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-s-didi-chuxing-to-acquire-rival-uber-s-chinese-
operations-1470024403.

82.Josh Horwitz, “One Year after the Uber Didi Merger, It’s Only Getting Harder to Hail a Ride in
China,” Quartz, August 3, 2017, https://qz.com/1045268/one-year-after-the-uber-didi-merger-
its-only-getting-harder-to-hail-a-ride-in-china.

83.Jon Russell, “Uber’s Deal with Didi Is a Win-Win for Everyone Except the Anti Uber Alliance,”
TechCrunch, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/08/01/ubers-deal-with-didi-is-a-win-win-for-
everyone-except-the-anti-uber-alliance.

84.Alyssa Abkowitz and Rick Carew, “Uber Sells China Operations to Didi Chuxing,” Wall Street
Journal, August 2016, https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-s-didi-chuxing-to-acquire-rival-uber-
s-chinese-operations-1470024403.

85.“Didi Uber Merger under Antitrust Investigation,” Xinhua, November 11, 2016,
http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-11/16/c_137611764.htm.

86.Lucinda Shen, “After Soft Bank Investment, Uber Is No Longer World’s Most Valuable
Unicorn,” Fortune, January 20, 2018, http://fortune.com/2018/01/19/uber-softbank-didi-
worth-most-valuable-startup.

87.Company Info, Uber, https://www.uber.com/newsroom/company-info.

88.Jane Zhang, “Didi By the Numbers,” South China Morning Post, January 23, 2019,
https://www.scmp.com/tech/start-ups/article/2181542/didi-numbers-ride-hailing-firm-
covered-more-miles-2018-5-earth.

89.Masha Borak, “Alibaba’s AutoNavi Launches Ride Hailing Service in Bid to Become a Mobility
Mega Platform,” Technode, July 11, 2018, https://technode.com/2018/07/11/alibaba-autonavi-
amap-ride-hailing.

90.Yingzhi Yang, “Meituan Dianping to Halt Ride Hailing Expansion in China Amid Crisis at
Industry Leader Didi,” South China Morning Post, September 6, 2018,
https://www.scmp.com/tech/enterprises/article/2162926/meituan-dianping-halt-ride-hailing-
expansion-china-amid-crisis.

91.Bernard Marr, “AI in China: How Uber Rival Didi Chuxing Uses Machine Learning to
Revolutionize Transportation,” Forbes, November 26, 2018,
https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2018/11/26/ai-in-china-how-uber-rival-didi-
chuxing-uses-machine-learning-to-revolutionize-transportation/#78911ad06732.

92.Josh Horwitz, “This Ride Hailing Giant’s Global Expansion Playbook Is the Opposite of
Uber’s,” Quartz, February 9, 2018, https://qz.com/1203151/didis-global-expansion-playbook-is-
the-opposite-of-ubers.

93.Sara O’Brien, “Uber Says It Lost 1.8 Billion in 2018,” CNN Business, February 15, 2019,
https://www.cnn.com/2019/02/15/tech/uber-2018-financial-report/index.html.

94.Julia Love, “Uber Says It Has Invested 500 Million in Mexico Since 2013,” Reuters, July 18,
2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mexico-uber/uber-says-it-has-invested-500-million-
in-mexico-since-2013-idUSKBN1K80AJ.

95.Julia Love and Heather Somerville, “How China’s Ride Hailing Giant Didi Plans to Challenge
Uber in Mexico,” Reuters, March 19, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-uber-didi-
mexico/how-chinas-ride-hailing-giant-didi-plans-to-challenge-uber-in-mexico-idUSKBN1GV0E0.

96.Ibid.

97.Ibid.

International
Management
Culture, Strategy, and Behavior
Fred Luthans | Jonathan P. Doh
T
E
N
T
H
E
D
IT
IO
N

International Management
Culture, Strategy, and Behavior
Tenth Edition
Jonathan P. Doh
Villanova University
Fred Luthans
University of Nebraska–Lincoln

INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT: CULTURE, STRATEGY, AND BEHAVIOR, TENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2018 by McGraw-
Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2015,
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Names: Luthans, Fred, author. | Doh, Jonathan P., author.
Title: International management : culture, strategy, and behavior / Fred
Luthans, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Jonathan P. Doh, Villanova
University.
Description: Tenth Edition. | Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Education, [2018] |
Revised edition of the authors’ International management, [2015]
Identifiers: LCCN 2016055609| ISBN 9781259705076 (alk. paper) | ISBN
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Subjects: LCSH: International business enterprises—Management. |
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does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education
does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
mheducation.com/highered

iii
Dedicated in Memory of
Rafael Lucea,
A Passionate Advocate for Global Business Education and Experience.

v
Preface
C hanges in the global business environment continue unabated and at an accelerated pace. Many surprising and difficult-to-predict developments have rocked global
peace and economic security. Terrorism, mass migration, the United Kingdom’s exit from
the European Union, and the rise of anti-immigration political movements in Europe, the
United States, and elsewhere have called into question assumptions about the direction
of the global political economy. In addition, rapid advances in social media have not only
accelerated globalization but also provided a means for those who seek political and
economic changes to organize and influence their leaders for more responsible gover-
nance, or, in some cases, advance a more narrow ideological agenda (see opening articles
in Chapters 1 and 2). In addition, concerns about climate change and other environmen-
tal issues have prompted companies, in conjunction with governments and nongovern-
mental organizations, to consider alternate approaches to business and governance (see
Chapter 3 opening article).
Some of these developments have challenged longstanding beliefs about the power
and benefits of globalization and economic integration, but they also underscore the
interconnected nature of global economies. Although many countries and regions around
the world are closely linked, important differences in institutional and cultural environ-
ments persist, and some of these differences have become even more pronounced in
recent years. The challenges for international management reflect this dynamism and the
increasing unpredictability of global economic and political events. Continued growth of
the emerging markets is reshaping the global balance of economic power, even though
differences exist between and among regions and countries. Although many emerging
markets continued to experience growth during a period when developed countries’
economies stagnated or declined, others, like Russia and Brazil, have faced major set-
backs. Further, some developed economies, such as Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal,
continue to face formidable challenges that stem from the European debt crisis that began
in 2009. Low or negative interest rates reflect a “new normal” of slower-than-average
growth among many global economies.
The global political and security environment remains unpredictable and volatile,
with ongoing conflicts in the Middle East and Africa and continuing tensions in Iran,
North Korea, Iraq, and Afghanistan and elsewhere. Another crisis stemming from con-
flict in Syria and elsewhere has resulted in mass migration—and broad dislocations—
across North Africa and Southern, even Northern, Europe (see Chapters 1 and 2 for
further discussion). On the economic front, the global trade and integration agenda seems
stalled, largely due to domestic political pressures in Europe and North America. Although
the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a proposed free-trade agreement including 12 coun-
tries in the Americas and Asia, was concluded, its ratification in the United States is
uncertain. Similarly, the fate of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, which
was still under negotiation at the time of this writing, is also unclear.  
As noted above, the advent of social networking has transformed the way citizens
interact; how businesses market, promote, and distribute their products globally; and how
civil society expresses its concerns that governments provide greater freedoms and
accountability. Concurrently, companies, individuals, and even students can now engage
in broad “mass” collaboration through digital, online technology for the development of
new and innovative systems, products, and ideas. Both social networking and mass col-
laboration bring new power and influence to individuals across borders and transform

vi Preface
the nature of their relationships with global organizations. Although globalization and
technology continue to link nations, businesses, and individuals, these linkages also high-
light the importance of understanding different cultures, national systems, and corporate
management practices around the world. The world is now interconnected geographically,
but also electronically and psychologically; as such, nearly all businesses have been
touched in some way by globalization. Yet, as cultural, political, and economic differ-
ences persist, astute international managers must be in a position to adapt and adjust to
the vagaries of different contexts and environments.
In this new tenth edition of International Management, we have retained the
strong and effective foundations gained from research and practice over the past
decades while incorporating the important latest research and contemporary insights
that have changed the context and environment for international management. Several
trends have emerged that pose both challenges and opportunities for international
managers.
First, more nationalistically oriented governments and/or political movements
have emerged in many regions of the world, challenging previous assumptions about
the benefits and inevitability of globalization and integration. Second, while emerging
markets continue to rise in importance, some—such as China and India—have fared
much better economically than others—such as Brazil and Russia. Third, aging popu-
lations and concerns about migration have challenged many developed country govern-
ments as they wrestle with these dual pressures. Fourth, social media and other forms
of electronic connectivity continue to facilitate international business of all sorts; how-
ever, these connection go only so far, with many barriers and limitations imposed by
governments. 
Although we have extensive new, evidence-based material in this edition, we
continue to strive to make the book even more user-friendly and applicable to prac-
tice. We continue to take a balanced approach in the tenth edition of International
Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior. Whereas other texts stress culture,
strategy, or behavior, our emphasis on all three critical dimensions—and the interac-
tions among them—has been a primary reason why the previous editions have been
the market-leading international management text. Specifically, this edition has the
following chapter distribution: environment (three chapters), culture (four chapters),
strategy (four chapters), and organizational behavior/human resource management
(three chapters). Because the context of international management changes rapidly,
all the chapters have been updated and improved. New real-world examples and
research results are integrated throughout the book, accentuating the experiential
relevance of the straightforward content. As always, we emphasize a balance of
research and application.
For the new tenth edition we have incorporated important new content in the areas
of the emergence and role of social media as a means of transacting business and mobi-
lizing social movements, the global pressures around migration, the role of the “sharing”
economy as represented by companies such as Uber, and other important global themes.
We have incorporated the latest research and practical insights on pressure for MNCs to
adopt more sustainable practices, and the strategies many companies are using to dif-
ferentiate their products through such “green” management practices. We have updated
discussion of a range of contemporary topics, including continued exploration of the role
of the comprehensive GLOBE study on cross-cultural leadership.
A continuing and relevant end-of-chapter feature in this edition is the “Internet
Exercise.” The purpose of each exercise is to encourage students to use the Internet
to find information from the websites of prominent MNCs to answer relevant ques-
tions about the chapter topic. An end-of-book feature is a series of Skill-Building and
Experiential Exercises for aspiring international managers. These in-class exercises
represent the various parts of the text (culture, strategy, and behavior) and provide
hands-on experience.

Preface vii
We have extended from the ninth edition of International Management the chap-
ter-opening discussions called “The World of International Management” (WIM),
based on very recent, relevant news stories to grab readers’ interest and attention. Many
of these opening articles are new to this edition and all have been updated. These
timely opening discussions transition the reader into the chapter topic. At the end of
each chapter, there is a pedagogical feature that revisits the chapter’s subject matter:
“The World of International Management—Revisited.” Here we pose several discussion
questions based on the topic of the opening feature in light of the student’s entire
reading of the chapter. Answering these questions requires readers to reconsider and
to draw from the chapter material. Suggested answers to these “WIM—Revisited”
discussion questions appear in the completely updated Instructor’s Manual, where we
also provide some multiple-choice and true-false questions that draw directly from the
chapters’ World of International Management topic matter for instructors who want to
include this material in their tests.
The use and application of cases are further enhanced in this edition. All cases
have been updated and several new ones have been added. The short within-chapter
country case illustrations—“In the International Spotlight”—can be read and dis-
cussed in class. These have all been revised and three have been added—Cuba, Greece,
and Nigeria. In addition, we have added an additional exercise, “You Be the Interna-
tional Management Consultant,” that presents a challenge or dilemma facing a com-
pany in the subject country of the “Spotlight.” Students are invited to respond to a
question related to this challenge. The revised or newly added “Integrative Cases”
positioned at the end of each main part of the text were created exclusively for this
edition and provide opportunities for reading and analysis outside of class. Review
questions provided for each case are intended to facilitate lively and productive writ-
ten analysis or in-class discussion. Our “Brief Integrative Cases” typically explore a
specific situation or challenge facing an individual or team. Our longer and more
detailed “In-Depth Integrative Cases” provide a broader discussion of the challenges
facing a company. These two formats allow maximum flexibility so that instructors
can use the cases in a tailored and customized fashion. Accompanying many of the
in-depth cases are short exercises that can be used in class to reinforce both the sub-
stantive topic and students’ skills in negotiation, presentation, and analysis. The cases
have been extensively updated and several are new to this edition. Cases concerning
the controversies over drug pricing, TOMS shoes, Russell Athletics/Fruit of the Loom,
Euro Disneyland and Disney Asia, Google in China, IKEA, HSBC, Nike, Walmart,
Tata, Danone, Chiquita, Coca-Cola, and others are unique to this book and specific
to this edition. Of course, instructors also have access to Create (www.mcgraw-hill-
create.com), McGraw-Hill’s extensive content database, which includes thousands of
cases from major sources such as Harvard Business School, Ivey, Darden, and NACRA
case databases.
Along with the new or updated “International Management in Action” boxed appli-
cation examples within each chapter and other pedagogical features at the end of each
chapter (i.e., “Key Terms,” “Review and Discussion Questions,” “The World of Interna-
tional Management—Revisited,” and “Internet Exercise”), the end-of-part brief and in-
depth cases and the end-of-book skill-building exercises and simulations in the Connect
resources complete the package.
International Management is generally recognized to be the first “mainstream”
text of its kind. Strategy casebooks and specialized books in organizational behavior,
human resources, and, of course, international business, finance, marketing, and eco-
nomics preceded it, but there were no international management texts before this
one, and it remains the market leader. We have had sustainability because of the
effort and care put into the revisions. We hope you agree that this tenth edition
continues the tradition and remains the “world-class” text for the study of interna-
tional management.

viii Preface
McGraw-Hill Connect®: connect.mheducation.com
Continually evolving, McGraw-Hill Connect® has been redesigned to provide the only
true adaptive learning experience delivered within a simple and easy-to-navigate environ-
ment, placing students at the very center.
∙ Performance Analytics—Now available for both instructors and students,
easy-to-decipher data illuminate course performance. Students always know
how they’re doing in class, while instructors can view student and section
performance at a glance.
∙ Personalized Learning—Squeezing the most out of study time, the adaptive
engine within Connect creates a highly personalized learning path for each
student by identifying areas of weakness and providing learning resources to
assist in the moment of need.
This seamless integration of reading, practice, and assessment ensures that the focus is
on the most important content for that individual.
Instructor Library The Connect Management Instructor Library is your repository
for additional resources to improve student engagement in and out of class. You can
select and use any asset that enhances your lecture.
To help instructors teach international management, this text is accompanied by a
revised and expanded Instructor’s Resource Manual, Test Bank, and PowerPoint slides,
all of which are in  the  Connect  Library.
Acknowledgments
We would like to acknowledge those who have helped to make this book a reality. We
will never forget the legacy of international management education in general and for this
text in particular provided by our departed colleague Richard M. Hodgetts. Special thanks
also go to our growing number of colleagues throughout the world who have given us
many ideas and inspired us to think internationally. Closer to home, Jonathan Doh would
like to thank the Villanova School of Business and its leadership, especially Provost Pat
Maggitti, Interim Dean Daniel Wright, Dean Joyce Russell, Interim Vice Dean Wen Mao,
and Herb Rammrath, who generously endowed the Chair in International Business
Jonathan now holds. Also, for this new tenth edition we would like to thank Ben Littell,
who did comprehensive research, graphical design, and writing to update chapter material
and cases. Specifically, Ben researched and drafted chapter opening World of International
Management features, developed a number of original graphics, and provided extensive
research assistance for other revisions to the book. Allison Meade researched and drafted
the Chapter 4 World of International Management feature on “Culture Clashes in Cross-
Border Mergers and Acquisitions.” Fred Luthans would like to give special recognition
to two international management scholars: Henry H. Albers, former Chair of the Manage-
ment Department at the University of Nebraska and former Dean at the University of
Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia, to whom previous editions of this book were
dedicated; and Sang M. Lee, former Chair of the Management Department at Nebraska,
founding and current president of the Pan Pacific Business Association, and close col-
league on many ventures around the world over the past 30 years. 
In addition, we would like to acknowledge the help that we received from the many
reviewers from around the globe, whose feedback guided us in preparing the tenth edition
of the text. These include
Joseph S. Anderson,  Northern Arizona
University
Chi Anyansi-Archibong,  North Carolina
A&T State University
Koren Borges,  University of North
Florida
Lauryn De George,  University of Central
Florida
Jae Jung, University of Missouri at Kansas
City
Manjula S. Salimath,  University of North
Texas

Preface ix
Thomas M. Abbott, Post University
Yohannan T. Abraham, Southwest Missouri State
University
Janet S. Adams, Kennesaw State University
Irfan Ahmed, Sam Houston State University
Chi Anyansi-Archibong, North Carolina A&T State
University
Kibok Baik, James Madison University
R. B. Barton, Murray State University
Lawrence A. Beer, Arizona State University
Koren Borges, University of North Florida
Tope A. Bello, East Carolina University
Mauritz Blonder, Hofstra University
Gunther S. Boroschek, University of Massachusetts–Boston
Charles M. Byles, Virginia Commonwealth University
Constance Campbell, Georgia Southern University
Scott Kenneth Campbell, Georgia College & State
University
M. Suzanne Clinton, University of Central Oklahoma
Helen Deresky, SUNY Plattsburgh
Dr. Dharma deSilva, Center for International Business
Advancement (CIBA)
David Elloy, Gonzaga University
Val Finnigan, Leeds Metropolitan University
David M. Flynn, Hofstra University
Jan Flynn, Georgia College and State University
Joseph Richard Goldman, University of Minnesota
James Gran, Buena Vista University
Robert T. Green, University of Texas at Austin
Annette Gunter, University of Central Oklahoma
Jerry Haar, Florida International University–Miami
Jean M. Hanebury, Salisbury State University
Richard C. Hoffman, Salisbury State University
Johan Hough, University of South Africa
Julie Huang, Rio Hondo College
Mohd Nazari Ismail, University of Malaya
Steve Jenner, California State University–Dominguez Hills
James P. Johnson, Rollins College
Marjorie Jones, Nova Southeastern University
Jae C. Jung, University of Missouri–Kansas City
Ann Langlois, Palm Beach Atlantic University
Robert Kuhne, Hofstra University
Christine Lentz, Rider University
Ben Lever III, College of Charleston
Robert C. Maddox, University of Tennessee
Curtis Matherne III, East Tennessee State University
Douglas M. McCabe, Georgetown University
Jeanne M. McNett, Assumption College
Lauryn Migenes, University of Central Florida
Alan N. Miller, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Ray Montagno, Ball State University
Rebecca J. Morris, University of Nebraska–Omaha
Ernst W. Neuland, University of Pretoria
William Newburry, Rutgers Business School
Yongsun Paik, Loyola Marymount University
Valerie S. Perotti, Rochester Institute of Technology
Richard B. Peterson, University of Washington
Suzanne J. Peterson, University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Joseph A. Petrick, Wright State University
Juan F. Ramirez, Nova Southeastern University
Richard David Ramsey, Southeastern Louisiana University
Owen Sevier, University of Central Oklahoma
Mansour Sharif-Zadeh, California State Polytechnic
University–Pomona
Emeric Solymossy, Western Illinois University.
Jane H. Standford, Texas A&M University–Kingsville
Dale V. Steinmann, San Francisco State University
Randall Stross, San Jose State University
George Sutija, Florida International University
Deanna Teel, Houston Community College
David Turnipseed, University of South Alabama–Mobile
Katheryn H. Ward, Chicago State University
Li Weixing, University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Aimee Wheaton, Regis College
Marion M. White, James Madison University
Timothy Wilkinson, University of Akron
George Yacus, Old Dominion University
Corinne Young, University of Tampa
Zhe Zhang, University of Central Florida–Orlando
Anatoly Zhuplev, Loyola Marymount University
Our thanks, too, to the reviewers of previous editions of the text:
Finally, thanks to the team at McGraw-Hill who worked on this book: Susan Gouijnstook,
Managing Director; Anke Weekes, Executive Brand Manager; Laura Hurst Spell, Senior
Product Developer; Erin Guendelsberger, Development Editor; Michael Gedatus, Market-
ing Manager; and Danielle Clement, Content Project Manager. Last but by no means
least, we greatly appreciate the love and support provided by our families.
Fred Luthans and Jonathan P. Doh

New and Enhanced Themes
∙ Thoroughly revised and updated chapters to reflect the most
critical issues for international managers.
∙ Greater attention to demographic trends and human mobility,
underscoring the importance of aging work forces, migration,
culture, and global talent management.
∙ Focus on global sustainability and sustainable management
practices and their impact on international management.
∙ New or revised opening World of International Management
(WIM) features written by the authors on current international
management challenges; these mini-cases were prepared
expressly for this edition and are not available elsewhere.
∙ Discussions of the rise of global terrorism, the migrant crisis,
the growing role of social media in international transactions,
and many other contemporary topics presented in the opening
chapter and throughout the book.
∙ New and updated discussions of major issues in global ethics,
sustainability, and insights from project GLOBE and other
cutting-edge research.
∙ Greater emphasis on major emerging regions, economic challenges
in major countries such as Brazil and Russia, and specific case
illustrations on how companies are managing these challenges.
Thoroughly Revised and Updated Chapter Content
∙ New or revised opening WIM discussions on topics including
the global influences of social media using the case of Snap-
chat; the role of social networking in political change in the
Middle East; sustainability as a  global competitive advantage
using examples of Patagonia, Tesla, and Nestlé; and cultural
challenges in global mergers and acquisitions. Others address
the competitive dynamics between Apple and Xiaomi and
Amazon and Alibaba, the emergence of Haier as the largest
global appliance company, Netflix’s challenges in China and
Russia, and many others. These features were written expressly
for this edition and are not available elsewhere.
∙ Updated and strengthened emphasis on ethics, social
responsibility, and sustainability.
∙ Extensive coverage of Project GLOBE, its relationship to other
cultural frameworks, and its application to international man-
agement practice (Chapters 4, 13).
∙ Revised or new “In the International Spotlight” inserts that
profile the key economic and political issues relevant to
managers in specific countries.
∙ Greater coverage of the challenges and opportunities for inter-
national strategy targeted to the developing “base of the
pyramid” economies (Chapter 8 and Tata cases).
x
Luthans Doh
The tenth
edition of International
Management: Culture,
Strategy, and Behavior
is still setting the
standard. Authors
Jonathan Doh and
Fred Luthans have
taken care to retain
the effective
foundation gained
from research and
practice over the past
decades. At the same
time, they have fully
incorporated important
new and emerging
developments that
have changed what
international managers
are currently facing
and likely to face in
the coming years.

xi
Thoroughly Updated and/or New Cases,
Inserts, and Exercises
∙ Completely new “In the International Spotlight” country profiles at
the end of every chapter including the addition of profiles on Cuba,
Greece, and Nigeria.
∙ “You Be the International Management Consultant” exercises pre-
senting an actual company’s challenge in that country and inviting
students to recommend a course of action.  
∙ New “International Management in Action” features, including
discussions on timely topics such as the rise of Bitcoin, the
Volkswagen emissions scandal, and the political risks facing Uber,
to name a few.
∙ Thoroughly updated cases (not available elsewhere): TOMS shoes,
Russell Athletics/Fruit of the Loom, Euro Disneyland and Disney
Asia, Google in China, IKEA, HSBC, Nike, Walmart, Tata, Danone,
Chiquita, Coca-Cola, and others are unique to this book and specific
to this edition.
∙ Brand new end-of-part cases developed exclusively for this edition
(not available elsewhere): TOMS Puts Its Right Foot Forward;  The
Ethics of Global Drug Pricing.
∙ Brand new “World of International Management” chapter opening
discussions, including topics such as Netflix’s expansion to emerg-
ing markets, the merger of ABInBev and SABMiller, the battle
brewing between Apple’s iPhone and Chinese cell phone startups,
the impact of Russian sanctions on international businesses, and the
growth of Chinese brand Haier, to name a few.
∙ New and revised graphics throughout.
∙ Timely updates throughout, based on the latest research, including
an extended discussion of the GLOBE project, the continued impact
of global terrorism on international business, and the push towards a
sustainable future, to name a few.
Totally Revised Instructor and Student Support
The following instructor and student support materials can be found in
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and essay. Answers are provided for all test bank questions.
Continues to set the standard. . .

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xii Continues to Set the Standard. . .

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McGraw-Hill Education is a proud corporate member of AACSB International. Under-
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Continues to Set the Standard. . . xiii

About the Authors
JONATHAN P. DOH is the Herbert G. Rammrath Chair in International Business, found-
ing Director of the Center for Global Leadership, and Professor of Management at the
Villanova School of Business, ranked in 2016 as the #1 undergraduate program in the
United States by Bloomberg Businessweek.   He is also an occasional executive educator
for the Wharton School of Business. Jonathan teaches, does research, and serves as an
executive instructor and consultant in the areas of international strategy and corporate
responsibility.   Previously, he was on the faculty of American and Georgetown Universi-
ties and a trade official with the U.S. government. Jonathan is author or co-author of more
than 70 refereed articles published in leading international business and management
journals, more than 30 chapters in scholarly edited volumes, and more than 90 conference
papers. Recent articles have appeared in journals such as Academy of Management Review,
California Management Review, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of
Management, Journal of Management Studies, Journal of World Business, Organization
Science, Sloan Management Review, and Strategic Management Journal. He is co-editor
and contributing author of Globalization and NGOs (Praeger, 2003) and Handbook on
Responsible Leadership and Governance in Global Business (Elgar, 2005) and co-author
of the previous edition of International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior (9th
ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2015), the best-selling international management text. His current
research focus is on strategy for and in emerging markets, global corporate responsibility,
and offshore outsourcing of services. His most recent scholarly books are Multinationals
and Development (with Alan Rugman, Yale University Press, 2008), NGOs and Corpora-
tions: Conflict and Collaboration (with Michael Yaziji, Cambridge University Press,
2009) and Aligning for Advantage: Competitive Strategy for the Social and Political Arenas
(with Tom Lawton and Tazeeb Rajwani, Oxford University Press, 2014). He has been an
associate, consulting, or senior editor for numerous journals, and is currently the editor-
in-chief of Journal of World Business. Jonathan has also developed more than a dozen
original cases and simulations published in books, journals, and case databases and used
at many leading global universities. He has been a consultant or executive instructor for
ABB, Anglo American, Bodycote, Bosch, China Minsheng Bank, Hana Financial, HSBC,
Ingersoll Rand, Medtronic, Shanghai Municipal Government, Siam Cement, the World
Economic Forum, among others. He is an external adviser to the Global Energy Resource
Group of Deloitte Touche. Jonathan is part of the Executive Committee of the Academy
of Management Organizations and Natural Environment Division,  a role that culminated
in service as chair of the division in 2016. He was ranked among the top 15 most prolific
international business scholars in the world for the period 2001–2009 (Lahiri and Kumar,
2012) and in 2015 was elected a fellow of the Academy of International Business. He
is a frequent keynote speaker to academic and professional groups in Europe, Asia, and
Latin America. He holds a PhD in strategic and international management from George
Washington University.
FRED LUTHANS is University and the George Holmes Distinguished Professor of Man-
agement, Emeritus  at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. He is also  a Senior Research
Scientist  for HUMANeX  Ventures  Inc.  He received his BA, MBA, and PhD from the
University of Iowa, where he received the Distinguished Alumni Award in 2002. While
serving as an officer in the U.S. Army from 1965–1967, he taught leadership at the U.S.
Military Academy at West Point. He has been a visiting scholar at a number of colleges
and universities and has lectured in  numerous  European and Pacific Rim countries. He
© Villanova University, John Shetron
Courtesy of University of Nebraska-
Lincoln College of Business
Administration
xiv

About the Authors xv
has taught international management as a visiting faculty member at the universities
of Bangkok, Hawaii, Henley in England, Norwegian Management School, Monash in
Australia, Macau, Chemnitz in Germany, and Tirana in Albania. A past president of the
Academy of Management, in 1997 he received the Academy’s Distinguished Educator
Award. In 2000 he became an inaugural member of the Academy’s Hall of Fame for
being one of the “Top Five” all-time published authors in the prestigious Academy
journals.  For many years he was co-editor-in-chief of the  Journal of World Busi-
ness  and  editor of  Organizational  Dynamics  and is currently  co-editor of  Journal of
Leadership and Organizational Studies. The author of numerous books, his seminal Orga-
nizational Behavior  is now in its 13th edition and the  2007 groundbreaking book  Psy-
chological Capital  (Oxford University Press) with Carolyn Youssef and Bruce
Avolio  came out in a new version in 2015.  He is one of very few management scholars
who is a Fellow of the Academy of Management, the Decision Sciences Institute, and
the Pan Pacific Business Association. He received the Global Leadership Award from
the Pan Pacific Association and  has been a member of its Executive Committee since it
was founded  over  30 years ago.  This committee helps to organize the annual meeting
held in Pacific Rim countries. He has been involved with some of the first empirical
studies on motivation and behavioral management techniques and the analysis of mana-
gerial activities in Russia; these articles  were  published in the  Academy of Management
Journal,  Journal of International Business Studies,  Journal of World Business,  and
European Management Journal. Since the very beginning of the transition to market
economies after the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, he has been actively involved
in management education programs sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International
Development in Albania and Macedonia, and in U.S. Information Agency programs
involving the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Profes-
sor Luthans’s recent international research involves his construct of positive psychologi-
cal capital (PsyCap).  For example, he and colleagues have published their research
demonstrating the impact of Chinese workers’ PsyCap on their performance in the Inter-
national Journal of Human Resource Management  and  Management and Organization
Review. He is applying his positive approach to positive organizational behavior (POB),
PsyCap, and authentic leadership to effective global management and has   been the
keynote at programs in China (numerous times), Malaysia, South Korea, Indonesia, Phil-
ippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, Costa Rica, Mexico, Chile, Fiji, Germany,
France, England, Spain, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Netherlands, Italy, Russia, Macedonia,
Albania, Morocco,  South Africa,  New Zealand, and Australia.

Environmental Foundation
1 Globalization and International Linkages 2
2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 44
3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 74
Brief Integrative Case 1.1: Advertising or Free Speech?
The Case of Nike and Human Rights 99
Brief Integrative Case 1.2: TOMS Puts Its Right Foot Forward 102
In-Depth Integrative Case 1.1: Student Advocacy and
“Sweatshop” Labor: The Case of Russell Athletic 107
In-Depth Integrative Case 1.2: The Ethics of Global Drug
Pricing 113
The Role of Culture
4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 122
5 Managing Across Cultures 156
6 Organizational Cultures and Diversity 182
7 Cross-Cultural Communication and Negotiation 208
Brief Integrative Case 2.1: Coca-Cola in India 248
Brief Integrative Case 2.2: Danone’s Wrangle with Wahaha 255
In-Depth Integrative Case 2.1a: Euro Disneyland 262
In-Depth Integrative Case 2.1b: Disney in Asia 273
In-Depth Integrative Case 2.2: Walmart’s Global Strategies 279
International Strategic Management
8 Strategy Formulation and Implementation 290
9 Entry Strategies and Organizational Structures 328
10 Managing Political Risk, Government Relations, and
Alliances 360
11 Management Decision and Control 388
Brief Integrative Case 3.1: Google in China: Protecting
Property and Rights 415
In-Depth Integrative Case 3.1: Tata “Nano”:
The People’s Car 421
Part Two
Part Three
Brief Contents
Part One
xvi

Brief Contents xvii
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
12 Motivation Across Cultures 432
13 Leadership Across Cultures 468
14 Human Resource Selection and Development Across Cultures 508
Brief Integrative Case 4.1: IKEA’s Global Renovations 555
In-Depth Integrative Case 4.1: HSBC in China 563
In-Depth Integrative Case 4.2: Chiquita’s Global Turnaround 575
Skill-Building and Experiential Exercises 583
Glossary 599
Indexes 605
Part Four

Environmental Foundation
1 Globalization and International Linkages 2
The World of International Management: An Interconnected World 2
Introduction 5
Globalization and Internationalization 7
Globalization, Antiglobalization, and Global Pressures for Change 7
Global and Regional Integration 10
Changing Global Demographics 14
The Shifting Balance of Economic Power in the Global Economy 15
Global Economic Systems 22
Market Economy 22
Command Economy 23
Mixed Economy 23
Economic Performance and Issues of Major Regions 23
Established Economies 24
Emerging and Developing Economies 26
Developing Economies on the Verge 30
The World of International Management—Revisited 35
Summary of Key Points 37
Key Terms 37
Review and Discussion Questions 37
Answers to the In-Chapter Quiz 38
Internet Exercise: Global Competition in Fast Food 38
Endnotes 38
In the International Spotlight: India 42
2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 44
The World of International Management: Social Media and
Political Change 44
Political Environment 46
Ideologies 47
Political Systems 50
Legal and Regulatory Environment 52
Basic Principles of International Law 53
Examples of Legal and Regulatory Issues 54
Table of Contents
Part One
xviii

Table of Contents xix
Privatization 57
Regulation of Trade and Investment 60
Technological Environment and Global Shifts in Production 60
Trends in Technology, Communication, and Innovation 60
Biotechnology 62
E-Business 63
Telecommunications 64
Technological Advancements, Outsourcing, and Offshoring 65
The World of International Management—Revisited 67
Summary of Key Points 68
Key Terms 68
Review and Discussion Questions 69
Internet Exercise: Hitachi Goes Worldwide 69
Endnotes 69
In the International Spotlight: Greece 73
3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 74
The World of International Management: Sustaining
Sustainable Companies 74
Ethics and Social Responsibility 77
Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Management 77
Ethics Theories and Philosophy 77
Human Rights 79
Labor, Employment, and Business Practices 80
Environmental Protection and Development 81
Globalization and Ethical Obligations of MNCs 83
Reconciling Ethical Differences across Cultures 85
Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability 85
Corporate Governance 89
Corruption 90
International Assistance 92
The World of International Management—Revisited 93
Summary of Key points 94
Key Terms 94
Review and Discussion Questions 94
Endnotes 94
In the International Spotlight: Cuba 98
Brief Integrative Case 1.1: Advertising or Free Speech? The Case
of Nike and Human Rights 99
Endnotes 101
Brief Integrative Case 1.2: TOMS Puts Its Right Foot Forward 102
Endnotes 105

xx Table of Contents
In-Depth Integrative Case 1.1: Student Advocacy and “Sweatshop” Labor:
The Case of Russell Athletic 107
Endnotes 111
In-Depth Integrative Case 1.2: The Ethics of Global Drug Pricing 113
Endnotes 120
The Role of Culture
4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 122
The World of International Management: Culture Clashes
in Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions 122
The Nature of Culture 124
Cultural Diversity 125
Values in Culture 128
Values in Transition 128
Cultural Dimensions 129
Hofstede 129
Trompenaars 139
Integrating Culture and Management: The GLOBE Project 145
Culture and Management 146
GLOBE’s Cultural Dimensions 146
GLOBE Country Analysis 147
The World of International Management—Revisited 148
Summary of Key Points 150
Key Terms 150
Review and Discussion Questions 151
Internet Exercise: Renault-Nissan in South Africa 151
Endnotes 151
In the International Spotlight: South Africa 154
5 Managing Across Cultures 156
The World of International Management: Taking a Bite Out
of Apple: Corporate Culture and an Unlikely Chinese Start-Up 156
The Strategy for Managing across Cultures 158
Strategic Predispositions 159
Meeting the Challenge 160
Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities 162
Parochialism and Simplification 162
Similarities across Cultures 164
Many Differences across Cultures 165
Cultural Differences in Selected Countries and Regions 168
Using the GLOBE Project to Compare Managerial Differences 169
Managing Culture in Selected Countries and Regions 170
Part Two

Table of Contents xxi
The World of International Management—Revisited 175
Summary of Key Points 176
Key Terms 176
Review and Discussion Questions 176
Internet Exercise: Haier’s Approach 176
Endnotes 177
In the International Spotlight: Poland 180
6 Organizational Cultures and Diversity 182
The World of International Management: Managing Culture
and Diversity in Global Teams 182
The Nature of Organizational Culture 184
Definition and Characteristics 185
Interaction between National and Organizational Cultures 186
Organizational Cultures in MNCs 190
Family Culture 192
Eiffel Tower Culture 192
Guided Missile Culture 193
Incubator Culture 194
Managing Multiculturalism and Diversity 196
Phases of Multicultural Development 196
Types of Multiculturalism 198
Potential Problems Associated with Diversity 199
Advantages of Diversity 200
Building Multicultural Team Effectiveness 201
The World of International Management—Revisited 203
Summary of Key Points 203
Key Terms 204
Review and Discussion Questions 204
Internet Exercise: Lenovo’s International Focus 205
Endnotes 205
In the International Spotlight: Nigeria 207
7 Cross-Cultural Communication and Negotiation 208
The World of International Management: Netflix’s
Negotiations: China and Russia 208
The Overall Communication Process 210
Verbal Communication Styles 210
Interpretation of Communications 213
Communication Flows 214
Downward Communication 214
Upward Communication 215

xxii Table of Contents
Communication Barriers 216
Language Barriers 216
Perceptual Barriers 219
The Impact of Culture 221
Nonverbal Communication 223
Achieving Communication Effectiveness 226
Improve Feedback Systems 226
Provide Language Training 226
Provide Cultural Training 227
Increase Flexibility and Cooperation 229
Managing Cross-Cultural Negotiations 229
Types of Negotiation 229
The Negotiation Process 230
Cultural Differences Affecting Negotiations 231
Negotiation Tactics 234
Negotiating for Mutual Benefit 235
Bargaining Behaviors 237
The World of International Management—Revisited 240
Summary of Key Points 241
Key Terms 241
Review and Discussion Questions 241
Internet Exercise: Working Effectively at Toyota 242
Endnotes 242
In the International Spotlight: China 246
Brief Integrative Case 2.1: Coca-Cola in India 248
Endnotes 253
Brief Integrative Case 2.2: Danone’s Wrangle with Wahaha 255
Endnotes 260
In-Depth Integrative Case 2.1a: Euro Disneyland 262
Endnotes 272
In-Depth Integrative Case 2.1b: Disney in Asia 273
Endnotes 277
In-Depth Integrative Case 2.2: Walmart’s Global Strategies 279
Endnotes 286
International Strategic Management
8 Strategy Formulation and Implementation 290
The World of International Management: GSK’s Prescription
for Global Growth 290
Strategic Management 293
The Growing Need for Strategic Management 294
Benefits of Strategic Planning 295
Part Three

Table of Contents xxiii
Approaches to Formulating and Implementing Strategy 295
Global and Regional Strategies 299
The Basic Steps in Formulating Strategy 302
Environmental Scanning 302
Internal Resource Analysis 304
Goal Setting for Strategy Formulation 304
Strategy Implementation 306
Location Considerations for Implementation 306
Combining Country and Firm-Specific Factors
in International Strategy 308
The Role of the Functional Areas in Implementation 310
Specialized Strategies 311
Strategies for Emerging Markets 311
Entrepreneurial Strategy and New Ventures 317
The World of International Management—Revisited 319
Summary of Key Points 320
Key Terms 320
Review and Discussion Questions 320
Internet Exercise: Infosys’s Global Strategy 321
Endnotes 321
In the International Spotlight: Saudi Arabia 327
9 Entry Strategies and Organizational Structures 328
The World of International Management: Building
a Global Brand: Haier’s Alignment of Strategy
and Structure 328
Entry Strategies and Ownership Structures 329
Export/Import 330
Wholly Owned Subsidiary 330
Mergers/Acquisitions 331
Alliances and Joint Ventures 332
Alliances, Joint Ventures, and M&A: The Case
of the Automotive Industry 333
Licensing 335
Franchising 336
The Organization Challenge 337
Basic Organizational Structures 338
Initial Division Structure 338
International Division Structure 339
Global Structural Arrangements 340
Transnational Network Structures 344

xxiv Table of Contents
Nontraditional Organizational Arrangements 346
Organizational Arrangements from Mergers, Acquisitions,
Joint Ventures, and Alliances 346
The Emergence of the Network Organizational Forms 348
Organizing for Product Integration 349
Organizational Characteristics of MNCs 350
Formalization 350
Specialization 351
Centralization 352
Putting Organizational Characteristics in Perspective 352
The World of International Management—Revisited 354
Summary of Key points 354
Key Terms 355
Review and Discussion Questions 355
Internet Exercise: Organizing for Effectiveness 355
Endnotes 355
In the International Spotlight: Mexico 359
10 Managing Political Risk, Government Relations,
and Alliances 360
The World of International Management: Russian Roulette:
Risks and Political Uncertainty 360
The Nature and Analysis of Political Risk 362
Macro and Micro Analysis of Political Risk 364
Terrorism and Its Overseas Expansion 367
Analyzing the Expropriation Risk 368
Managing Political Risk and Government Relations 368
Developing a Comprehensive Framework or
Quantitative Analysis 368
Techniques for Responding to Political Risk 373
Relative Bargaining Power Analysis 373
Managing Alliances 377
The Alliance Challenge 377
The Role of Host Governments in Alliances 378
Examples of Challenges and Opportunities in Alliance Management 379
The World of International Management—Revisited 381
Summary of Key points 381
Key Terms 382
Review and Discussion Questions 382
Internet Exercise: Nokia in China 382
Endnotes 382
In the International Spotlight: Brazil 386

Table of Contents xxv
11 Management Decision and Control 388
The World of International Management: Global Online Retail:
Amazon v. Alibaba 388
Decision-Making Process and Challenges 390
Factors Affecting Decision-Making Authority 391
Cultural Differences and Comparative Examples
of Decision Making 393
Total Quality Management Decisions 394
Decisions for Attacking the Competition 396
Decision and Control Linkages 397
The Controlling Process 398
Types of Control 399
Approaches to Control 401
Performance Evaluation as a Mechanism of Control 403
Financial Performance 403
Quality Performance 404
Personnel Performance 407
The World of International Management—Revisited 409
Summary of Key Points 410
Key Terms 410
Review and Discussion Questions 410
Internet Exercise: Looking at the Best 411
Endnotes 411
In the International Spotlight: Japan 414
Brief Integrative Case 3.1: Google in China: Protecting
Property and Rights 415
Endnotes 419
In-Depth Integrative Case 3.1: Tata “Nano”: The People’s Car 421
Endnotes 429
Organizational Behavior and Human
Resource Management
12 Motivation Across Cultures 432
The World of International Management: Motivating Employees
in a Multicultural Context: Insights from Emerging Markets 432
The Nature of Motivation 434
The Universalist Assumption 435
The Assumption of Content and Process 436
The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory 436
The Maslow Theory 436
International Findings on Maslow’s Theory 437
Part Four

xxvi Table of Contents
The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation 442
The Herzberg Theory 442
International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory 443
Achievement Motivation Theory 446
The Background of Achievement Motivation Theory 446
International Findings on Achievement Motivation Theory 447
Select Process Theories 449
Equity Theory 449
Goal-Setting Theory 450
Expectancy Theory 451
Motivation Applied: Job Design, Work Centrality,
and Rewards 451
Job Design 451
Sociotechnical Job Designs 453
Work Centrality 454
Reward Systems 458
Incentives and Culture 458
The World of International Management—Revisited 459
Summary of Key Points 460
Key Terms 461
Review and Discussion Questions 461
Internet Exercise: Motivating Potential Employees 462
Endnotes 462
In the International Spotlight: Indonesia 467
13 Leadership Across Cultures 468
The World of International Management: Global Leadership
Development: An Emerging Need 468
Foundation for Leadership 470
The Manager-Leader Paradigm 470
Philosophical Background: Theories X, Y, and Z 472
Leadership Behaviors and Styles 474
The Managerial Grid Performance:
A Japanese Perspective 476
Leadership in the International Context 479
Attitudes of European Managers toward
Leadership Practices 479
Japanese Leadership Approaches 481
Differences between Japanese and U.S.
Leadership Styles 482
Leadership in China 483
Leadership in the Middle East 485

Table of Contents xxvii
Leadership Approaches in India 485
Leadership Approaches in Latin America 486
Recent Findings and Insights about Leadership 487
Transformational, Transactional, and Charismatic Leadership 487
Qualities for Successful Leaders 489
Culture Clusters and Leader Effectiveness 489
Leader Behavior, Leader Effectiveness, and Leading Teams 491
Cross-Cultural Leadership: Insights from the GLOBE Study 493
Positive Organizational Scholarship and Leadership 495
Authentic Leadership 496
Ethical, Responsible, and Servant Leadership 497
Entrepreneurial Leadership and Mindset 500
The World of International Management—Revisited 500
Summary of Key Points 501
Key Terms 502
Review and Discussion Questions 502
Internet Exercise: Taking a Closer Look 502
Endnotes 503
In the International Spotlight: Germany 507
14 Human Resource Selection and Development
Across Cultures 508
The World of International Management: The Challenge
of Talent Retention in India 508
The Importance of International
Human Resources 511
Getting the Employee Perspective 511
Employees as Critical Resources 511
Investing in International Assignments 512
Economic Pressures 512
Sources of Human Resources 513
Home-Country Nationals 513
Host-Country Nationals 514
Third-Country Nationals 514
Subcontracting and Outsourcing 516
Selection Criteria for International Assignments 518
General Criteria 518
Adaptability to Cultural Change 518
Physical and Emotional Health 519
Age, Experience, and Education 520
Language Training 520

xxviii Table of Contents
Motivation for a Foreign Assignment 520
Spouses and Dependents or Work-Family Issues 521
Leadership Ability 522
Other Considerations 523
Economic Pressures and Trends in Expat Assignments 523
International Human Resource Selection Procedures 524
Testing and Interviewing Procedures 524
The Adjustment Process 525
Compensation 526
Common Elements of Compensation Packages 527
Tailoring the Package 530
Individual and Host-Country Viewpoints 531
Candidate Motivations 531
Host-Country Desires 531
Repatriation of Expatriates 533
Reasons for Returning 533
Readjustment Problems 533
Transition Strategies 534
Training in International Management 535
The Impact of Overall Management Philosophy on Training 537
The Impact of Different Learning Styles on Training
and Development 538
Reasons for Training 539
Types of Training Programs 541
Standardized vs. Tailor-Made 541
Cultural Assimilators 544
Positive Organizational Behavior 545
Future Trends 546
The World of International Management—Revisited 546
Summary of Key Points 548
Key Terms 549
Review and Discussion Questions 549
Internet Exercise: Coke Goes Worldwide 549
Endnotes 550
In the International Spotlight: Russia 554
Brief Integrative Case 4.1: IKEA’s Global Renovations 555
Endnotes 562
In-Depth Integrative Case 4.1: HSBC in China 563
Endnotes 574
In-Depth Integrative Case 4.2: Chiquita’s Global Turnaround 575
Endnotes 582

Skill-Building and Experiential Exercises 583
Personal Skill-Building Exercises 584
1. The Culture Quiz 584
2. “When in Bogotá . . .” 589
3. The International Cola Alliances 592
4. Whom to Hire? 596
In-Class Simulations
(Available in  Connect, connect.mheducation.com)
1. “Frankenfoods” or Rice Bowl for the World: The U.S.-EU
Dispute over Trade in Genetically Modified Organisms
2. Cross-Cultural Conflicts in the Corning-Vitro Joint Venture
Glossary 599
Name and Organization Index 605
Subject Index 621
Table of Contents xxix

PART ONE
ENVIRONMENTAL
FOUNDATION

2
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B
JE
C
T
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Chapter 1
GLOBALIZATION AND
INTERNATIONAL LINKAGES
The World of International
Management
An Interconnected World
O nly 23 years old, Evan Spiegel faced a major business decision: whether or not to accept a US$3 billion offer
from Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg for his social media start-up
Snapchat. Taking the deal would make Spiegel one of the
youngest self-made billionaires in history.
Just two years prior, Spiegel was a typical college junior at
Stanford University, living in a fraternity house and working
towards graduation. As a product-design student with a knack
for computers, Spiegel was keenly aware that popular social
media applications, such as Twitter and Facebook, record a
digital “paper trail” of their users. Content uploaded to these
social media sites, such as text, comments, and photos, are
kept indefinitely on servers. For young college graduates try-
ing to enter the workforce, this log of past activity has the
potential to be particularly harmful; employers are often able
to see this information by simply searching for a job appli-
cant’s name online. Spiegel, however, had a clever solution:
create a social networking application that would allow users
to create and share content that “self-destructs” immediately
after viewing. For a school project, Spiegel and co-founder
Bobby Murphy programmed and developed the application,
and the social media application Snapchat was born.1
Around the same time, Facebook executives were actively
looking to expand their product line. Having just survived a
rocky IPO and finally emerging as a profitable enterprise,
Facebook began purchasing several social media applications,
including Instagram and WhatsApp in 2012 and 2014, respec-
tively, for several billion dollars each. By mid-2013, Facebook’s
Mark Zuckerberg had taken notice of the rapidly expanding
Snapchat; to Zuckerberg, the appeal of Snapchat seemed to
align with that of the typical Facebook user. In an attempt to
grab market share from the Snapchat user base, Facebook
first introduced a copycat application, called Poke. Though
heavily promoted, Poke quickly flopped. Snapchat, meanwhile,
continued to grow exponentially. By the beginning of 2014,
Snapchat had over 30 million active users and 400 million
“snaps” were being received daily.2
Sensing defeat, Zuckerberg approached Spiegel with a
lucrative offer: US$3 billion for the application. At that time,
Globalization is one of the most profound forces in our con-
temporary economic environment, although support for free
trade and open borders is not universal. The practical impact
of globalization can be felt on all aspects of society, and effec-
tive management of organizations in an increasingly complex
global environment is crucial for success. In nearly every coun-
try, increasing numbers of large, medium, and even small cor-
porations are engaging in international activities, and a
growing percentage of company revenue is derived from over-
seas markets. Yet, continued economic and political uncertain-
ties in many world regions, the rise of more nationalistic
political movements, and continued concerns about the impact
of immigration have caused some to question the current sys-
tem for regulating and overseeing international trade, invest-
ments, migration, and financial flows. Nonetheless,
international management—the process of applying manage-
ment concepts and techniques in a multinational environment—
continues to retain importance.
Although globalization and international linkages have
been part of history for centuries (see the International Man-
agement in Action box “Tracing the Roots of Modern Globaliza-
tion” later in the chapter), the principal focus of this opening
chapter is to examine the process of globalization in the con-
temporary world. The rapid integration of countries, advances
in information technology, and the explosion in electronic com-
munication have created a new, more integrated world and
true global competition. Yet, the complexities of doing busi-
ness in distinct markets persist. Since the environment of inter-
national management is all-encompassing, this chapter is
mostly concerned with the economic dimensions, while the fol-
lowing two chapters are focused on the political, legal, and
technological dimensions and ethical and social dimensions,
respectively. The specific objectives of this chapter are
1. ASSESS the implications of globalization for countries, in-
dustries, firms, and communities.
2. REVIEW the major trends in global and regional integration.
3. EXAMINE the changing balance of global economic
power and trade and investment flows among countries.
4. ANALYZE the major economic systems and recent devel-
opments among countries that reflect those systems.

3
Instagram
∙ Over 300 million people create content on Insta-
gram every month.
∙ Over 70 percent of Instagram users are from out-
side the United States.
∙ 70 million new photos are uploaded and shared
every day.4
Snapchat
∙ Snapchat reached 100 million active members in
less than four years.5
∙ 60 percent of 13–34 year olds in the United States
are on Snapchat.
∙ More than 5 billion videos are viewed on Snapchat
every day.
∙ Over 60 percent of Snapchat users create and
share original content everyday.6
Certainly, social networks are a part of many people’s lives.
Yet, has the virtual world of social media networks made a
permanent impact in the world of international business?
Social Media Has Changed Global
Business Strategy
General Electric (GE), a company with a long-
standing legacy in multiple industries, and one
of the most recognizable brands on the planet,
has strategically leveraged social media to
improve its long-term image. By interacting daily
with customers across a variety of social net-
works, the 100-year-old company aims to trans-
form the way that its brand is perceived while
simultaneously building a new generation of
consumers. A section of GE’s website, called the
“Social Hub,” serves as a central spot for this
social media activity, compiling its pictures and
videos posted to Facebook, Twitter, and
Google+ into one location online.
Since 2015, GE has strategically leveraged
social media as an advertising tool. Geo-filters,
which are graphic advertisements that Snapchat
users can add to their “snaps” depending on
their geographic location, have been utilized by
GE on multiple occasions. Advertising through
these filters provides GE with an opportunity to
Snapchat had not made a single dollar in revenue. In a contro-
versial and unexpected move, 23-year-old Spiegel gave
Zuckerberg a firm answer: “No.” If Spiegel turned down a
US$3 billion offer for a single application, just how valuable is
social media to the global community?
Social Media Has Changed How We Connect
Though the market value of social media applications, such as
Snapchat, are yet to be determined, one thing is certain: We
currently live in a world interconnected by social media.
Through online networking, the way we connect with others
has drastically changed. The volume of content being created
and shared is staggering, with virtually anyone on the globe
only a few clicks away. In fact, the average number of links
separating any two random people on Facebook is now only
4.74.3 Statistics from some of the most used social networking
applications underscore how social media has connected peo-
ple across the globe:
Facebook
Facebook
900 million users, or about 90% of the daily users, access Facebook through their
mobile devices. Globally, the average user has 338 “friends”:
China India USA
P
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p
u
la
ti
o
n
in
M
ill
io
n
s
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
If Facebook were a country, it would be the largest.
84%
of users are located
outside of the USA &
Canada
16%
Canada
& USA
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh, based on information
from Facebook.com & Smith, Aaron, “6 New Facts About Facebook,” Pew Research Center, February 3,
2014. http://www.pewresearch.org.

4 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
increase brand awareness with a younger, more tech-savvy
generation while simultaneously linking their brand to specific
events and locations. GE’s first Snapchat geo-filter, which
was released for the summer solstice, was shared by nearly
5 million users.7 
Through its “Ecomagination” program, GE utilizes social
media to crowdsource sustainable solutions to current envi-
ronmental issues. A central component of the program is
the Open Innovation Challenges, in which teams work
together to solve a specific problem specified by GE. Intel-
lectual property rights are shared by GE and the partici-
pants, and winners receive funding to co-develop their
ideas with GE scientists.
Social Media Has Changed How We Do
Business Globally
In his book Socialnomics: How Social Media Transforms the
Way We Live and Do Business, Erik Qualman writes, “Social
media platforms like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are fun-
damentally changing the way businesses and consumers
behave, connecting hundreds of millions of people to each
other via instant communication.” In essence, social media is
reshaping how “consumers and companies communicate and
interact with each other.”8
Social media has changed how consumers search for
products and services. Qualman gives the example of a
woman who wants to take a vacation to South America, but
she is not sure which country she wants to visit. In the past,
she would have typed in “South American vacation” to
Google, which would have brought her to travel websites
such as TripAdvisor. After hours of research, she would have
picked a destination. Then, after more research, she would
pick a place to stay. With social media, this woman’s vaca-
tion planning becomes streamlined. When she types “South
American vacation” into a social network, she finds that five
of her friends have taken a trip to South America in the last
year. She notices that two of her friends highly recom-
mended their vacations to Chile with GoAhead Tours. She
clicks on a link to GoAhead Tours and books her vacation. In
a social network, online word of mouth among friends car-
ries great weight for consumers. With the data available
from their friends about products and services, consumers
know what they want without traditional marketing cam-
paigns.9
This trend means that marketers must be responsive to
social networks. For example, an organization that gives travel
tours has a group on Facebook. A marketer at that organiza-
tion could create a Facebook application that allows its group
members to select “places I’d like to visit.” Let’s say that
25 percent of group members who use the application choose
Victoria Falls as a place they would like to visit. The organiza-
tion could develop a tour to Victoria Falls, and then could
send a message to all of its Facebook group members to
notify them about this new tour. In this way, a social network
serves as an inexpensive, effective means of marketing directly
to a business’s target audience.
Social Media Has Impacted International Diplomacy
The United Nations (U.N.) has increasingly embraced social
media as a tool to increase diplomacy and understanding
worldwide. The U.N. maintains official accounts on Facebook,
Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Google+, Tumblr, Instagram, and LinkedIn,
and, as of 2016, boasts over 2 million followers on its primary
Facebook page. As part of its “2015: Time for Global Action”
campaign, the U.N. utilized various social media platforms to
spread its action plan and its new sustainable development
goals worldwide. The hashtag “#action15” was used to link
activities across various networks, while Twitter and Facebook
served as primary platforms for disseminating information to
its global audience (refer to Chapter 3, Table 3-3, for a
further discussion of the U.N.’s 2015 sustainable development
goals).10
In another pioneering move, the U.S. government sent an
unconventional delegation to Moscow that included the cre-
ator of Twitter, the chief executive of eBay, and the actor
Ashton Kutcher. One of the delegation’s goals was “to per-
suade Russia’s thriving online social networks to take up
social causes like fighting corruption or human trafficking,”
according to Jared Cohen, who served on former-Secretary
of State Hillary Clinton’s policy planning staff. In Russia, the
average adult spends 10.4 hours a month on social network-
ing sites, based on comScore market research. This act of
diplomacy by Washington underscores how important social
networks have become in our world today, a world in which
Twitter has helped mobilize people to fight for freedom from
corruption.
Social media networks have accelerated technological
integration among the nations of the world. People across
the globe are now linked more closely than ever before.
This social phenomenon has implications for businesses as
corporations can now leverage networks such as Facebook
to achieve greater success. Understanding the global impact
of social media is key to understanding our global society
today.
Social networks have rapidly diffused from the United
States and Europe to every region of the world, underscor-
ing the inexorable nature of globalization. As individuals
who share interests and preferences link up, they are
afforded opportunities to connect in ways that were unimag-
inable just a decade ago. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and
others are all providing communication platforms for individ-
uals and groups in disparate—and even isolated—locations
around the world. Such networks also offer myriad business
opportunities for companies large and small to identify and
target discrete groups of consumers or other business part-
ners. These networks are revolutionizing the nature of
management—including international management—by
allowing producers and consumers to interact directly

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 5
GE, have gained real advantages by leveraging online net-
works. In this chapter, we examine the globalization phe-
nomenon, the growing integration among countries and
regions, the changing balance of global economic power,
and examples of different economic systems. As you read
this chapter, keep in mind that although there are periodic
setbacks, globalization continues to move at a rapid pace
and that all nations, including the United States, as well as
individual companies and their managers, are going to have
to keep a close watch on the current environment if they
hope to be competitive in the years ahead.
without the usual intermediaries. Networks and the individu-
als who make them up are bringing populations of the world
closer together and further accelerating the already rapid
pace of globalization and integration.
As evidenced by Evan Speigel’s rejection of a US$3 bil-
lion offer for his social networking application Snapchat,
social media is, in many ways, invaluable to the global com-
munity. The pace of interconnectivity across the globe con-
tinues to increase with the new communication tools that
social networking provides. Social media has altered the
way that we interact with each other, and businesses, like
■ Introduction
Management is the process of completing activities with and through other people.
International management is the process of applying management concepts and
techniques in a multinational environment and adapting management practices to dif-
ferent economic, political, and cultural contexts. Many managers practice some level
of international management in today’s increasingly diverse organizations. Interna-
tional management is distinct from other forms of management in that knowledge and
insights about global issues and specific cultures are a requisite for success. Today
more firms than ever are earning some of their revenue from international operations,
even nascent organizations, as illustrated in The World of International Management
chapter opening.
Many of these companies are multinational corporations (MNCs). An MNC is a
firm that has operations in more than one country, international sales, and a mix of
nationalities among managers and owners. In recent years such well-known American
MNCs as Apple, Chevron, Johnson & Johnson, Coca-Cola, Ford Motor Company,
ExxonMobil, Caterpillar, Walmart, Microsoft, and Google have all earned more annual
revenue in the international arena than they have in the United States.  Table 1–1 lists
management
Process of completing
activities efficiently and
effectively with and through
other people.
international management
Process of applying
management concepts and
techniques in a multinational
environment and adapting
management practices to
different economic, political,
and cultural environments.
MNC
A firm having operations in
more than one country,
international sales, and a
nationality mix of managers
and owners.
Table 1–1
The World’s Top Nonfinancial MNCs, Ranked by Foreign Assets, 2015
(in millions of dollars)
Company Home Foreign Total Foreign Total
Rank Name Economy Assets Assets Sales Sales
1 Royal Dutch/Shell Plc United Kingdom $288,283 $340,157 $169,737 $264,960 
2 Toyota Motor Corporation Japan   273,280   422,176 165,195 236,797
3 General Electric United States 257,742 492,692 64,146 117,385
4 Total SA France 236,719 244,856 123,995 159,162
5 British Petroleum Company Plc United Kingdom 216,698   261,832 145,640 222,894
6 Exxon Mobil Corporation United States 193,493 336,758 167,304 259,488
7 Chevron Corporation United States 191,933 266,103 48,183 129,648
8 Volkswagen Group Germany 181,826 416,596 189,817 236,702
9 Vodafone Group Plc United Kingdom   166,967   192,310 52,150 61,466
10 Apple Computer Inc. United States 143,652 290,479 151,983 233,715
Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2016 (June 21, 2016), Annex Table 24, http://unctad.org/en/Pages/DIAE/World%20Investment%20Report/Annex-Tables.aspx.

6 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
the world’s top nonfinancial companies ranked by foreign assets through 2015. General
Electric, headquartered in the United States, for example, now has more than 50% of its
assets located outside of its home market.
In addition, companies from developing economies, such as India, Brazil, and
China, are providing formidable competition to their North American, European, and
Japanese counterparts. Names like Cemex, Embraer, Haier, Lenovo, LG Electronics,
Wipro, Telefonica, Santander, Reliance, Samsung, Grupo Televisa, Airtel, Tata, and
Infosys are becoming well-known global brands. Globalization and the rise of emerg-
ing markets’ MNCs have brought prosperity to many previously underdeveloped parts
of the world, notably the emerging markets of Asia. Since 2009, sales of automobiles
in China have exceeded those in the United States. Boosted by tax breaks, vehicle
sales in China reached a record 24.6 million units in 2015, according to the China
Association of Automobile Manufacturers, far ahead of the 17.5 million cars and
light trucks sold in the U.S.11  Moreover, a number of emerging market auto compa-
nies are becoming global players through their exporting, foreign investment, and
international acquisitions, including the purchase of Volvo by Chinese automaker
Geely and Tata’s acquisition of Jaguar-Land Rover (see the In-Depth Integrative Case
at the end of Part Three).
In a striking move, Cisco Systems, one of the world’s largest producers of network
equipment, such as routers, announced it would establish a “Globalization Center East”
in Bangalore, India. This center includes all the corporate and operational functions of
U.S. headquarters, which have been mirrored in India. Under this plan, which includes
an investment of over $1.1 billion, one-fifth of Cisco’s senior management will move to
Bangalore.12,13
In March 2014, Procter and Gamble celebrated the grand opening of their
Singapore Innovation Center (SgIC), which will function as the primary research and
development center for P&G’s hair, skin, and home care products. According to P&G,
the SgIC will contain more than 250 research laboratories and 500 researchers, focus-
ing on more than 18 different fields of study. The Asian market, with nearly two billion
customers and 25 different brands, is particularly important for P&G’s future growth
plans.14 Similarly, Unilever has opened R&D centers in Bangalore, India, and Shanghai,
China. The Shanghai Center is one of Unilever’s largest R&D buildings, covering some
30,000 square meters and housing more than 450 professionals from 22 nationali-
ties.15  Citing the massive growth in the health care market in Asia, General Electric
moved its X-ray business headquarters to China in 2011, and vice chairman John Rice
relocated to Hong Kong.16,17
Accenture, another American archetype, had about 336,000 employees globally in
2015, with about 237,000 of those employees located outside of the United States. Orig-
inally focused on IT services within the United States, Accenture has quickly transformed
into one of the largest consulting firms worldwide. The company’s operations in India
now employ nearly 150,000 people, twice as many as in the United States.18 With offices
in 200 cities across 55 countries, Accenture has focused on providing services for both
developed and growing markets.19  In 2015, Accenture drew 47 percent of its revenue
from outsourcing.20
These trends reflect the reality that firms are finding they must develop interna-
tional management expertise, especially expertise relevant to the increasingly important
developing and emerging markets of the world. Managers from today’s MNCs must learn
to work effectively with those from many different countries. Moreover, more and more
small and medium-sized businesses will find that they are being affected by internation-
alization. Many of these companies will be doing business abroad, and those that do not
will find themselves doing business with MNCs operating locally. And increasingly, the
MNCs are coming from the developing world as previously domestic-oriented companies
from countries like China and India expand abroad through acquisitions or other
means. Table 1–2 lists the world’s top nonfinancial companies from developing countries
ranked by foreign assets in 2014.

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 7
■ Globalization and Internationalization
International business is not a new phenomenon; however, the volume of international
trade has increased dramatically over the last decade. Today, every nation and an increas-
ing number of companies buy and sell goods in the international marketplace. A number
of developments around the world have helped fuel this activity.
Globalization, Antiglobalization, and Global Pressures for Change
Globalization can be defined as the process of social, political, economic, cultural, and
technological integration among countries around the world. Globalization is distinct
from internationalization in that internationalization is the process of a business crossing
national and cultural borders, while globalization is the vision of creating one world unit,
a single market entity. Evidence of globalization can be seen in increased levels of trade,
capital flows, and migration. Globalization has been facilitated by technological advances
in transnational communications, transport, and travel. Thomas Friedman, in his book
The World Is Flat, identified 10 “flatteners” that have hastened the globalization trend,
including the fall of the Berlin Wall, offshoring, and outsourcing, which have combined
to dramatically intensify the effects of increasing global linkages.21 Hence, in recent
years, globalization has accelerated, creating both opportunities and challenges to global
business and international management.
On the positive side, global trade and investment continue to grow, bringing wealth,
jobs, and technology to many regions around the world. While some emerging countries
have not benefited from globalization and integration, the emergence of MNCs from
developing countries reflects the increasing inclusion of all regions of the world in the
benefits of globalization. Yet, as the pace of global integration quickens, so have the
cries against globalization and the emergence of new concerns over mounting global
pressures.22 These pressures can be seen in protests at the meetings of the World Trade
globalization
The process of social,
political, economic,
cultural, and technological
integration among countries
around the world.
offshoring
The process by which
companies undertake some
activities at offshore
locations instead of in their
countries of origin.
outsourcing
The subcontracting or
contracting out of activities
to endogenous organizations
that had previously been
performed by the firm.
Table 1–2
The World’s Top Nonfinancial TNCs from Developing and Transitioning Economies,
Ranked by Foreign Assets, 2014
(in millions of dollars)
Company Home Foreign Total Foreign Total
Rank Name Economy Assets Assets Sales Sales
1 Hutchison Hong Kong/China $91,055 $113,909 $ 27,043 $ 35,098
Whampoa Limited
2 Hon Hai Precision Taiwan 73,010 77,803 138,023 139,018
Industries
3 China National Offshore China 71,090   182,282 26,084   99,557
Oil Group
4 Samsung Electronics South Korea 56,164   211,205 176,534 196,263
Co., Ltd.
5 Vale SA Brazil   55,448   116,598 31,667 37,608
6 Petronas – Petroliam Malaysia   45,572 153,770   76,726 100,602
Nasional Bhd
7 China Ocean Shipping China   44,805 57,875 18,075 27,483
(Group) Company
8 America Movil SAB De CV Mexico 41,627 86,795 41,547 63,793
9 Lukoil OAO Russian Federation   32,907 111,800 119,932   144,167
10 Tata Motors Ltd. India 30,214 38,235 37,201 43,044
Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2016 (June 21, 2016), Annex Table 25, http://unctad.org/en/Pages/DIAE/World%20Investment%20Report/Annex-Tables.aspx.

International Management in Action
Tracing the Roots of Modern Globalization
Globalization is often presented as a new phenomenon
associated with the post–World War II period. In fact,
globalization is not new. Rather, its roots extend back to
ancient times. Globalization emerged from long-stand-
ing patterns of transcontinental trade that developed
over many centuries. The act of barter is the forerunner
of modern international trade. During different periods
of time, nearly every civilization contributed to the
expansion of trade.
Middle Eastern Intercontinental Trade
In ancient Egypt, the King’s Highway or Royal Road
stretched across the Sinai into Jordan and Syria and into
the Euphrates Valley. These early merchants practiced
their trade following one of the earliest codes of com-
mercial integrity: Do not move the scales, do not change
the weights, and do not diminish parts of the bushel.
Land bridges later extended to the Phoenicians, the first
middlemen of global trade. Over 2,000 years ago, trad-
ers in silk and other rare valued goods moved east out
of the Nile basin to Baghdad and Kashmir and linked
the ancient empires of China, India, Persia, and Rome.
At its height, the Silk Road extended over 4,000 miles,
providing a transcontinental conduit for the dissemina-
tion of art, religion, technology, ideas, and culture. Com-
mercial caravans crossing land routes in Arabian areas
were forced to pay tribute—a forerunner of custom
duties—to those who controlled such territories. In his
youth, the Prophet Muhammad traveled with traders,
and prior to his religious enlightenment the founder of
Islam himself was a trader. Accordingly, the Qur’an
instructs followers to respect private property, business
agreements, and trade.
Trans-Saharan Cross-Continental Trade
Early tribes inhabiting the triad cities of Mauritania, in
ancient West Africa below the Sahara, embraced cara-
van trade with the Berbers of North Africa. Gold from
the sub-Saharan area was exchanged for something
even more prized—salt, a precious substance needed
for retaining body moisture, preserving meat, and fla-
voring food. Single caravans, stretching five miles and
including nearly 2,500 camels, earned their reputation
as ships of the desert as they ferried gold powder,
slaves, ivory, animal hides, and ostrich feathers to the
northeast and returned with salt, wool, gunpowder,
porcelain pottery, silk, dates, millet, wheat, and barley
from the East.
China as an Ancient Global Trading Initiator
In 1421, a fleet of over 3,750 vessels set sail from China
to cultivate trade around the world for the emperor. The
voyage reflected the emperor’s desire to collect tribute
in exchange for trading privileges with China and Chi-
na’s protection. The Chinese, like modern-day multina-
tionals, sought to extend their economic reach while
recognizing principles of economic equity and fair trade.
In the course of their global trading, the Chinese
introduced uniform container measurements to enable
merchants to transact business using common weight
and dimension measurement systems. Like the early
Egyptians and later the Romans, they used coinage as
an intermediary form of value exchange or specie, thus
eliminating complicated barter transactions.
European Trade Imperative
The concept of the alphabet came to the Greeks via
trade with the Phoenicians. During the time of Alexan-
der the Great, transcontinental trade was extended into
Afghanistan and India. With the rise of the Roman
Empire, global trade routes stretched from the Middle
East through central Europe, Gaul, and across the Eng-
lish Channel. In 1215 King John of England signed the
Magna Carta, which stressed the importance of cross-
border trade. By the time of Marco Polo’s writing of The
Description of the World, at the end of the 13th century,
the Silk Road from China to the city-states of Italy was
a well-traveled commercial highway. His tales, chroni-
cled journeys with his merchant uncles, gave Europeans
a taste for the exotic, further stimulating the consumer
appetite that propelled trade and globalization. Around
1340, Francisco Balducci Pegolotti, a Florentine mer-
cantile agent, authored Practica Della Mercatura (Prac-
tice of Marketing), the first widely distributed reference
on international business and a precursor to today’s
textbooks. The search for trading routes contributed to
the Age of Discovery and encouraged Christopher
Columbus to sail west in 1492.
Globalization in U.S. History
The Declaration of Independence, which set out griev-
ances against the English crown upon which a new
nation was founded, cites the desire to “establish Com-
merce” as a chief rationale for establishing an indepen-
dent state. The king of England was admonished “for
cutting off our trade with all parts of the world” in one
of the earliest antiprotectionist free-trade statements
from the New World.
Globalization, begun as trade between and across
territorial borders in ancient times, was historically and
is even today the key driver of world economic develop-
ment. The first paths in the creation of civilization were
made in the footsteps of trade. In fact, the word mean-
ing “footsteps” in the old Anglo-Saxon language is
trada, from which the modern English word trade is
derived. Contemporary globalization is a new branch of
a very old tree whose roots were planted in antiquity.
Source: Thomas Cahill, Sailing the Wine Dark Sea: Why Greeks Matter
(New York: Doubleday, 2003), pp. 10, 56–57; Charles W. L. Hill, Interna-
tional Business, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2003), p. 100;
Nefertiti website, http://nefertiti.iweland.com/trade/internal_trade.htm,
2003 (ancient Egypt: domestic trade); Gavin Menzies, 1421: The Year
China Discovered America (New York: William Morrow/HarperCollins,
2003), pp. 26–27; Milton Viorst, The Great Documents of Western Civi-
lization (New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1994), p. 115 (Magna Carta)
and p. 168 (Declaration of Independence).

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 9
Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and other global bodies and
in the growing calls by developing countries to make the global trading system more
responsive to their economic and social needs. These groups are especially concerned
about rising inequities between incomes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
have become more active in expressing concerns about the potential shortcomings of
economic globalization.23 In addition, candidates in various election campaigns around
the world often find themselves pressured to criticize globalization, including migration
of people, for contributing to lost jobs and general economic insecurity even though these
problems are obviously the result of a range of factors of which globalization is just one. 
Who benefits from globalization? Proponents believe that everyone benefits from
globalization, as evidenced in lower prices, greater availability of goods, better jobs, and
access to technology. Theoretically, individuals in established markets will strive for bet-
ter education and training to be prepared for future positions, while citizens in emerging
markets and underdeveloped countries will reap the benefits of large amounts of capital
flowing into those countries, which will stimulate growth and development. Critics dis-
agree, noting that the high number of jobs moving abroad as a result of the offshoring
of business services jobs to lower-wage countries does not inherently create greater
opportunities at home and that the main winners of globalization are the company exec-
utives. Proponents claim that job losses are a natural consequence of economic and
technological change and that offshoring actually improves the competitiveness of Amer-
ican companies and increases the size of the overall economic pie.24 Critics point out
that growing trade deficits and slow wage growth are damaging economies and that
globalization may be moving too fast for some emerging markets, which could result in
economic collapse. Moreover, critics argue that when production moves to countries to
take advantage of lower labor costs or less regulated environments, it creates a “race to
the bottom” in which companies and countries place downward pressure on wages and
working conditions.25
India is one country at the center of the globalization debate. As noted above, India
has been the beneficiary of significant foreign investment, especially in services such as
software and information technology (IT). Limited clean water, power, paved roadways,
and modern bridges, however, are making it increasingly difficult for companies to
expand. There have even been instances of substantial losses for companies using India
as an offshore base, such as occurred when several automakers, including Ford, Hyundai,
Renault-Nissan, and Daimler, experienced the destruction of inventory and a week-long
production stoppage due to flooding in southern India.26 India’s public debt has declined
to about 65 percent of GDP over the last ten years, increasing macroeconomic stability
and lowering its vulnerability to external risks. Expanding by over 7 percent in 2015,
India has eclipsed China as the fastest-growing large economy.27 It is possible that India
will follow in China’s footsteps and continue rapid growth in incomes and wealth; how-
ever, it is also possible that the challenges India faces are greater than the country’s
capacity to respond to them. See In the International Spotlight at the end of this chapter
for additional insights on India.
This example illustrates just one of the ways in which globalization has raised
particular concerns over environmental and social impacts. According to antiglobaliza-
tion activists, if corporations are free to locate anywhere in the world, the world’s poor-
est countries will relax or eliminate environmental standards and social services in order
to attract first-world investment and the jobs and wealth that come with it. Proponents
of globalization contend that even within the developing world, it is protectionist policies,
not trade and investment liberalization, that result in environmental and social damage.
They believe globalization will force higher-polluting countries such as China and Russia
into an integrated global community that takes responsible measures to protect the
environment. However, given the significant changes required in many developing nations
to support globalization, such as better infrastructure, greater educational opportunities,
and other improvements, most supporters concede that there may be some short-term
disruptions. Over the long term, globalization supporters believe industrialization will

10
A Closer Look
Outsourcing and Offshoring
The concepts of outsourcing and offshoring are not
new, but these practices are growing at an extreme
rate. Offshoring refers to the process by which compa-
nies undertake some activities at offshore locations
instead of in their countries of origin. Outsourcing is
the subcontracting or contracting out of activities to
external organizations that had previously been per-
formed within the firm and is a wholly different phe-
nomenon. Often the two combine to create “offshore
outsourcing.” Offshoring began with manufacturing
operations. Globalization jump-started the extension of
offshore outsourcing of services, including call centers,
R&D, information services, and even legal work. Amer-
ican Express, GE, Sony, and Netflix all use attorneys
from Pangea3, a Mumbai-based legal firm, to review
documents and draft contracts. These companies ben-
efit from the lower costs and higher efficiency that
companies like Pangea3 can provide compared to
domestic legal firms.28  This is a risky venture as legal
practices are not the same across countries, and the
documents may be too sensitive to rely on assembly-
line lawyers. It also raises the question as to whether
or not there are limitations to offshore outsourcing.
Many companies, including Deutsche Bank, spread off-
shore outsourcing opportunities across multiple coun-
tries such as India and Russia for economic or political
reasons. The advantages, concerns, and issues with
offshoring span a variety of subjects. Throughout the
text we will revisit the idea of offshore outsourcing as
it is relevant. Here in Chapter 1 we see how skeptics
of globalization wonder if there are benefits to offshore
outsourcing, while in Chapter 2 we see how these are
related to technology, and, finally, in Chapter 14 we
see how offshore practices affect human resource
management and the global distribution of work.
Sources: Engardio, Pete; Shameen, Assif, “Let’s Offshore the Lawyers,”
BusinessWeek, September 18, 2006, p. 42; Hallett, Tony; McCue,
Andy, “Why Deutsche Bank Spreads Its Outsourcing,” BusinessWeek,
March 15, 2007.
create wealth that will enable new industries to employ more modern, environmentally
friendly technology. We discuss the social and environmental aspects of globalization in
more detail in Chapter 3.
These contending perspectives are unlikely to be resolved anytime soon. Instead,
a vigorous debate among countries, MNCs, and civil society will likely continue and
affect the context in which firms do business internationally. Business firms operating
around the world must be sensitive to different perspectives on the costs and benefits of
globalization and adapt and adjust their strategies and approaches to these differences.
Global and Regional Integration
One important dimension of globalization is the increasing economic integration among
countries brought about by the negotiation and implementation of trade and investment
agreements. Here we provide a brief overview of some of the major developments in
global and regional integration.
Over the past six decades, succeeding rounds of global trade negotiations have
resulted in dramatically reduced tariff and nontariff barriers among countries. Table 1–3
shows the history of these negotiation rounds, their primary focus, and the number of
countries involved. These efforts reached their crest in 1994 with the conclusion of the
Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations under the General Agreement on Tar-
iffs and Trade (GATT) and the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to
oversee the conduct of trade around the world. The WTO is the global organization of
countries that oversees rules and regulations for international trade and investment,
including agriculture, intellectual property, services, competition, and subsidies. Recently,
however, the momentum of global trade agreements has slowed. In December 1999, trade
ministers from around the world met in Seattle to launch a new round of global trade
talks. In what later became known as the “Battle in Seattle,” protesters disrupted the
meeting, and representatives of developing countries who felt their views were being left
out of the discussion succeeded in ending the discussions early and postponing a new
round of trade talks. Two years later, in November 2001, the members of the WTO met
World Trade
Organization (WTO)
The global organization of
countries that oversees rules
and regulations for
international trade and
investment.

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 11
again and successfully launched a new round of negotiations at Doha, Qatar, to be known
as the “Development Round,” reflecting the recognition by members that trade agree-
ments needed to explicitly consider the needs of and impact on developing coun-
tries.29  However, after a lack of consensus among WTO members regarding agricultural
subsidies and the issues of competition and government procurement, progress slowed.
At the most recent meeting, held in Geneva in July 2008, disagreements between the
U.S., China, and India over access to agricultural imports from developing countries
resulted in an impasse after nine days of discussions.30 Failure to reach agreement resulted
in another setback, and although there have been attempts to restart the negotiations, they
have remained stalled, especially in light of rising protectionism in the wake of the global
economic crisis.31
Partly as a result of the slow progress in multilateral trade negotiations, the United
States and many other countries have pursued bilateral and regional trade agreements.
The United States, Canada, and Mexico make up the North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA), which in essence has removed all barriers to trade among these
countries and created a huge North American market. A number of economic develop-
ments have occurred because of this agreement that are designed to promote commerce
in the region. Some of the more important developments include (1) the elimination of
tariffs as well as import and export quotas; (2) the opening of government procurement
markets to companies in the other two nations; (3) an increase in the opportunity to make
investments in each other’s country; (4) an increase in the ease of travel between coun-
tries; and (5) the removal of restrictions on agricultural products, auto parts, and energy
goods. Many of these provisions were implemented gradually. For example, in the case
of Mexico, quotas on Mexican products in the textile and apparel sectors were phased
out over time, and customs duties on all textile products were eliminated over 10 years.
Negotiations between NAFTA members and many Latin American countries, such as
Chile, have concluded, and others are ongoing. Moreover, other regional and bilateral
trade agreements, including the U.S.–Singapore Free Trade Agreement, concluded in
May 2003, and the U.S.–Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), later
renamed CAFTA-DR to reflect the inclusion of the Dominican Republic in the agreement
and concluded in May 2004, were negotiated in the same spirit as NAFTA. The U.S.
Congress approved the CAFTA-DR in July 2005, and the president signed it into law on
North American Free
Trade Agreement
(NAFTA)
A free-trade agreement
between the United States,
Canada, and Mexico that
has removed most barriers
to trade and investment.
Table 1–3
Completed Rounds of the Negotiations under the GATT and WTO
Year Place (name) Subjects Covered Countries
1947 Geneva Tariffs 23
1949 Annecy Tariffs 13
1951 Torquay Tariffs   38
1956 Geneva Tariffs   26
1960–1961 Geneva Tariffs   26
(Dillon Round)
1964–1967 Geneva Tariffs and antidumping   62
(Kennedy Round) measures
1973–1979 Geneva Tariffs, nontariff measures, 102
(Tokyo Round) “framework” agreements
1986–1994 Geneva Tariffs, nontariff measures, 123
(Uruguay Round) services, intellectual property,
dispute settlement, textiles,
agriculture, creation of WTO
Source: Understanding the WTO, 5th ed. (Geneva: World Trade Organization, 2015), https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/
whatis_e/tif_e/understanding_e .

12 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
August 2, 2005. The export zone created will be the United States’ second largest free-
trade zone in Latin America after Mexico. The United States is implementing the
CAFTA-DR on a rolling basis as countries make sufficient progress to complete their
commitments under the agreement. The agreement first entered into force between the
United States and El Salvador on March 1, 2006; followed by Honduras and Nicaragua
on April 1, 2006; Guatemala on July 1, 2006; and the Dominican Republic on March 1,
2007. Implementation by Costa Rica was delayed by concerns over the impact of the
opening of Costa Rica’s energy and telecommunications monopoly, and a subsequent
election and referendum; however, the agreement finally entered into force for Costa Rica
on January 1, 2009.32
Agreements like NAFTA and CAFTA not only reduce barriers to trade but also
require additional domestic legal and business reforms in developing nations to pro-
tect property rights. Most of these agreements now include supplemental commit-
ments on labor and the environment to encourage countries to upgrade their working
conditions and environmental protections, although some critics believe the agree-
ments do not go far enough in ensuring worker rights and environmental standards.
Partly due to the stalled progress with the WTO and FTAA, the United States has
pursued bilateral trade agreements with a range of countries, including Australia,
Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Israel, Jordan, Malaysia, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru,
and Singapore.33
Economic activity in Latin America continues to be volatile. Despite the continu-
ing political and economic setbacks these countries periodically experience, economic
and export growth continue in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. In addition, while outside
MNCs continually target this geographic area, there also is a great deal of cross-border
investment between Latin American countries. Regional trade agreements are helping in
this cross-border process, including NAFTA, which ties the Mexican economy more
closely to the United States. The CAFTA agreement, signed August 5, 2006, between
the United States and Central American countries, presents new opportunities for bolster-
ing trade, investment, services, and working conditions in the region. Within South
America there are Mercosur, a common market created by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,
Uruguay, and Venezuela, and the Andean Common Market, a subregional free-trade
compact that is designed to promote economic and social integration and cooperation
between Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
The European Union (EU) has made significant progress over the past decade
in becoming a unified market. In 2003 it consisted of 15 nations: Austria, Belgium,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany (see In the International Spotlight at the end of
Chapter 13), Great Britain, Greece, the Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. In May 2004, 10 additional countries joined the EU:
Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland,
Slovakia, and Slovenia. In January 2007, Romania and Bulgaria acceded to the EU,
and in July 2013, Croatia became the 28th and newest member of the EU. Not only
have most trade barriers between the members been removed, but a subset of European
countries have adopted a unified currency called the euro. As a result, it is now pos-
sible for customers to compare prices between most countries and for business firms
to lower their costs by conducting business in one uniform currency. With access to
the entire pan-European market, large MNCs can now achieve the operational scale
and scope necessary to reduce costs and increase efficiencies. Even though long-standing
cultural differences remain, and the EU has recently experienced some substantial
challenges, the EU is more integrated as a single market than NAFTA, CAFTA, or the
allied Asian countries. With many additional countries poised to join the EU, including
Albania, Serbia, and Turkey, the resulting pan-European market will be one that no
major MNC can afford to ignore (see Figure 1–1). Moreover, the Transatlantic Trade
and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) is a proposed trade agreement between the European
Union and the United States that could further bolster trade and multilateral economic
growth in Europe and North America.34
European Union
A political and economic
community consisting of 28
member states.

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 13
Although Japan has experienced economic problems since the early 1990s, it
continues to be one of the primary economic forces in the Pacific Rim (see In the
International Spotlight at the end of Chapter 11). Japanese MNCs want to take advan-
tage of the huge, underdeveloped Asian markets. At the same time, China continues
to be a major economic force, with many predictions that it will surpass the United
States as the largest economy in the world, in terms of nominal GDP, by
2026.35  Although all the economies in Asia are now feeling the impact of the eco-
nomic uncertainty of the post-9/11 era and the Asian economic crisis of the late
1990s, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and Singapore have been doing relatively
well, and the Southeast Asia countries of Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and even
Vietnam are bouncing back to become major export-driven economies. The Associa-
tion of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), made up of Indonesia, Malaysia, the
Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Thailand, and, in recent years, Cambodia, Myanmar,
and Vietnam, is advancing trade and economic integration and now poses challenges
to China as a region of relatively low-cost production and export. In addition, under
the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), Asian-facing countries have concluded nego-
tiations for an ambitious, next-generation, Asia-Pacific trade agreement. The TPP
group represents roughly two-fifths of the global economy, consisting of Australia,
Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the
United States, and Vietnam. On October 4, 2015, representatives of the 12 Pacific
Rim countries agreed to the 30-chapter deal, with full ratification by each country’s
legislative bodies expected to take up to two years to complete.36
Central and Eastern Europe, Russia (see In the International Spotlight at the end
of Chapter 14), and the other republics of the former Soviet Union currently are still
trying to make stable transitions to market economies. Although the Czech Republic,
Slovenia, Poland, and Hungary have accelerated this process through their accession to
Trans-Pacific Partnership
(TPP) or Trans-Pacific
Partnership Agreement
(TPPA)
A trade agreement among
12 Pacific Rim countries,
including Australia, Brunei,
Canada, Chile, Japan,
Malaysia, Mexico, New
Zealand, Peru, Singapore,
the United States, and
Vietnam.
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh.
Germany
France
Spain
Portugal
The Netherlands
Belgium
Poland
United
Kingdom
Italy
Austria
Czech Republic
Slovakia
Ireland
Denmark
Lithuania
Latvia
Estonia
Finland
Sweden
Hungary
Romania
Bulgaria
Greece
Slovenia
Cyprus
Malta
Turkey
Croatia Serbia
Albania
Luxembourg
Member States Candidate States
Figure 1–1
European Member States
and Candidates, 2016

14 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
the EU, others (the Balkan countries, Russia, and the other republics of the former Soviet
Union) still have a long way to go. However, all remain a target for MNCs looking for
expansion opportunities. For example, after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, Coca-Cola
quickly began to sever its relations with most of the state-run bottling companies in the
former communist-bloc countries. The soft drink giant began investing heavily to import
its own manufacturing, distribution, and marketing techniques. To date, Coca-Cola has
pumped billions into Central and Eastern Europe—and this investment is beginning to
pay off. Its business in Central and Eastern Europe has been expanding at twice the rate
of its other foreign operations.
These are specific, geographic examples of emerging internationalism. Equally
important to this new climate of globalization, however, are broader trends that reflect
the emergence of developing countries as major players in global economic power and
influence.
Changing Global Demographics
The collective world population is aging. In 2016, for the first time since the end of
the second World War, the global working-age population will decline. By 2050, the
Wall Street Journal projects that the working age population will contract by nearly 5
percent worldwide. These demographic changes will have significant effects on the
global economy.37
Multiple factors are contributing to this increase in the median global population
age. Due to improvements in the technology and health care sectors, people are now
living longer lives in both developed and developing countries. Global life expectancy,
which has increased from 48 years in 1950 to 70 years in 2012, will continue to steadily
increase over the next several decades. As more people are living longer, they are spend-
ing more time in retirement. People are also having fewer children. In the last 65 years,
the global fertility rate has been cut in half—from 5 children per woman in 1950 to 2.5
children per woman in 2015.38
Though these demographic changes are projected to occur globally, the most dra-
matic impact will be seen in the developed nations. Western Europe, which has seen
stagnant economic and population growth for the last decade, will face some of the
sharpest constrictions of the workforce population. In Germany and Italy, the working-
age population will shrink by over 20 percent by 2050. Developed Asian nations, with
some of the longest life expectancies, will not be able to repopulate quickly enough to
replace the retiring, aging population. In Japan, the number of nonworkers will be nearly
equal to that of workers by 2050. Both Japan and South Korea will face a loss of over
25 percent of their working class population.39   
Even some developing countries will face large challenges. Due to years of a one-
child policy, and rapidly rising incomes, which are almost always accompanied by lower
birth rates, China faces an unbalanced population pyramid. It is estimated that China will
see a 20 percent decline in its working-class population by 2050, as middle-aged work-
ers begin to retire and are replaced by fewer workers. With a lower GDP per capita than
Germany, Japan, and other developed nations, Chinese workers will face additional pres-
sure to support the nonworking population.40
The increase in the size of the elderly population affects more than just the
proportion of workers to nonworkers. The amount of spending on health care–related
services will continue to increase rapidly, while the demand for goods such as cars
and computers will decline. Whereas younger populations spend income on housing
and other capitally financed purchases, elderly populations spend money on health
care services.41
Although the full impact of these demographic changes will not be known for
several years, strategies such as easing the immigration process for workers from devel-
oping to developed nations, incentivizing citizens in developed nations to have more

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 15
children, and encouraging workers to delay retirement could help to offset the problems
associated with an aging global population.42
The Shifting Balance of Economic Power in the Global Economy
Economic integration and the rapid growth of emerging markets are creating a shifting
international economic landscape. Specifically, the developing and emerging countries
of the world are now predicted to occupy increasingly dominant roles in the global eco-
nomic system. Various economists have studied the potential growth of these rapidly
expanding economies.
In 2001 the Goldman Sachs global economics team released its initial report on
the economic growth projected to occur in the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India,
and China—which it collectively coined as the “BRIC” nations. Follow-up reports were
released in 2004 and 2011. In these reports, Goldman Sachs predicted that the BRIC
economies’ share of world growth could rise from 20 percent in 2003 to more than 40
percent in 2025, and that the BRIC’s total weight in the world economy would rise from
approximately 10 percent in 2004 to more than 20 percent in 2025. After the 2009 global
recession, Goldman Sachs argued that the BRIC economies were growing at such a fast
pace that they may constitute four of the top five most dominant economies by the year
2050, with China surpassing the United States in output by 2027. Additionally, the report
estimated that the economies of the four BRIC nations will surpass the collective econ-
omies of the G7 nations by 2032.43,44 
In the years since Goldman Sachs’ original reports on the future potential of the
BRIC nations, global economic conditions have led to some setbacks for the economies
of Brazil, Russia, and China, leading some to reconsider the rate at which the BRIC
economies will continue to grow. Low prices for oil and other commodities contributed
to the deep 2015 and 2016 recessions in Russia and Brazil, and China’s growth has
slowed substantially. Unlike its fellow BRIC partners, however, India continues to post
strong figures, and the country has actually surpassed China in annual GDP growth rate
in recent years. 
In 2015, after a few years of losses and weak forecasts for Brazil, Russia, and
China, Goldman Sachs dissolved its BRIC fund, folding the remaining assets into its
larger emerging markets fund.45  Whether or not Goldman Sachs’ long-term predictions
hold true is yet to be seen, but Brazil, Russia, China, and India will continue to assume
a broader role in the global economy. It is notable that since 2009 the leaders of the
BRIC nations have met for an annual summit, and, in 2010, the leaders of the founding
members agreed to admit South Africa to the group, making it the BRICS.
As the BRICS’s economies mature and growth slows, some analysts, including
Goldman Sachs, are beginning to turn their attention to a new group of emerging markets.
In March 2006, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) coined the term E7 to describe seven
major emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, and Turkey)
that are expected to expand significantly in the coming decades.46 Unlike the G7 econo-
mies, which are primarily located in North America and Europe, the E7 economies are
located throughout Latin America and Asia (see Figure 1–2 and Figure 1–3). In 2015,
PwC predicted that the GDP of the E7, when measured in terms of MER (market
exchange rates), would surpass that of the G7 by around 2030. Furthermore, the GDP
of the E7 would expand at an annual rate of 3.8 percent through 2050, while the G7
would only expand by 2.1 percent annually. Per PwC’s predictions, by 2050, the GDP
of the E7 is predicted to be 50 percent higher than that of the G7.47
The N-11 (N stands for “next”) are another grouping of economies that may
constitute the next wave of emerging markets growth. These countries, which include
Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea,
Turkey, and  Vietnam, represent a diverse global set, with relative strengths (and weak-
nesses) in terms of their future potential. The MIST countries (Mexico, Indonesia, South

16 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
Korea, and Turkey), a subset of the N-11, are sometimes grouped as a particularly attrac-
tive subset of the N-11. Goldman views the MIST countries as the most promising and
advanced of the N-11, all of which have young, growing populations and other positive
good conditions for economic growth. Other groupings of fast-growing developing coun-
tries include the CEVITS (Colombia, Egypt, Vietnam, Indonesia, Turkey, and South
Africa) and EAGLES (which stands for emerging and growth-leading economies), which
includes the original BRIC and MIST countries plus Egypt and Taiwan.48 Table 1–8
compares the G-7 (advanced countries), BRIC, and N-11 by population, GDP, and GDP
per capita in 2000, 2010, and 2020.
Using data from the World Bank, PricewaterhouseCoopers has made estimates
about the future growth of emerging versus developed economies, the result of which
appear in summary form in Tables 1–4 and 1–5. Table 1–4 shows the world’s largest
economies in 2014 and 2050 (projected) using (current) market exchange rates. By this
calculation, China would surge past the United States and Japan by 2050, and India would
move from tenth to third. Viewing the data on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, a
method that adjusts GDP to account for different prices in countries, a more dramatic
picture is presented. Using this method, both China and India would surpass the United
States as the largest world economic power by 2050. In both the Goldman Sachs and
Mexico
Brazil
Indonesia
Turkey China
India
Russia
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh.
Figure 1–3
E7 (Emerging Seven)
Economies
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh.
Canada
United
States
United
Kingdom
France
Germany
Italy Japan
Figure 1–2
G7 (Group of Seven)
Economies

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 17
Table 1–4
The World’s Largest Economies 2014 and 2050 (Projected)
Measured by GDP at Market Exchange Rates
(in billions of dollars)
2014 2050
GDP Rank GDP Rank
United States 17,416   1 41,384 2
China 10,355   2 53,553 1
Japan 4,770   3 7,914 6
Germany 3,820   4 6,338 10
France 2,902   5 5,207 12
United Kingdom 2,848   6 5,744 11
Brazil 2,244   7 8,534 5
Italy 2,129   8 3,617 16
Russia 2,057   9 6,610 8
India 2,048 10   27,937 3
Canada 1,794 11 3,583 17
Australia 1,483 12 2,903 19
South Korea 1,449 13 4,142 15
Spain 1,400 14 3,099 18
Source: The World in 2050: Will the Shift in Global Economic Power Continue?
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 2015.
Table 1–5
The World’s Largest Economies 2014 and 2050 (Projected)
Measured by GDP at Purchasing Power Parity
(in millions of dollars)
2014 2050
GDP Rank GDP Rank
China 17,632 1 61,079 1
United States 17,416 2 41,384 3
India 7,277 3 42,205 2
Japan 4,788 4 7,914 7
Germany 3,621 5 6,338   10
Russia 3,559 6 7,575 8
Brazil 3,073 7 9,164 5
France 2,587 8 5,207 13
Indonesia 2,554 9 12,210 4
United Kingdom 2,435   10 5,744 11
Mexico 2,143 11 8,014 6
Italy 2,066   12 3,617 18
South Korea 1,790   13 4,142 17
Saudi Arabia 1,652   14 5,488 12
Source: The World in 2050: Will the Shift in Global Economic Power Continue?
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 2015.

18 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
PricewaterhouseCoopers scenarios, global growth over the next decade, and the next
35 years, is heavily supported by Asia, as seen in Table 1–6. In addition, China and India
will remain the most populous countries in the world in 2050, although India will surpass
China as the most populous (Table 1–7).
Most African countries have not, to date, fully benefited from globalization.
However, increases in the price of commodities, such as oil and gas, agricultural
products, and mineral and mining products, between 2000 and 2015 have helped
boost incomes and wealth in the African continent. Moreover, rapid population
growth in many African countries, similar to growth in India and China in earlier
periods, may suggest that African countries could constitute the next wave of dynamic
emerging markets.
Although the emerging nations have experienced unprecedented GDP growth since
the global recession, it is important to note that the growth rates of the developing world
are beginning to show signs of a slowdown. The BRIC economies, once thought to be
Table 1–6
Cities Expected to Contribute Most to Global Growth 2015–2030
(GDP contribution in billions)
City Country GDP Contribution
New York City United States 874
Shanghai China 734
Tianjin China 625
Beijing China 594
Los Angeles United States 522
Guangzhou China 510
Shenzhen China 508
London United Kingdom 476
Chongqing China 432
Suzhou China 394
Source: “Global Cities 2013,” Oxford Economics, 2015.
Table 1–7
Changing Global Demographics: Developing Countries on the Rise
(ranked by size)
1950 2017 2050
  1 China China India
  2 Soviet Union India China
  3 India United States Nigeria
  4 United States Indonesia United States
  5 Japan Brazil Indonesia
  6 Indonesia Pakistan Pakistan
  7 Germany Nigeria Brazil
  8 Brazil Bangladesh Bangladesh
  9 United Kingdom Russia Congo
10 Italy Mexico Ethiopia
11 France Japan Mexico
12 Bangladesh Ethiopia Egypt
Source: United Nations: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Population Prospects: the 2015 Revision.
https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 19
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20 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
the backbone of the emerging market growth, have experienced particularly deep setbacks.
In 2015, the Brazilian economy dipped into recession, experiencing an economic contrac-
tion of roughly 3 percent, double-digit inflation, and a rapidly rising unemployment rate.
Russia, which averaged 6.6 percent annual GDP growth between 2002 and 2008, slowed
to only 1.5 percent average annual growth between 2011 and 2014.49 And in China, GDP
grew just 6.8 percent in 2015—significantly less than its 14.5 percent growth in
2007.50  The slowdown extends beyond the BRIC nations; in 2015, emerging markets
outside of China and India contributed only 13 percent to global GDP growth. This
represents the lowest proportion of GDP growth contributed by emerging markets since
2009.51  While emerging markets still hold the most potential for growth in the coming
years, the rapid rate of expansion that was experienced over the last decade may prove
difficult to match.52
In the years since the global recession of 2009, in which merchandise exports fell
23 percent to $12.15 trillion and commercial services exports declined 13 percent to
$3.31 trillion, global trade and investment have continued to grow at a healthy rate,
outpacing domestic growth in most countries. According to the World Trade Organiza-
tion, in 2014 merchandise exports reached a record high $18.5 trillion, and commercial
services exports have rebounded to $4.9 trillion.53 Foreign direct investment (FDI)—the
term used to indicate the amount invested in property, plant, and equipment in another
country—also has been growing at a slow but steady rate in the years since the global
recession of 2009. Despite dropping almost 50 percent in 2009 to $896 billion, global
FDI rebounded to $1.5 trillion by 2013. By 2017, FDI is estimated to reach $1.7 trillion,
surpassing the all-time high set a decade earlier in 2007. Interestingly, according to data
from UNCTAD, in 2014 Hong Kong received more FDI than the United States, and
China received twice as much as Canada, showing the shifting balance of economic
influence among developed and developing countries.54  Table 1–9 shows trade flows
among major world regions in both absolute and percentage terms. Tables 1–10 and 1–11
show FDI inflows and outflows by leading developed and emerging economies.
As nations become more affluent, they begin looking for countries with economic
growth potential where they can invest. Over the last two decades, for example, Japanese
MNCs have invested not only in their Asian neighbors but also in the United States and
the EU. European MNCs, meanwhile, have made large financial commitments in Japan
and, more recently, in China and India because they see Asia as having continued growth
potential. American multinationals have followed a similar approach in regard to both
Europe and Asia.
The following quiz illustrates how transnational today’s MNCs have become. This
trend is not restricted to firms in North America, Europe, or Asia. An emerging global
community is becoming increasingly interdependent economically. Take the quiz and see
how well you do by checking the answers given at the end of the chapter. However,
although there may be a totally integrated global market in the near future, at present,
regionalization, as represented by North America, Europe, Asia, and the less developed
countries, is most descriptive of the world economy.
1. Where is the parent company of Braun household appliances (electric shav-
ers, coffee makers, etc.) located?
a. Italy b. Germany c. the U.S. d. Japan
2. The BIC pen company is
a. Japanese b. British c. U.S.-based d. French
3. The company that owns Jaguar is based in
a. Germany b. the U.S. c. the U.K. d. India
4. French’s Mustard is produced by a company based in
a. the U.K. b. the U.S. c. France d. Taiwan
5. The firm that owns Green Giant vegetables is
a. U.S.-based b. Canadian c. British d. Italian
foreign direct investment
(FDI)
Investment in property,
plant, or equipment in
another country.

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 21
Table 1–9
World Merchandise Trade by Region and Selected Country, 2015
(in US$ billions and percentages)
Exports Imports
Annual Annual
Values Percentage Change Values Percentage Change
2015 2005–15 2013 2014 2015 2015 2005–15 2013 2014 2015
World 16,272 6 2   0   −13 16,613   5 2   1 −13
North America   2,294 5 2   3 −8 3,132   4 0   3 −5
United States 1,505 6 2   3 −7   2,308   4 0   4 −4
Canada 408 2 1   4 −14 419   4 0   0 −10
Mexico 381 7 2   5 −4 405   7 3   5 −2
South and Central America 532 5 −2 −6 −22 609   9 3 −3  −16
Brazil 191 6 0 −7   −15 179 12 7 −5  −25
Argentina 57 5 −5 −10   −17 60 10 10 −12 −8
Europe   5,956 4 5   0   −12   5,900   4 2   1 −13
European Union (28) 5,381 4 5   1   −12   5,309   3 1   2 −13
Germany 1,329 4 3   3   −11 1,050   4 2   2 −13
France 506 2 2   0   −13 572   2 1   −1 −15
Netherlands 567 4 2   0   −16 506   4   0   0 −14
United Kingdom 460 3 14   −7 −9 626   3   −5   5 −9
Italy 459 3 3   2   −13 409   2   −2   −1 −14
Commonwealth of
Independent States (CIS) 489 7 −2 −6  −32 339   8 1 −11 −34
Russian Federation 340 6 −1 −5  −32 194   8 2 −10 −37
Africa        
South Africa 82 6 −3   −4 −11 86   6 −1 −3 −14
Algeria 38 2 −9 −4 −40 52 11 9   6 −12
Egypt 21 6 −5 −7 −23 61 12 −9 1  −9
Middle East            
Saudi Arabia 202 4 −3 −9 −41 172 12 8   3 −1
Iran 63 5 −21   8 −29 42   2 −14   4 −17
Asia   5,967 8   3   3 −8   5,448   8 2   0 −14
China   2,275   12   8   6 −3 1,682 11 7   0 −14
Japan 625 2 −11 −3 −9 648   4 −6 −2 −20
India 267 12 6 2   −17 392 13 −5 −1 −15
Source: Adapted from WTO Press Release, April, 2015. Modest trade recovery to continue in 2015 and 2016 following three years of weak expansion. https://www.wto.
org/english/news_e/pres15_e/pr739_e.htm.
6. The owners of Godiva chocolate are
a. U.S.-based b. Swiss c. Dutch d. Turkish
7. The company that produces Vaseline is
a. French b. Anglo-Dutch c. German d. U.S.-based
8. The company that bought General Electric Appliances is headquartered in
a. France b. China c. Japan d. Germany
9. The company that owns Holiday Inn is headquartered in
a. Saudi Arabia b. France c. the U.S. d. Britain
10. Tropicana orange juice is owned by a company that is headquartered in
a. Mexico b. Canada c. the U.S. d. Japan

22 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
■ Global Economic Systems
The evolution of global economies has resulted in three main systems: market economies,
command economies, and mixed economies. Recognizing opportunities in global expan-
sion includes understanding the differences in these systems, as they affect issues such
as consumer choice and managerial behavior.
Market Economy
A market economy exists when private enterprise reserves the right to own property and
monitor the production and distribution of goods and services while the state simply
supports competition and efficient practices. Management is particularly effective here
since private ownership provides local evaluation and understanding, opposed to a nation-
ally standardized archetype. This model contains the least restriction as the allocation of
resources is roughly determined by the law of demand. Individuals within the community
disclose wants, needs, and desires to which businesses may appropriately respond. A
general balance between supply and demand sustains prices, while an imbalance creates
a price fluctuation. In other words, if demand for a good or service exceeds supply, the
Table 1–10
Foreign Direct Investment Inflows, by Region
(in US$ billions)
2015 2014 2013
Developed economies $962.5 $522.0 $680.3
Developing economies 764.7 698.5 662.4
Africa 54.1 58.3 52.2
East and Southeast Asia 447.9 383.2 350.3
South Asia 50.5 41.4 35.6
West Asia 42.4 43.3 45.5
Latin America and the Caribbean 167.6 170.3 176.0
Transition economies 35.0 56.4 84.5
Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2016 (June 21, 2016), Annex Table 1, http://unctad.org/en/Pages/DIAE/
World%20Investment%20Report/Annex-Tables.aspx.
Table 1–11
Foreign Direct Investment Outflows, by Region
(in US$ billions)
2015 2014 2013
Developed economies $1,474.2 $800.7 $825.9
Developing economies 377.9 445.6 408.9
Africa 11.3 15.2 15.5
East and Southeast Asia 292.8 365.1 312.0
South Asia 7.8 12.1 2.2
West Asia 31.3 20.4 44.7
Latin America and the Caribbean 33.0 31.4 32.3
Transition economies 31.1 72.2 75.8
Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2016 (June 21, 2016), Annex Table 2, http://unctad.org/en/Pages/DIAE/
World%20Investment%20Report/Annex-Tables.aspx.

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 23
price will inevitably rise, while an excess supply over consumer demand will result in a
price decrease.
Since the interaction of the community and firms guides the system, organizations
must be as versatile as the individual consumer. Competition is fervently encouraged to
promote innovation, economic growth, high quality, and efficiency. The focus on how to
best serve the customer is necessary for optimal growth as it ensures a greater penetration
of niche markets.55 The government may prohibit such things as monopolies or restrictive
business practices in order to maintain the integrity of the economy. Monopolies are a
danger to this system because they tend to stifle economic growth and consumer choice
with their power to determine supply. Factors such as efficiency of production and qual-
ity and pricing of goods can be chosen arbitrarily by monopolies, leaving consumers
without a choice and at the mercy of big business.
Command Economy
A command economy is comparable to a monopoly in the sense that the organization, in
this case the government, has explicit control over the price and supply of a good or
service. The particular goods and services offered are not necessarily in response to
consumers’ stated needs but are determined by the theoretical advancement of society.
Businesses in this model are owned by the state to ensure that investments and other
business practices are done in the best interest of the nation despite the often contradic-
tory outcomes. Management within this model ignores demographic information. Gov-
ernment subsidies provide firms with enough security so they cannot go out of business,
which simply encourages a lack of efficiency or incentive to monitor costs. Devoid of
private ownership, a command economy creates an environment where little motivation
exists to improve customer service or introduce innovative ideas.56
History confirms the inefficiency and economic stagnation of this system with the
dramatic decline of communism in the 1980s. Communist countries believe that the goals
of the so-called people take precedence over individualism. While the communist model
once dominated countries such as Ethiopia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, and the former
U.S.S.R., among others, it survives only in North Korea, Cuba (see In the International
Spotlight at the end of Chapter 3), Laos, Vietnam, and China today, in various degrees
or forms. A desire to effectively compete in the global economy has resulted in the
attempt to move away from the communist model, especially in China, which will be
considered in greater depth later in the chapter.
Mixed Economy
A mixed economy is a combination of a market and a command economy. While some
sectors of this system reflect private ownership and the freedom and flexibility of the
law of demand, other sectors are subject to government planning. The balance allows
competition to thrive while the government can extend assistance to individuals or com-
panies. Regulations concerning minimum wage standards, social security, environmental
protection, and the advancement of civil rights may raise the standard of living and
ensure that those who are elderly, are sick, or have limited skills are taken care of. Own-
ership of organizations seen as critical to the nation may be transferred to the state to
subsidize costs and allow the firms to flourish.57
Below we discuss general developments in key world regions reflective of these
economic systems and the impact of these developments on international management.
■ Economic Performance and Issues of Major Regions
From a vantage point of development, performance, and growth, the world’s economies
can be evaluated as established economies, emerging economies, and developing econo-
mies (some of which may soon become emerging).

24 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
Established Economies
North America As noted earlier, North America constitutes one of the four largest
trading blocs in the world. The combined purchasing power of the United States, Canada,
and Mexico is more than $19 trillion. Even though there will be more and more integra-
tion both globally and regionally as time goes on, effective international management
still requires knowledge of individual countries.
The free-market-based economy of this region allows considerable freedom in
decision-making processes of private firms. This allows for greater flexibility and low
barriers for other countries to establish business. Despite factors such as the Iraq War
beginning in 2003, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, high oil prices from  2006 to 2008, the
global recession in 2009, and Superstorm Sandy in 2012, the U.S. economy continues
to grow. U.S. MNCs have holdings throughout the world, and foreign firms are welcomed
as investors in the U.S. market. U.S. firms maintain particularly dominant global posi-
tions in technology-intensive industries, including computing (hardware and services),
telecommunications, media, and biotechnology. At the same time, foreign MNCs are
finding the United States to be a lucrative market for expansion. Many foreign automo-
bile producers, such as BMW, Honda, Subaru, Nissan, and Toyota, have established a
major manufacturing presence in the United States. Given the near collapse of the
“domestic” automotive industries, North American automotive production will come
increasingly from these foreign “transplants.”
Canada is the United States’ largest trading partner, a position it has held for many
years. The United States also has considerable foreign direct investment in Canada. This
helps explain why most of the largest foreign-owned companies in Canada are totally or
heavily U.S.-owned. The legal and business environments in Canada are similar to those
in the United States, and the similarity helps promote trade between the two countries.
Geography, language, and culture also help, as does NAFTA, which will assist Canadian
firms in becoming more competitive worldwide. They will have to be able to go head
to head with their U.S. and Mexican competitors as trade barriers are removed, which
should result in greater efficiency and market prowess on the part of the Canadian firms,
which must compete successfully or go out of business. In recent years, Canadian firms
have begun investing heavily in the United States while gaining international investment
from both the United States and elsewhere. Canadian firms also do business in many
other countries, including Mexico, Great Britain, Germany, and Japan, where they find
ready markets for Canada’s vast natural resources, including lumber, natural gas, crude
petroleum, and agricultural products.
By the early 1990s Mexico had recovered from its economic problems of the
previous decade and had become the strongest economy in Latin America. In 1994,
Mexico became part of NAFTA, and it appeared to be on the verge of becoming the
major economic power in Latin America. Yet, an assassination that year and related
economic crisis underscored that Mexico was still a developing country with consider-
able economic volatility. Mexico now has free-trade agreements with 46 countries, more
than any other nation, including agreements with Panama, the Unifying Free Trade
Agreement with Central America, the EU, the European Free Trade Area, and the Trans-
Pacific Partnership. More than 90 percent of Mexico’s trade occurs under free trade
agreements.58  In 2000 the 71-year hold of the Institutional Revolutionary Party on the
presidency of the country came to an end, and many investors believe that the admin-
istration of Vicente Fox and his successor, Felipe Calderon, have been especially pro-
business. Calderon battled Mexico’s narcotics gangs, which, unfortunately, have been
responsible for an ongoing epidemic of violence and casualties, including those of
innocent civilians. In 2012, the Institutional Revolutionary Party returned to power with
the election of Enrique Peña Nieto as president, who, despite uncertainty from some,
has continued to advance pro-business initiatives, such as expanding the Mexican auto
industry, opening the oil industry to the private sector, and forcing greater competition
in telecommunications.59,60

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 25
Because of NAFTA, Mexican businesses are finding themselves able to take advan-
tage of the U.S. market by producing goods for that market that were previously pur-
chased by the U.S. from Asia. Mexican firms are now able to produce products at highly
competitive prices thanks to lower-cost labor and proximity to the American market.
Location has helped hold down transportation costs and allows for fast delivery. This
development has been facilitated by the maquiladora system, under which materials and
equipment can be imported on a duty- and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufactur-
ing and re-export mostly in Mexican border towns. Mexican firms, taking advantage of
a new arrangement that the government has negotiated with the EU, can also now export
goods into the European community without having to pay a tariff. The country’s trade
with both the EU and Asia is on the rise, which is important to Mexico as it wants to
reduce its overreliance on the U.S. market (see In the International Spotlight at the end
of Chapter 9).
The EU The ultimate objective of the EU is to eliminate all trade barriers among
member countries (like between the states in the United States). This economic com-
munity eventually will have common custom duties as well as unified industrial and
commercial policies regarding countries outside the union. Another goal that has finally
largely become a reality is a single currency and a regional central bank. With the ad-
dition of Croatia in 2013, 28 countries now comprise the EU, with 17 having adopted
the euro. Another 9 countries, having joined the EU in either 2004, 2007, or 2013, are
legally bound to adopt the euro upon meeting the monetary convergence criteria.61
Such developments will allow companies based in EU nations that are able to
manufacture high-quality, low-cost goods to ship them anywhere within the EU without
paying duties or being subjected to quotas. This helps explain why many North Ameri-
can and Pacific Rim firms have established operations in Europe; however, all these
outside firms are finding their success tempered by the necessity to address local cultural
differences.
The challenge for the future of the EU is to absorb its eastern neighbors, the former
communist-bloc countries. This could result in a giant, single European market. In fact,
a unified Europe could become the largest economic market in terms of purchasing power
in the world. Between 2004 and 2007, Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria,
and Romania all joined the EU, improving economic growth, inflation, and employment
rates throughout. Such a development is not lost on Asian and U.S. firms, which are
working to gain a stronger foothold in Eastern European countries as well as the existing
EU. In recent years, foreign governments have been very active in helping to stimulate
and develop the market economies of Central and Eastern Europe to enhance their economic
growth as well as world peace.
For the last decade, the EU has faced major challenges. Several European govern-
ments, including Greece (see In the International Spotlight at the end of Chapter 2),
Portugal, Spain, and Ireland, have found themselves with dangerously large deficits that
resulted from both structural conditions (stagnant population growth, overly generous
pension systems, early retirements) and shorter-term economic pressures (the 2009 global
recession). These conditions have placed pressure on the euro, the currency adopted by
most EU countries, and have forced substantial rescue packages led by Germany and
France.  Though the financial situation in Ireland, Portugal, and Spain has significantly
improved, the situation in Greece remains challenging.
Having accepted multiple bailout packages from the IMF, the European Commis-
sion, and the European Central Bank between 2010 and 2015, Greece has been forced
to accept severe austerity measures, including higher taxes, the freezing of government
pensions and wages, and cuts to public spending. Though the European community
believes that forcing these restrictions on Greece is necessary to assure financial stabil-
ity and repayment of bailout funds, many in Greece have argued that these austerity
measures have made recovery nearly impossible. In July 2015, with Greece facing a
repayment of 1.6 billion euro that it would not be able to meet without additional financial
maquiladora
A factory, the majority of
which are located in
Mexican border towns, that
imports materials and
equipment on a duty- and
tariff-free basis for
assembly or manufacturing
and re-export.

26 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
assistance, negotiations between Greek officials and its European creditors deadlocked.
In a surprising move, the Greek government pushed the decision of whether or not to
accept the latest bailout package and accompanying financial restrictions to its citizens
via referendum, which the Greek people voted overwhelming to reject. Banks closed
across the country and withdrawals were limited to 60 euros per day. Despite the refer-
endum vote, the Greek government ultimately accepted the terms of the bailout deal in
exchange for financial assistance, preventing bankruptcy and a potential Greek exit from
the EU.62,63,64,65
Maintaining a unified EU in the coming decades may be challenging. In the face
of growing skepticism about the advantages of integration with Continental Europe, the
United Kingdom, part of the EU but not the Euro-zone, held a referendum in June 2016
regarding whether to “remain” in or “leave” the European Union. In a close but decisive
vote, the citizens of the United Kingdom became the first to vote to dissolve their mem-
bership in the bloc. This vote, though not legally binding, paves the way for invoking
Article 50, which establishes the three-year withdrawal procedure for countries wishing
to exit. In the morning following the referendum vote, “remain” supporter Prime Minis-
ter David Cameron announced his plans to step aside, leaving the task of coordinating
the EU exit, or “Brexit,” up to the next prime minister.
Japan During the 1970s and 1980s, Japan’s economic success had been without prec-
edent. The country had a huge positive trade balance, the yen was strong, and the
Japanese became recognized as the world leaders in manufacturing and consumer goods.
Analysts ascribe Japan’s early success to a number of factors. Some areas that have
received a lot of attention are the Japanese cultural values supporting a strong work ethic
and group/team effort, consensus decision making, the motivational effects of guaranteed
lifetime employment, and the overall commitment that Japanese workers have to their
organizations. However, at least some of these assumptions about the Japanese workforce
have turned out to be more myth than reality, and some of the former strengths have
become weaknesses in the new economy. For example, consensus decision making turns
out to be too time-consuming in the new speed-based economy. Also, there has been a
steady decline in Japan’s overseas investments since the 1990s due to a slowing Japanese
economy, poor management decisions, and competition from emerging economies, such
as China.
Some of the early success of the Japanese economy can be attributed to the
Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). This is a governmental
agency that identifies and ranks national commercial pursuits and guides the distribu-
tion of national resources to meet these goals. In recent years, MITI has given primary
attention to the so-called ABCD industries: automation, biotechnology, computers,
and data processing.
Another major reason for Japanese success may be the use of keiretsus. This
Japanese term stands for the large, vertically integrated corporations whose holdings
supply much of the assistance needed in providing goods and services to end users. Being
able to draw from the resources of the other parts of the keiretsu, a Japanese MNC often
can get things done more quickly and profitably than its international competitors.
Despite setbacks, Japan remains a formidable international competitor and is well
poised in all three major economic regions: the Pacific Rim, North America, and Europe.
Emerging and Developing Economies
In contrast to the fully developed countries of North America, Europe, and Asia are the
developing and emerging countries. While there is no precise definition, developing
economies typically face relatively low GDP per capita and a workforce that is either
unskilled or semiskilled. In many cases, there also is considerable government interven-
tion in economic affairs. Emerging markets can be viewed as developing economies that
exhibit sustained economic reform and growth.
Ministry of International
Trade and Industry
(MITI)
A Japanese government
agency that identifies and
ranks national commercial
pursuits and guides the
distribution of national
resources to meet these
goals.
keiretsu
In Japan, an organizational
arrangement in which a
large, often vertically
integrated group of
companies cooperate and
work closely with each
other to provide goods and
services to end users;
members may be bound
together by cross-
ownership, long-term
business dealings,
interlocking directorates,
and social ties.

27
Central and Eastern Europe In 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Each of the
individual republics that made up the U.S.S.R. in turn declared its independence and now
is attempting to shift from a centrally planned to a market-based economy. The Russian
Republic has the largest population, territory, and influence, but others, such as Ukraine,
also are industrialized and potentially important in the global economy. Of most importance
to the study of international management are the Russian economic reforms, the disman-
tling of Russian price controls (allowing supply and demand to determine prices), and
privatization (converting the old communist-style public enterprises to private ownership).
Russia’s economy continues to emerge as poverty declines and the middle class
expands. Direct investment in Russia, along with its membership in the International Mon-
etary Fund (IMF), helped to raise GDP and decrease inflation, offsetting the hyperinflation
created from the initial attempt at transitioning to a market-based economy in the early
1990s. Abundant oil and high global energy prices greatly boosted Russia’s economy in
the early 2000s, though recent decreases in demand have pushed Russia into a recession.
In addition, the Group of Seven (G7, including the United States, Germany, France, Eng-
land, Canada, Japan, and Italy) formally expanded to include Russia in 1997, becoming
the Group of Eight (G8). However, Russia was suspended from the group in 2014 after a
series of political differences between the original G7 and Russia, culminating in the annex-
ation of Crimea. In addition, multilateral sanctions were imposed. These actions, when
combined with falling oil and gas prices, have resulted in a dramatic slowdown in Russia’s
economy and a fall in the value of the ruble. As such, the Russian economy likely will
have a number of years of economic instability and many recurrent political problems.
International Management in Action
Recognizing Cultural Differences www.usrbc.org; www.careerwatch.com
One objective of multicultural research is to learn more
about the customs, cultures, and work habits of people
in other countries. After all, a business can hardly expect
to capture an overseas market without knowledge of
the types of goods and services the people there want
to buy. Equally important is the need to know the man-
agement styles that will be effective in running a foreign
operation. Sometimes this information can change quite
rapidly. For example, as Russia continues to move from
a central to a market economy, management is con-
stantly changing as the country attempts to adjust to
increased exposure in the global environment. Russia
entered into a strategic partnership with the United
States in 2002. However, while U.S. perspectives of
“partnerships” are flexible, they are generally seen as
inherently having some hierarchical structure. Russia, on
the other hand, sees “partnerships” as entailing equality,
especially in the decision-making process. This may be
a part of the reason Russia formed a strategic partner-
ship with China in 2005, since both countries emerged
from a communist regime and can understand similar
struggles. Regardless, as Russia moves to privatize its
organizations, the new partnership may pose a threat to
the Americas and the West if efforts to understand each
other and work together are abandoned.
It is evident that the United States and Russia differ
on many horizons. Russian management is still based
on authoritarian styles, where the managerial role is to
pass orders down the chain of command, and there is
little sense of responsibility, open communication, or
voice in the decision-making process. Furthermore,
while 64 percent of U.S. employees see retirement as
an opportunity for a new chapter in life, only 15 percent
of Russian employees feel that way, and another 23
percent see retirement as “the beginning of the end.”
Despite such differences, there are points of similarity
that a U.S. firm can use as leverage when considering
opening a business in Russia. About 46 percent of
employees in both the United States and Russia would
prefer a work schedule that fluctuates between work
and leisure, mirroring a pattern of recurring sabbaticals.
Also, Russia currently has a post–Cold War mentality,
much like the United States experienced after the Great
Depression of the 1930s. Looking back at history and
incorporating the evolutionary knowledge can assist in
understanding emerging economies.
These examples show the importance of studying
international management and learning via systematic
analysis of culture and history and firsthand information
how managers in other countries really do behave
toward their employees and their work. Such analysis is
critical in a firm’s ensuring a strong foothold in effective
international management.
Source: Garry Kasparov, “Putin’s Gangster State,” The Wall Street Jour-
nal, March 30, 2007, p. A15; The Economist Intelligence Unit, Country
Report: Russia (Kent, U.K.: EIU, 2007), p. 7; “Trust the Locals,” The
Economist 382, January 25, 2007, pp. 55–56.

28 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
One pervasive set of challenges in Russia is persistent crime, corruption, and lack
of public security. As such, many foreign investors feel that the risk is still too high
(see The World of International Management at the beginning of Chapter 10). Russia
is such a large market, however, and has so much potential for the future that many
MNCs feel they must get involved, especially with a promising rise in GDP. There also
has been a movement toward teaching Western-style business courses, as well as MBA
programs, in all the Central European countries, creating a greater preparation for trends
in globalization.
In Hungary, state-owned hotels have been privatized, and Western firms, attracted
by the low cost of highly skilled, professional labor, have been entering into joint ventures
with local companies. MNCs also have been making direct investments, as in the case
of General Electric’s purchase of Tungsram, the giant Hungarian electric company.
Another example is Britain’s Telfos Holdings, which paid $19 million for 51 percent of
Ganz, a Hungarian locomotive and rolling stock manufacturer. Still others include
Suzuki’s investment of $110 million in a partnership arrangement to produce cars with
local manufacturer Autokonzern, Ford Motor’s construction of a new $80 million car
component plant, and Italy’s Ilwa’s $25 million purchase of the Salgotarjau Iron Works.
Poland had a head start on the other former communist-bloc countries. General
political elections were held in June 1989 and the first noncommunist government was
established well before the fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1990, the Communist Polish United
Workers Party dissolved and Lech Walesa was elected president. Earlier than its neigh-
bors, Poland instituted radical economic reforms (characterized as “shock therapy”).
Although the relatively swift transition to a market economy has been very difficult for
the Polish people, with very high inflation initially, continuing unemployment, and the
decline of public services, Poland’s economy has done relatively well. In fact, Poland’s
economy was the only economy in the EU to continue to grow during the global reces-
sion of 2008–2009. In 2015, Poland’s GDP grew by around 4 percent. However, politi-
cal instability and risk, large external debts, a deteriorating infrastructure, and only
modest education levels have led to continuing economic problems (see In the Interna-
tional Spotlight at the end of Chapter 5).
Although Russia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland receive the most media
coverage and are among the largest of the former communist countries, others also are
struggling to right their economic ships. A small but particularly interesting example is
Albania. Ruled ruthlessly by the Stalinist-style dictator Enver Hoxha for over four decades
following World War II, Albania was the last, but most devastated, Eastern European
country to abandon communism and institute radical economic reforms. At the beginning
of the 1990s, Albania started from zero. Industrial output initially fell over 60 percent
and inflation reached 40 percent monthly. Today, Albania still struggles but is slowly
making progress.
The key for Albania and the other Eastern European countries is to maintain the
social order, establish the rule of law, rebuild the collapsed infrastructure, and get fac-
tories and other value-added, job-producing firms up and running. Foreign investment
must be forthcoming for these countries to join the global economy. A key challenge for
Albania and the other “have-not” Eastern European countries will be to make themselves
less risky and more attractive for international business.
China After years of steady, strong growth, China’s GDP has been slowing consider-
ably. In 2015, GDP expanded at only 7 percent, its slowest in 25 years.66  China faces
other formidable challenges, including a massive savings glut in the corporate sector, the
globalization of manufacturing networks, vast developmental needs, and the requirement
for 15–20 million new jobs annually to avoid joblessness and social unrest (see In the
International Spotlight at the end of Chapter 7).
China also remains a major risk for investors. The one country, two systems (com-
munism and capitalism) balance is a delicate one to maintain, and foreign businesses are
often caught in the middle. Most MNCs find it very difficult to do business in and with

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 29
China. Concerns about undervaluation of China’s currency, the renminbi (also know as
the yuan), and continued policies that favor domestic companies over foreign ones make
China a complicated and high-risk venture.67,68 Even so, MNCs know that China, with its
1.4 billion people, will be a major world market and that they must have a presence there.
Trade relations between China and developed countries and regions, such as the
United States and the EU, remain tense. Many in the United States and around the globe
had long argued that the value of the Chinese currency was kept artificially low, giving
China an unfair advantage in selling its exports. That opinion, however, may be changing.
A slowing Chinese economy, coupled with over a decade of steady gains relative to the
dollar, resulted in both the IMF and the Peterson Institute stating in 2015 that the yuan
was no longer undervalued.69  In addition, China’s policy toward foreign investors con-
tinues to be fluid and sometimes unpredictable. Both Walmart and Yum Brands found
themselves accused of improper business practices and each had to close stores and issue
public apologies. Walmart was forced to pay nearly US$10 million in fines over the
three-year period from 2012 through 2014 due to poor-quality food, confusing pricing,
and mislabeled meat products.70 In response, Walmart invested nearly US$50 million
through the end of 2015 to improve food safety and testing within China.71  Similarly,
Yum Brands suffered a 29 percent drop in same-store sales in China in April of 2013
after concerns about the safety of some chicken and the spread of Avian flu caused
customers to stay away from the outlets.72
Other Emerging Markets of Asia In addition to Japan and China, there are a number
of other important economies in the region, including South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore,
and Taiwan. Together, the countries of the ASEAN bloc are also fueling growth and de-
velopment in the region.
In South Korea, the major conglomerates, called chaebols, include such interna-
tionally known firms as Samsung, Daewoo, Hyundai, and the LG Group. Many key
managers in these huge firms have attended universities in the West, where in addition
to their academic programs they learned Western culture, customs, and language. Now
they are able to use this information to help formulate competitive international strategies
for their firms. This will be very helpful for South Korea, which has shifted to privatiz-
ing a wide range of industries and withdrawing some of the restrictions on overall foreign
ownership. Unlike most developed economies, South Korea was able to avoid falling into
economic recession in 2009. In the years since, South Korea has maintained steady
progress, with a solid economy with moderate growth, moderate inflation, low unemploy-
ment, an export surplus, and fairly equal distribution of income.
Bordering southeast China and now part of the People’s Republic of China (PRC),
Hong Kong has been the headquarters for some of the most successful multinational
operations in Asia. Although it can rely heavily on southeast China for manufacturing,
there is still uncertainty about the future and the role that the Chinese government intends
to play in local governance.
Singapore is a major success story. Its solid foundation leaves only the question of
how to continue expanding in the face of increasing international competition. To date,
however, Singapore has emerged as an urban planner’s ideal model and the leader and
financial center of Southeast Asia.
Taiwan has progressed from a labor-intensive economy to one that is dominated
by more technologically sophisticated industries, including banking, electricity genera-
tion, petroleum refining, and computers. Although its economy has also been hit by the
downturn in Asia, it continues to steadily grow.
Besides South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan, other countries of Southeast Asia are
also becoming dynamic platforms for growth and development. Thailand, Malaysia,
Indonesia (see In the International Spotlight at the end of Chapter 12), and now Vietnam
have developed economically with a relatively large population base and inexpensive labor
despite the lack of considerable natural resources. These countries have been known to
have social stability, but in the aftermath of the recent economic crisis, there has been
chaebols
Very large, family-held
Korean conglomerates that
have considerable political
and economic power.

30 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
considerable turmoil in this part of the world. This instability first occurred in Indonesia,
the fourth most populous country in the world, and more recently in Thailand. In late
2013, Thailand’s Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra’s government proposed sweeping
pardons for various past offenses committed by former and current politicians. Although
the legislature overwhelmingly rejected those proposed pardons, protests and political
unrest, led by the People’s Democratic Reform Committee, still unraveled on the streets
of Bangkok.73 In December, Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra attempted to contain the
protests by dissolving the House of Representatives, declaring a state of emergency, and
calling for a new election in February 2014.74  The continued protests led to disruptions
of the February election, leading the Constitutional Court to nullify the election results.75 In
May 2014, a military coup d’etat, led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, removed Prime
Minister Yingluck Shinawatra from power.76  Since then, Thailand has been ruled by the
newly formed National Council for Peace and Order under military dictatorship.  Despite
the political turmoil that has plagued Thailand and other countries in the region, these
export-driven Southeast Asian countries remain attractive to outside investors.
India With a population of about 1.3 billion and growing, India has traditionally had
more than its share of political and economic problems. The recent trend of locating
software and other higher-value-added services has helped to bolster a large middle- and
upper-class market for goods and services and a GDP that is quickly reaching the level
of China. India may soon be viewed as a fully developed country if it can withstand the
intense growth period.
For a number of reasons, India is attractive to multinationals, especially U.S. and
British firms. Many Indian people speak English, are very well educated, and are known
for advanced information technology expertise. Also, the Indian government is providing
funds for economic development. For example, India is expanding its telecommunication
systems and increasing the number of phone lines fivefold, a market that AT&T is vig-
orously pursuing. Many frustrations remain in doing business in India (see In the Inter-
national Spotlight at the end of this chapter), but there is little question that the country
will receive increased attention in the years ahead.
Developing Economies on the Verge
Around the world there are many economies that can be considered developing (what
might formally have been termed “less developed” or in some cases “least developed”)
that are worthy of attention and understanding. Some of these economies are on the verge
of emerging as impressive contributors to global growth and development.
South America Over the years, countries in South America have had difficult eco-
nomic problems. They have accumulated heavy foreign debt obligations and experienced
severe inflation. Although most have tried to implement economic reforms reducing their
debt, periodic economic instability and the emergence of populist leaders have had an
impact on the attractiveness of countries in this region.
Through the 1990s and 2000s, Brazil had been attracting considerable foreign
investment, with foreign companies drawn to opportunities created by Brazil’s privatiza-
tion of power, telecommunications, and other infrastructure sectors. (See the International
Management in Action box “Brazilian Economic Reform and Recent Challenges.”) Power
companies such as AES and General Electric have constructed more than $20 billion
worth of electricity plants throughout the country. At the same time, many other well-
known companies have set up operations in Brazil, including Yum! Brands, Apple, Gap,
McDonald’s, and Walmart. Until recently, Brazil has benefited from one of the most
stable governments throughout Latin America, which has helped secure the country’s
place today as the undisputed economic leader of South America.
More recently, Brazil has faced alternating periods of economic progress and set-
backs. After a period of robust growth and declining poverty rates in the period 2008–2014,

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 31
Brazil slipped into recession in 2015 and 2016. Frustration of economic stagnation and a
widespread public corruption scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma
Rousseff in May of 2016.77  Given Brazil’s large and relatively well-educated population,
ample natural resources, existing industrial base, and strategic geographic position, longer-
term prospects are still potentially positive. With an economic output comparable to that
of France, the Brazilian economy outweighs that of any other South American country
and has become a worldwide presence (see In the International Spotlight at the end of
Chapter 10). 
Chile’s market-based economic growth has fluctuated between 3 and 6 percent
since the early 2000s, one of the best and most stable performances in Latin America.
Chile attracts a lot of foreign direct investment, mainly dealing with gas, water, electric-
ity, and mining. It continues to participate in globalization by engaging in further trade
agreements, including those with Mercosur, China, India, the EU, South Korea, and
Mexico.
Argentina has one of the strongest economies overall with abundant natural
resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diver-
sified industrial base; however, it has suffered the recurring economic problems of infla-
tion, external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. Although Argentina rebounded
from the global recession with over 8 percent GDP growth in 2010 and 2011, economic
growth has since slowed significantly. In 2015, inflation soared to over 25 percent. An
election in 2015, however, ousted the Peronist government that had ruled the country
since 2013. Mauricio Macri was elected with a mandate to reverse the government-driven
economic policies of his predecessors, Cristina de Kirchner and her husband, Néstor
Kirchner.78
Despite the ups and downs, a major development in South America is the growth
of intercountry trade, spurred on by the progress toward free-market policies. For exam-
ple, beginning in 1995, 90 percent of trade among Mercosur members (Brazil, Argentina,
Paraguay, and Uruguay) was duty-free. At the same time, South American countries are
increasingly looking to do business with the United States. In fact, a survey of business-
people from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela found that the U.S.
market, on average, was more important for them than any other. Some of these countries,
however, also are looking outside the Americas for growth opportunities. For over two
decades, Mercosur has been in discussion with the EU to create free trade between the
two blocs, and Chile and Peru have joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation group
and were participants in the TPP negotiations described above. These developments help
illustrate the economic dynamism of South America and, especially in light of Asia’s
recent economic problems, explain why so many multinationals are interested in doing
business with this part of the world.
Middle East and Central Asia Israel, the Arab countries, Iran, Turkey, and the Central
Asian countries of the former Soviet Union are a special group of emerging countries.
Because of their oil, however, some of these countries are considered to be economically
rich. Recently, this region has been in the world news because of the political instability
and civil war in Syria, the rise of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, and the decade-
long wars in Iraq and Afghanistan following the September 11, 2011, terrorist attacks in
the United States. Despite the political challenges, these countries continue to try to
balance geopolitical/religious forces with economic viability and activity in the interna-
tional business arena. Students of international management should have a working
knowledge of these countries’ customs, culture, and management practices since most
industrial nations rely, at least to some degree, on imported oil and since many people
around the world work for international, and specifically Arab, employers.
The Arab and Central Asian countries rely almost exclusively on oil production.
The price of oil greatly fluctuates, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Coun-
tries (OPEC) has trouble holding together its cartel. After years of relatively high prices,
oil prices dipped to a 12-year low in 2016, causing financial shockwaves thorughout the

32
International Management in Action
Brazilian Economic Reform and Recent Challenges http://en.wikipedia.org; http://www.wto.org/
Over the past two decades, Brazil’s economic reform
and progress have been nothing short of spectacular.
Beginning with a comprehensive privatization program
in the early and mid-1990s under which dozens of
state-owned enterprises were sold to commercial inter-
ests, Brazil has transformed itself from a relatively
closed and frequently unstable economy to one of the
global leading “BRIC” countries and the anchor of
South American economic development. Brazil’s
reforms, which have included macroeconomic stabiliza-
tion, liberalization of import and export restrictions, and
improved fiscal and monetary management, reflect a
definitive break from past inward-looking policies that
characterized much of Latin America in the 1960s and
1970s. A critical milestone was the introduction of the
Plano Real (“Real Plan”), instituted in the spring of 1994,
which sought to break inflationary expectations by peg-
ging the real to the U.S. dollar. Inflation was brought
down to single-digit annual figures, but not fast enough
to avoid substantial real exchange rate appreciation
during the transition phase of the Plano Real. This
appreciation meant that Brazilian goods were now
more expensive relative to goods from other countries,
which contributed to large current account deficits.
However, no shortage of foreign currency ensued
because of the financial community’s renewed interest
in Brazilian markets as inflation rates stabilized and
memories of the debt crisis of the 1980s faded.
The Real Plan successfully eliminated inflation, after
many failed attempts to control it. Almost 25 million
people turned into consumers. The maintenance of
large current account deficits via capital account sur-
pluses became problematic as investors became more
risk averse to emerging market exposure as a conse-
quence of the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the
Russian bond default in August 1998. After crafting a
fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on
structural reform, Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led
international support program in November 1998. In
January 1999, the Brazilian Central Bank announced
that the real would no longer be pegged to the U.S.
dollar. This devaluation helped moderate the downturn
in economic growth in 1999 that investors had
expressed concerns about over the summer of 1998.
Brazil’s debt to GDP ratio of 48 percent for 1999 beat
the IMF target and helped reassure investors that Brazil
will maintain tight fiscal and monetary policy even with
a floating currency.
The economy grew 4.4 percent in 2000, but prob-
lems in Argentina in 2001, and growing concerns that
the presidential candidate considered most likely to win,
leftist Luis Inácio Lula da Silva, would default on the debt,
triggered a confidence crisis that caused the economy
to decelerate. Poverty was down to near 16 percent.
In 2002, Luis Inácio Lula da Silva won the presiden-
tial elections, and he was reelected in 2006. During his
government, the economy began to grow more rapidly.
In 2004 Brazil saw promising growth of 5.7 percent in
GDP; following in 2005 with 3.2 percent growth; in
2006, 4.0 percent; in 2007, 6.1 percent; and in 2008,
5.1 percent growth. Although the financial crisis caused
some slowdown in Brazil’s economy, it has weathered
the period much better than nearly every other econ-
omy in the Western Hemisphere. From 2009 to 2011,
Brazil was the world’s fastest-growing car market. By
2011, the size of the Brazilian economy had surpassed
that of the United Kingdom.
The years since the financial crisis have been more
challenging for the Brazilian economy. Oil producer
OXG entered bankruptcy in late 2013—the largest
corporate bankruptcy in South American history. Polit-
ical corruption, including the exchange of millions in
bribery and money laundering between Brazilian poli-
ticians and state-owned oil producer Petrobras, low-
ered consumer confidence. Petrobras lost nearly 60
percent of its value between the last quarter of 2014
and early 2015, and the Bovespa, Brazil’s stock index,
slid sharply downward. Between 2011 and 2015, the
real depreciated nearly 50 percent in relation to the
U.S. dollar. By 2015, the economy had slipped into
recession, and in 2016, the president was impeached
due in part to alleged connections to the Petrobras
scandal.
Despite the current struggles, there continues to be
promise for Brazil’s future. Brazil remains the second-
biggest destination for foreign direct investment into
developing countries after China, and many Brazilian
companies continue to expand in the international
arena. Embraer (ERJ), the global leader in small and
medium-sized airplanes, is now the world’s third-largest
manufacturer of passenger jets after Boeing and Air-
bus. Odebrecht, the Brazilian business conglomerate in
the fields of engineering, construction, chemicals, and
petrochemicals, is responsible for building a number of
large infrastructure projects around the world, including
roads, bridges, mass transit systems, more than 30 air-
ports, and sports stadiums such as Florida International
University’s FIU stadium. Brazil remains the world’s larg-
est exporter of several agricultural products including
beef, chicken, coffee, orange juice, and sugar, and the
country’s international trade and investment relation-
ships continue to diversify considerably to include man-
ufacturing and services.
Source: Garry Kasparov, “Putin’s Gangster State,” The Wall Street Jour-
nal, March 30, 2007, p. A15; The Economist Intelligence Unit, Country
Report: Russia (Kent, U.K.: EIU, 2007), p. 7; “Trust the Locals,” The
Economist 382, January 25, 2007, pp. 55–56.

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 33
region.79  Saudi Arabia, the largest oil producer in the Arab world, was forced to reduce
fuel, water, and power subsidies it provides to its citizens after experiencing a U.S.$98
billion budget deficit in 2015 (see In the International Spotlight at the end of Chapter 8).80
Arab countries have invested billions of dollars in U.S. property and businesses. Many
people around the world, including those in the West, work for Arab employers. For
example, the bankrupt United Press International was purchased by the Middle East
Broadcasting Centre, a London-based MNC owned by the Saudis.
The “Arab Spring,” described in the next chapter, has had a profound impact on
the political and economic environment of many countries in this region.
Africa Even though they have considerable natural resources, many African nations
remain very poor and undeveloped, and international trade is only beginning to serve as
a major source of income. One major problem of doing business in the African continent
is the overwhelming diversity of approximately one-billion people, divided into 3,000
tribes, that speak 1,000 languages and dialects. Also, political instability is pervasive,
and this instability generates substantial risks for foreign investors.
In recent years, Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa, has had a number of severe
problems. In addition to tragic tribal wars, there has been the spread of terrible diseases
such as AIDS, malaria, and Ebola. These problems have resulted in serious economic
setbacks. According to the World Bank, the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak cost the econo-
mies of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone an estimated US$1.6 billion of potential
economic growth.81  Although the WTO was able to agree to relax intellectual property
rights (IPR) in 2002–2003 to allow for greater and less costly access by African countries
to antiviral AIDS medications, similar IPR disputes resulted in a delay of Ebola medicine
to the region in 2014.82  While globalization has opened up new markets for developed
countries, developing nations in Africa lack the institutions, infrastructure, and economic
capacity to take full advantage of globalization. Other big problems include poverty,
malnutrition, illiteracy, corruption, social breakdown, vanishing resources, overcrowded
cities, drought, and homeless refugees. There is still hope in the future for Africa despite
this bleak situation because the potential of African countries remains virtually untapped.
Not only are there considerable natural resources, but the diversity itself also can be used
to advantage. For example, many African people are familiar with the European cultures
and languages of the former colonial powers (e.g., English, French, Dutch, and Portuguese),
and this can serve them well in international business as they strive for continued growth.
Uncertain times are ahead, but a growing number of MNCs are attempting to make
headway in this vast continent. Also, the spirit of these emerging countries has not been
broken. There are continuing efforts to stimulate economic growth. Examples of what
can be done include Togo, which has sold off many of its state-owned operations and
leased a steel-rolling mill to a U.S. investor, and Guinea, which has sold off some of its
state-owned enterprises and cut its civil service force by 30 percent. A special case is
South Africa, where apartheid, the former white government’s policies of racial segrega-
tion and oppression, has been dismantled and the healing process is progressing (see In
the International Spotlight at the end of Chapter 4). Long-jailed former black president
Nelson Mandela was recognized as a world leader. These significant developments have
led to an increasing number of the world’s MNCs returning to South Africa; however,
there continue to be both social and economic problems that, despite Mandela’s and his
successors’ best efforts, signal uncertain times for the years ahead. One major initiative
is the country’s Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE) program,
designed to reintegrate the disenfranchised majority into business and economic life.
Africa’s economic growth and dynamism have accelerated in recent years. Real GDP
rose by an average of 5.3 percent a year from 2000 through 2015, more than twice its pace
in the 1980s and 1990s.83  Telecommunications, banking, and retailing are all flourishing,
while Nigeria and Angola saw their economies accelerate due in part to higher global fuel
prices (see In the International Spotlight at the end of Chapter 6).84  It is important to
emphasize, however, that sub-Saharan Africa’s recent growth, which has been dependent

34 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
on foreign direct investment and the high level of global demand for commodities, is par-
ticularly sensitive to changes in the global economy. In 2015, sub-Saharan Africa’s growth
stalled to a 20-year low in the wake of low oil prices and China’s economic slowdown (see
Table 1–12).85 Although global pullback from the region, such as China’s slowdown, may
mean less foreign direct investment in the near-term, McKinsey, the global consultancy,
has found that the rate of return on foreign investment in Africa is actually higher than for
any other region, offering positive prospects for this historically struggling region.86
Table 1–12
Overview of the World Economic Outlook; Projections
(percentage change, unless otherwise noted)
Year over Year Q4 over Q4
Projections Estimates Projections
2013 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016
World Output 3.3 3.4   3.1 3.6 3.3 3.0 3.6
Advanced Economies 1.1 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.8 2.0 2.3
United States 1.5 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.8
Euro Area   −0.3 0.9 1.5 1.6 0.9   1.5   1.7
Germany 0.4 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.5   1.6   1.6
France 0.7 0.2 1.2   1.5 0.1   1.5   1.5
Italy −1.7 −0.4 0.8   1.3 −0.4   1.2   1.5
Spain −1.2 1.4   3.1 2.5 2.0 3.2 2.2
Japan 1.6 −0.1 0.6   1.0 −0.8   1.3   1.3 
United Kingdom 1.7 3.0 2.5 2.2 3.4   2.2 2.2
Canada 2.0 2.4 1.0   1.7 2.5 0.5 2.0
Other Advanced Economies 2.2 2.8 2.3 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.6
Emerging and Developing Economies 5.0 4.6 4.0 4.5 4.7 4.0 4.8
Commonwealth of Independent States 2.2 1.0 −2.7 0.5 −0.6 −3.3 0.3
Russia 1.3 0.6 −3.8 −0.6 0.3 −4.6 0.0
Excluding Russia 4.2 1.9 −0.1 2.8 … … …  
Emerging and Developing Asia 7.0 6.8 6.5 6.4 6.8 6.4 6.4
China 7.7 7.3 6.8 6.3 7.1 6.7 6.3
India 6.9 7.3 7.3   7.5 7.6 7.3   7.5
ASEAN−5 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.9 4.8 4.4 5.2
Emerging and Developing Europe 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.6 3.2 4.2
Latin America and the Caribbean 2.9 1.3 −0.3 0.8 1.1 −1.5 1.7
Brazil 2.7   0.1 −3.0 −1.0 −0.2 −4.4 1.3
Mexico 1.4   2.1 2.3 2.8 2.6 2.3 2.9
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) 2.3 2.7 2.5 3.9 … … …
Sub-Saharan Africa 5.2 5.0 3.8 4.3 … … …
South Africa 2.2 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 0.7 1.7
Memorandum European Union 0.2 1.5 1.9 1.9 1.5 1.8 2.1
World Growth Based on Market Exchange Rates 2.4 2.7 2.5 3.0 2.5 2.4 3.0
World Trade Volume (goods and services) 5.9 2.8 3.8 5.5 … … …
Imports
Advanced Economies 2.0 3.4 4.0 4.2 … … …  
Emerging and Developing Economies 5.2 3.6 1.3 4.4 … … …  
Exports
Advanced Economies 2.9 3.4 3.1 3.4 … … …  
Emerging and Developing Economies 4.4 2.9 3.9 4.8 … … …
Source: IMF World Economic Outlook, October 2015.

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 35
Table 1–12 shows economic growth rates and projections for major world regions
and countries from 2013 to 2016. Of note is the fact that a number of emerging regions
and countries are growing faster than developed countries; notably, China, India, and
other Asian economies. Table 1–13 ranks the top 10 countries globally on their “com-
petitiveness” as reported by the World Economic Forum. For 2015, China–Hong Kong
and Singapore were ranked second and third, respectively. Table 1–14 ranks emerging
markets according to several key indicators.
The World of International Management—Revisited
In the World of International Management at the start of the chapter, you read about how
social media is changing how we connect, shaping business strategy and operations, and
even affecting diplomacy. Social media and social networks are revolutionizing the nature
of international management by allowing producers and consumers to interact directly
and bringing populations of the world closer together. Having read this chapter, you
should now be more cognizant of the impacts of globalization and many international
linkages among countries, firms, and societies on international management. Although
controversial, globalization appears unstoppable. The creation of free-trade agreements
worldwide has helped to trigger economic gains in many developing nations. The con-
solidation and expansion of the EU will continue to open up borders and make it easier
and more cost-effective for exporters from less developed countries to do business there.
In Asia, formerly closed economies such as India and China have opened up, and other
emerging Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand are
becoming important emerging economies in their own right. Continued efforts to priva-
tize, deregulate, and liberalize many industries will increase consumer choice and lower
prices as competition increases. The rapid growth of social media networks around the
world is but one reflection of the interconnected nature of global economies and indi-
viduals. In some ways, social media are transcending traditional barriers and impediments
to global integration; however, differences in economic systems and approaches persist,
making international management an ongoing challenge.
In light of these developments, answer the following questions: (1) What are some
of the pros and cons of globalization and free trade? (2) How might the rise of social
media result in closer connections (and fewer conflicts) among nations? (3) Which
regions of the world are most likely to benefit from globalization and integration in the
years to come, and which may experience dislocations or setbacks?
Table 1–13
World’s Most Competitive Nations, 2015
Country Rank
USA 1
China–Hong Kong 2
Singapore 3
Switzerland 4
Canada 5
Luxembourg 6
Norway 7
Denmark 8
Sweden 9
Germany 10
Source: World Competitive Scoreboard, 2015. http://www.imd.org/

36 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
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Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 37
1. Globalization—the process of increased integration
among countries—continues at an accelerated pace.
More and more companies—including those from
developing countries—are going global, creating
opportunities and challenges for the global economy
and international management. Globalization has
become controversial in some quarters due to percep-
tions that the distributions of its benefits are uneven
and due to questions raised by offshoring. There have
emerged sharp critics of globalization among academ-
ics, NGOs, and the developing world, yet the pace of
globalization and integration continues unabated.
2. Economic integration is most pronounced in the triad
of North America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim. The
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is
turning the region into one giant market. In South
America, there is an increasing amount of intercoun-
try trade, sparked by Mercosur. Additionally, trade
agreements such as the Central American Free Trade
Agreement (CAFTA) are linking countries of the
Western Hemisphere together. In Europe, the expan-
sion of the original countries of the European Union
(EU) is creating a larger and more diverse union,
with dramatic transformation of Central and Eastern
European countries such as the Czech Republic,
Poland, and Hungary. The Trans-Pacific Partnership
(TPP), if implemented, could link together 12 or
more major Asian and Asian-facing economies, and
the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partner-
ship  (T-TIP), a proposed  trade agreement  between
the  European Union  and the  United States, could
further promote trade and multilateral economic
growth in Europe and North America. Africa and the
Middle East continue to face complex problems but
still hold economic promise for the future. Emerging
markets in all regions present both opportunities and
challenges for international managers.
3. Different growth rates and shifting demographics are
dramatically altering the distribution of economic
power around the world. Notably, China’s rapid
growth will make it the largest economic power in
the world by midcentury, if not before. India will be
the most populous country in the world, and other
emerging markets will also become important play-
ers. International trade and investment have been
increasing dramatically over the years. Major multi-
national corporations (MNCs) have holdings
throughout the world, from North America to
Europe to the Pacific Rim to Africa. Some of these
holdings are a result of direct investment; others are
partnership arrangements with local firms. Small
firms also are finding that they must seek out inter-
national markets to survive in the future. MNCs
from emerging markets are growing rapidly and
expanding their global reach. The internationaliza-
tion of nearly all business has arrived.
4. Different economic systems characterize different
countries and regions. These systems, which include
market, command, and mixed economies, are repre-
sented in different nations and have changed as
economic conditions have evolved.
SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS
KEY TERMS
chaebols, 29
European Union, 12
foreign direct investment (FDI), 20
globalization, 7
international management, 5
keiretsu, 26
management, 5
maquiladora, 25
Ministry of International
Trade and Industry (MITI), 26
MNC, 5
North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA), 11
offshoring, 7
outsourcing, 7
Trans-Pacific Partnership, 13
World Trade Organization
(WTO), 10
REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. How has globalization affected different world
regions? What are some of the benefits and costs of
globalization for different sectors of society (com-
panies, workers, communities)?
2. How has NAFTA affected the economies of North
America and how has the EU affected Europe? What
importance do these economic pacts have for interna-
tional managers in North America, Europe, and Asia?
3. Why are Russia and Eastern Europe of interest to
international managers? Identify and describe some
reasons for such interest and also risks associated
with doing business in these regions.

38 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
4. Many MNCs have secured a foothold in Asia, and
many more are looking to develop business rela-
tions there. Why does this region of the world hold
such interest for international management? Identify
and describe some reasons for such interest.
5. Why would MNCs be interested in South America,
India, the Middle East and Central Asia, and Africa,
the less developed and emerging countries of the
world? Would MNCs be better off focusing their
efforts on more industrialized regions? Explain.
6. MNCs from emerging markets (India, China, Brazil)
are beginning to challenge the dominance of devel-
oped country MNCs. What are some advantages that
firms from emerging markets bring to their global
business? How might MNCs from North America,
Europe, and Japan respond to these challenges?
1. c. U.S.-based Procter & Gamble acquired the Braun
company in 2005.
2. d. BIC SA is a French company.
3. d. Tata Motors, a division of the Indian conglomerate
the Tata Group, purchased Jaguar, Land Rover,
and related brands from Ford in 2008.
4. a. United Kingdom–based Reckitt Benckiser
acquired French’s parent company, Durkee
Famous Foods, in 1986.
5. a. General Mills, of the United States, acquired the
Green Giant product line (together with the Pillsbury
company) in 2001 from Britain’s Diageo PLC.
6. d. Godiva chocolate is owned by Yildiz Holding, a
Turkish conglomerate.
7. b. Vaseline is manufactured by the Anglo-Dutch
MNC Unilever PLC.
8. d. Haier Group, the largest appliance manufacturer
in the world and headquartered in China,
acquired GE Appliances in 2016.
9. d. Holiday Inn is owned by Britain’s InterContinen-
tal Hotels Group PLC.
10. c. Tropicana orange juice was purchased by
U.S.-based PepsiCo.
ANSWERS TO THE IN-CHAPTER QUIZ
One of the best-known franchise operations in the world
is McDonald’s, and in recent years, the company has
been working to expand its international presence. But
emerging market fast-food companies have succeeded in
slowing McDonald’s global expansion by catering to
local and regional tastes. Philippines-based Jollibee is
one such success story. Jollibee has 780 outlets in the
Philippines and more than 90 around the world, includ-
ing in the United States. Visit the McDonald’s and Jol-
libee websites, and find out what each has planned in
terms of its global expansion. Compare their presence in
Asia to each other and to Yum! Brands’ KFC and Pizza
Hut presence in Asia.
Then, based on this assignment and the chapter
material, answer these last three questions: (1) Which of
these companies seems best positioned in Southeast
Asia? (2) What advantages might a “local” brand like
Jollibee have over the global companies? What advan-
tages do the global MNCs have? (3) What is your pre-
diction in terms of future growth potential?
INTERNET EXERCISE: GLOBAL COMPETITION IN FAST FOOD
1. Brad Stone and Sarah Frier, “Evan Spiegel Reveals
Plan to Turn Snapchat into a Real Business,”
Bloomberg, May 26, 2015, http://www.bloomberg.
com/news/features/2015-05-26/evan-spiegel-reveals-
plan-to-turn-snapchat-into-a-real-business.
2. Ibid.
3. Lars Backstrom, “Anatomy of Facebook,”
Facebook.com, November 21, 2011, http://www.
facebook.com/notes/facebook-data-team/anatomy-
of-facebook/10150388519243859.
4. Evan LePage, “A Long List of Instagram Statistics
and Facts (That Prove Its Importance),” Hootsuite,
September 17, 2015,  http://blog.hootsuite.com/
instagram-statistics-for-business/.
5. Stone and Frier, “Evan Spiegel Reveals Plan to
Turn Snapchat into a Real Business.”
6. 3V Advertising, Snapchat,  https://www.snapchat.
com/ads (last visited January 10, 2016).
7. Lara O’Reilly, “If You’re Traveling Home for the Hol-
idays, GE Wants You to Use This Snapchat Filter,”
Business Insider, November 24, 2015, http://www.
businessinsider.com/ge-launches-snapchat-geofilter-
targeting-airports-and-train-stations-2015-11.
8. Erik Qualman, Socialnomics: How Social Media
Transforms the Way We Live and Do Business
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009), front flap, pp. 95, 110.
9. Ibid.
ENDNOTES

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 39
10. The UN on Social Media, United Nations,  http://www.
un.org/en/sections/about-website/un-social-media/.
11. Rose Yu, “China Car Sales Growth Slows Further,”
The Wall Street Journal Online, January 12, 2015,
http://www.wsj.com/articles/china-car-sales-growth-
slows-further-1452587244.
12. Rajesh Mahapatra, “Cisco to Set Up Center in
India,” Associated Press online, December 6, 2006.
13. Joan Lublin, “India Could Provide Unique Opportu-
nities for Expat Managers,” The Wall Street
Journal, May 8, 2007, p. B1.
14. “Get a First Look at Our New Innovation Center in
Singapore,”  P&G News Blog, April 1, 2014, http://
news.pg.com/blog/company-strategy/SGIC.
15. Unilever, “Our R&D Locations,”  https://www.
unilever.com/about/innovation/our-r-and-d-locations/
(last visited July 11, 2016).
16. Laurie Burkitt, “GE Bases X-ray Unit in China,”
The Wall Street Journal Online, July 26, 2012,
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111904
772304576467873321597208.html.
17. “American Powerhouse Builds Global Profile,” The
Wall Street Journal Online, November 4, 2012,
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204
712904578092182301796600.html.
18. Jochelle Mendonca, “Accenture Shoots Past TCS in
Headcount; Says 95,000 People Will Join in 2015,”
Economic Times, June 26, 2015, http://articles.
economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-06-26/news/
63862376_1_tata-consultancy-services-headcount-
strong-growth.
19. “Q1 Fiscal 2016,” Accenture, November 30,
2015,  https://newsroom.accenture.com/fact-sheet/.
20. “Accenture Earnings: Strong Dollar Impacts Revenue
and New Signings Growth,”  Forbes, December 18,
2015, http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/
2015/12/18/accenture-earnings-strong-dollar-impacts-
revenue-and-new-signings-growth/2/#6052f0296ef4.
21. Thomas Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief His-
tory of the Twenty-first Century (New York: Farrar,
Straus and Giroux, 2005).
22. “Anti-forum Protests Turn Violent,” Associated
Press, February 2, 2009.
23. Michael Yaziji and Jonathan P. Doh, NGOs and
Corporations: Conflict and Collaboration
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
24. For discussions of the benefits of globalization, see
Jagdish Bhagwati, In Defense of Globalization (New
York: Oxford University Press, 2004), and Edward
Graham, Fighting the Wrong Enemy: Antiglobal
Activists and Multinational Enterprises (Washington,
DC: Institute for International Economics, 2000).
25. For discussion of some of the emerging concerns
surrounding globalization, see Peter Singer, One
World: The Ethics of Globalization (New Haven:
Yale University Press, 2002); George Soros, George
Soros on Globalization (New York: Public Affairs
Books, 2002); Joseph Stiglitz, Globalization and Its
Discontents (New York: Norton, 2002).
26. G. Balachandar, “Vehicle Makers Sans Ford
Resume Production at Chennai Factories,” The
Hindu, December 7, 2015,  http://www.thehindu.
com/business/Industry/tamil-nadu-floods-vehicle-
makers-sans-ford-resume-production-at-chennai-
factories/article7958524.ece.
27. Tim Worstall, “India Now Fastest Growing Large
Economy at 7.4% Third Quarter GDP Growth,”
Forbes, November 30, 2015, http://www.forbes.com/
sites/timworstall/2015/11/30/india-now-fastest-
growing-large-economy-at-7-4-third-quarter-gdp-
growth/#2715e4857a0b3e2ca881acba.
28. Offshoring Your Lawyer,”  The Economist, December
16, 2010,  http://www.economist.com/node/17733545.
29. Paul Blustein, “EU Offers to End Farm Subsidies,”
Washington Post, May 11, 2004, p. E1.
30. Alan Beattie and Frances Williams, “Doha Trade
Talks Collapse,” Financial Times, July 29, 2008.
31. “Developing Nations Call for WTO Deal to Help
Poor,” Reuters.com, November 29, 2009.
32. CIA, “Costa Rica,”  The World Factbook (2009),
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-
factbook/geos/cs.html.
33. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, “Trade
Agreements,” https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements.
34. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, “Transatlantic
Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP),” https://
ustr.gov/ttip.
35. Elena Holodny, “China’s GDP Is Expected to Sur-
pass the US’ in 11 Years,”  Business Insider, June
24, 2015,  http://www.businessinsider.com/chinas-
gdp-is-expected-to-surpass-the-us-in-11-years-2015-6.
36. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, “Summary of
the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement,” https://ustr.
gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/press-releases/
2015/october/summary-trans-pacific-partnership.
37. Greg Ip, “Population Implosion: How Demographics
Rule the Global Economy,” WSJ 2050 Demographic
Destiny,  The Wall Street Journal Online, November
22, 2015,  http://www.wsj.com/articles/how-demo-
graphics-rule-the-global-economy-1448203724.
38. Ibid.
39. Ibid.
40. Ibid.
41. Ibid.

40 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
42. Ibid.
43. Goldman Sachs, “Global Economics Paper No. 99:
Dreaming with the BRICs: The Path to 2050,”
October 1, 2003.
44. Goldman Sachs, “Global Economics Paper No. 208:
The BRICs 10 Years On: Halfway Through the
Great Transformation,” December 7, 2011.
45. Mark Fahey and Nicholas Wells, “Emerging Mar-
kets Funds, by the Numbers,”  CNBC, November 9,
2015, http://www.cnbc.com/2015/11/09/emerging-
markets-funds-by-the-numbers.html.
46. John Hawksworth, “The World in 2050: How Big
Will the Major Emerging Market Economies Get
and How Can the OECD Compete?,” Pricewater-
houseCoopers, March 2006.
47. “The World in 2050: Will the Shift in Global Eco-
nomic Power Continue?” PricewaterhouseCoopers,
February 2015.
48. Eric Martin, “Move Over, BRICs. Here Come the
MISTs.” BusinessWeek, August 9, 2012,
www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-08-09/
move-over-brics-dot-here-come-the-mists.
49. Data Team, “Brazilian Waxing and Waning,” The
Economist Online, December 1, 2015, http://www.
economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2016/04/
economic-backgrounder.
50. IMF, “World Economic Outlook Database,” October
2015,  https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/
weo/2015/02/weodata/index.aspx.
51. “World GDP,”  The Economist, June 13, 2015,
http://www.economist.com/news/economic-and-
financial-indicators/21654018-world-gdp.
52. Kenneth Rapoza, “This Year’s World Growth
Slowest Since 2008 Crisis, Forecasts ‘The
Economist,’” Forbes Online, August 22, 2013,
www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2013/08/22/
this-years-world-growth-slowest-since-2008-crisis-
forecasts-the-economist/#7e77de4138de.
53. WTO, International Trade Statistics (Switzerland,
WTO, 2015).
54. UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2015
(Switzerland, United Nations, 2015).
55. R. Glenn Hubbard and Anthony Patrick O’Brien,
Essentials of Economics (Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007).
56. Ibid.
57. Ibid.
58. CIA, “Mexico,”  The World Factbook (2015), https://
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
geos/mx.html.
59. Colleen Anne, “Mexico Takes Bids on 25 Offshore
Oil Fields Taking One Step Closer to Privatization &
Reviving the Energy Sector,”  LatinOne.com,
December 16, 2015,  http://www.latinone.com/
articles/29157/20151216/mexico-takes-bids-25-
offshore-oil-fields-taking-one-step.htm.
60. Dave Graham, “Mexico Telecoms Regulator Backs
AT&T and Telefonica Spectrum Deal,”  Reuters,
December 17, 2015,  http://www.reuters.com/article/
us-mexico-at-t-idUSKBN0U106B20151218.
61. CIA, “European Union,”  The World Factbook
(2015), https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/
the-world-factbook/geos/ee.html.
62. Ben Knight, “Greece Bailout Deal: Angela Merkel
Expects IMF Involvement,”  The Guardian, August 16,
2015,  www.theguardian.com/business/2015/aug/16/
greece-bailout-deal-angela-merkel-expects-
imf-involvement.
63. Virginia Harrison, “Greek Banks Closed Until
Thursday,”  CNN Money, July 14, 2015,  http://money.
cnn.com/2015/07/13/news/greece-deal-banks-closed/.
64. Abhinav Ramnarayan, “Greece’s July 20 Repayment
to ECB Moves into Focus,”  Reuters, June 30,
2015,  www.reuters.com/article/greece-eurobonds-
idUSL8N0ZG1QR20150630.
65. “How Greece’s Referendum Works,” The Econo-
mist, July 4, 2015,  www.economist.com/blogs/econ-
omist-explains/2015/07/economist-explains-2.
66. Xiaoyi Shao and Sue-Lin Wong, “China State Plan-
ner Sees 2015 GDP Growth around 7 Percent,
Okays More Big Projects,”  Reuters, January 12,
2016,  http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-
economy-planning-idUSKCN0UQ0BH20160112.
67. John Boudreau and Brandon Bailey, “Doing Busi-
ness in China Getting Tougher for U.S. Compa-
nies,”  Mercury News, March 27, 2010,  www.
mercurynews.com/2010/03/26/doing-business-in-
china-getting-tougher-for-u-s-companies/.
68. Edward Wong and Mark Landler, “China Rejects
U.S. Complaints on Its Currency,”  New York  Times
Online,  February 4, 2010,  www.nytimes.com/2010/
02/05/world/asia/05diplo.html.
69. Wei Gu, “Is Yuan Undervalued or Overvalued?,”
The Wall Street Journal Online,  August 11, 2015,
www.wsj.com/articles/yuan-devaluation-enters-debate-
on-whether-currency-is-undervalued-1439307298.
70. Laurie Burkitt and Shelly Banjo, “Wal-Mart Cries
Foul on China Fines,”  The Wall Street Journal
Online, April 13, 2014,  www.wsj.com/news/articles/
SB1000142405270230415720457947327285696915
0?cb=logged0.31542067981929367.
71. Laurie Burkitt, “Wal-Mart to Triple Spending on Food-
Safety in China,” The Wall Street Journal Online, June
17, 2014, www.wsj.com/articles/wal-mart-to-triple-
spending-on-food-safety-in-china-1402991720.

Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 41
72. Bloomberg News, “Yum’s 29% Sales Collapse in
China Goes Beyond Avian Flu,” Bloomberg.com,
May 12, 2013,  www.bloomberg.com/news/
articles/2013-05-12/yum-s-29-sales-collapse-in-
china-goes-beyond-avian-flu.
73. Thomas Fuller, “Antigovernment protesters try to
Shut Down Bangkok,” New York Times, January
12, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/13/
world/asia/protests-thailand.html?_r=0.
74. “Thai Prime Minister Dissolves Parliament,”  Al
Jazeera, December 9, 2013,  www.aljazeera.com/
news/asia-pacific/2013/12/thai-pm-says-she-will-
dissolve-parliament-201312913831169537.html.
75. “Thai Court Rules General Election Invalid,”
BBC.com, March 21, 2014,  http://www.bbc.com/
news/world-asia-26677772.
76. Walden Bello, “Military Coup Follows Judicial
Coup in Thailand,”  Inquirer.net, May 24,
2014,  http://opinion.inquirer.net/74896/military-
coup-follows-judicial-coup-in-thailand.
77. Simon Romero, Vinod Sreeharsha, and Bryant
Rousseau, “Brazil Impeachment: The Process for
Removing the President,”  New York Times,  May 12,
2016,  www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/world/
americas/brazil-dilma-rousseff-impeachment.html?_
r=0.
78. The Editorial Board, “Argentina’s Transformative
Election,”  New York Times, November 26,
2015,  www.nytimes.com/2015/11/27/opinion/argen-
tinas-transformative-election.html.
79. Mark Shenk, “$30 Oil Just Got Closer as WTI
Slides to 12-Year Low on China,”  Bloomberg Busi-
ness Online, January 6, 2016,  www.bloomberg.com/
news/articles/2016-01-06/oil-trades-near-34-as-
record-cushing-stockpiles-exacerbate-glut.
80. Rick Gladstone, “Saudi Arabia, Squeezed by Low
Oil Prices, Cuts Spending to Shrink Deficit,”
New York Times Online, December 28, 2015,
www.nytimes.com/2015/12/29/world/middleeast/
squeezed-by-low-oil-prices-saudi-arabia-cuts-
spending-to-shrink-deficit.html?_r=0.
81. The World Bank, “Ebola: Most African Countries
Avoid Major Economic Loss but Impact on Guinea,
Liberia, Sierra Leone Remains Crippling,”
January 20, 2015,  www.worldbank.org/en/news/
press-release/2015/01/20/ebola-most-african-
countries-avoid-major-economic-loss-but-impact-on-
guinea-liberia-sierra-leone-remains-crippling.
82. Karen Pauls, “Could Ebola Vaccine Delay Be Due
to an Intellectual Property Spat?,”  CBC News,
October 3, 2014,  www.cbc.ca/news/canada/
manitoba/could-ebola-vaccine-delay-be-due-to-an-
intellectual-property-spat-1.2786214.
83. The World Bank, “Sub-Saharan Africa: Regional
Forecast,”  Global Economic Prospects,  https://www.
worldbank.org/content/dam/Worldbank/GEP/
GEP2015b/Global-Economic-Prospects-June-
2015-Sub-Saharan-Africa-analysis   (last visited
January 9, 2016).
84. Matina Stevis, “IMF Revises Down Sub-Saharan
Africa 2015 Growth,”  The Wall Street Journal
Online, October 27, 2015,  www.wsj.com/articles/
imf-revises-sub-saharan-africa-2015-growth-
down-1445936591.
85. Ibid.
86. Acha Leke, Susan Lund, Charles Roxburgh, and
Arend van Wamelen, “What’s Driving Africa’s
Growth,” McKinsey Quarterly, June 2010,
www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/middle-east-
and-africa/whats-driving-africas-growth.
87. CIA, “India,”  The World Factbook  (2016),  https://
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
geos/in.html.
88. Ibid.
89. World Bank, “India,”  World Development Indica-
tors  (2016),  http://data.worldbank.org/country/
india#cp_wdi.
90. Ankit  Panda, “India’s 7.4% GDP Growth Rate
Keeps It Ahead of the Emerging Economy
Pack,”  The Diplomat, December 2, 2015,  http://
thediplomat.com/2015/12/indias-7-4-gdp-growth-
rate-keeps-it-ahead-of-the-emerging-economy-pack/.
91. Ritika  Katyal, “India Census Exposes Extent of
Poverty,”  CNN, August 2, 2015,  www.cnn.
com/2015/08/02/asia/india-poor-census-secc/.
92. “A Brief History of the Kashmir Conflict,” The
Telegraph, September 24, 2001,  www.telegraph.co.
uk/news/1399992/A-brief-history-of-the-Kashmir-
conflict.html.
93. Donald Kirk, “Modi, India’s New Prime Minister,
Dreams of Economic Reform, Reconciliation with
Pakistan,”  Forbes, May 26, 2014,  www.forbes.com/
sites/donaldkirk/2014/05/26/modi-indias-new-prime-
minister-dreams-of-lifting-indias-masses-from-
poverty/#5fa99962750c.
94. Ibid.
95. Shashank Bengali, “Wal-Mart, Thwarted by India’s
Retail Restrictions, Goes Big: Wholesale,”  Los
Angeles Times, July 23, 2015.
96. Geeta Anand and Hari Kumar, “Hoping Jobs for
India Will Follow, Modi Clears Investors’ Path,”
New York Times, June 21, 2016, p. A1.
97. Bengali, “Wal-Mart, Thwarted by India’s Retail
Restrictions, Goes Big: Wholesale.”

In the International
Spotlight
42
was Muslim, has served as a focal point for disagreements
between the nations. The multiple wars over this area are
known collectively as the “Kashmir Conflict.”92
Because India was under British rule, India adopted
the “common law” legal system, with certain codes inter-
twined based on particular religions. As a democratic
republic, India’s political system is also similar to that of
the British system. The country has operated with this
form of government since its independence in 1947. The
executive branch consists of the president, vice president,
prime minister, and a cabinet of appointees; the legisla-
tive branch is fashioned as a bicameral Parliamentary
system; and the judicial branch is modeled off of the
English court system.
In May 2014, India elected Prime Minister Narendra
Modi. Support for Prime Minister Modi was based on
promises that he would mend the country’s relationship
with its Asian neighbors, including China and, most
importantly, Pakistan. He also promised to create a
business-friendly environment in the country.93  Specifi-
cally, Prime Minister Modi promised to invest heavily in
infrastructure, including adding high-speed trains, build-
ing more schools, and cleaning the badly polluted water-
ways. These investments were designed to dramatically
increase India’s manufacturing exports.94
Early in his term, Prime Minister Modi was criticized
for failing to deliver on his promises. However, India’s
7.5 percent annual GDP growth rate has positioned it as
the fastest-growing major world economy. Time will tell
if India will be able to maintain this growth rate and
whether or not the Prime Minister’s efforts to open India
to foreign business will succeed. Currently, India ranks
130 out of 185 nations in the World Bank’s “Ease of
Doing Business” Survey, which is up four spots from the
previous year.
You Be the International Business Consultant:
Walmart is one of the largest retailers in the world.
Despite its size, the company has faced numerous chal-
lenges when entering and operating in foreign markets.
India has posed an especially difficult situation. Even
though the country has opened its economy to the world
market over the past 30–40 years, India maintains strict
limitations over foreign ownership in its retail sector. For
example, foreign companies are prohibited from opening
supermarkets and can only own a maximum of 51 percent
India is located in southern Asia, with the Bay of Bengal
to the country’s east and the Arabian Sea to its west.
Positioned alongside the important trade corridor of the
Indian Ocean, India is approximately one-third the size of
the United States in area. Its major natural resources con-
sist of coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore,
manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium
ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, lime-
stone, and arable land. The majority of the country’s land
use (60 percent) is allocated to agriculture. India is a
largely rural country that suffers from a significant lack
of infrastructure in both metropolitan and rural areas.87
India boasts a population of 1.295 billion. The country
is approximately 80 percent Hindu and 14 percent Muslim.
The population is also relatively young: approximately
85 percent of its population is 54 years old or younger.
The population growth rate is a steady 1.22 percent. Hindi
is the dominant language, but Indians, depending on their
ethnicity and geographic location, speak other languages
as well, including Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu,
Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese,
and Maithili. These various languages form the basis on
how the states within the country are divided. While
Hindi is the dominant language, English is the language
primarily used among the educated class and in commer-
cial and political communication. The vast majority of the
population is either directly or indirectly dependent on
agriculture.88
India’s GDP in 2014 was US$2.049 trillion.89  GDP
growth in India has been higher and more consistent com-
pared to many of the other larger emerging markets, with
recent annual growth rates holding steady at around
7 percent.90
India faces numerous socioeconomic and security chal-
lenges, including a very high rate of poverty and strained
relations with neighboring Pakistan. India’s 2014–2015
census indicates that less than 10 percent of the 300 mil-
lion households surveyed had a salaried job; only 5 per-
cent had earned enough to pay taxes. More than 35
percent of adults are classified as illiterate.91  India’s tense
relations with Pakistan date back to the moment each
gained independence from the British empire. Split along
religious lines, India was intended to remain a largely
Hindu state while Pakistan was intended to be a predom-
inantly Muslim one. Fighting between the two neighbors
started almost immediately. Kashmir, where the leader of
the state was Hindu but the majority of the population
India

sales to the kiranas can provide enough revenue to make
remaining in India worthwhile.97
Questions
1. In light of this situation, what would your recom-
mendation be to Walmart?
2. Should it stick with the wholesale focus, or
should it pursue another joint venture with an
Indian partner?
3. Alternatively, should it maintain a “wait and see”
approach in hopes that the Indian government will
finally reform its restrictions on foreign investment?
Source: John F. Burns, “India Now Winning U.S. Investment,” New
York Times, February 6, 1995, pp. C1, C5; Rahual Jacob, “India Gets
Moving,” Fortune, September 5, 1994, pp. 101–102; Jon E. Hilsenrath,
“Honda Venture Takes the Bumps in India,” The Wall Street Journal,
August 2, 2000, p. A18; Manjeet Kripalani and Pete Engardio, “India:
A Shocking Election Upset Means India Must Spend Heavily on Social
Needs,” BusinessWeek, May 31, 2004; Steve Hamm, “The Trouble
with India,” BusinessWeek, March 19, 2007, pp. 48–58; “The World’s
Headache,” The Economist, December 6, 2008, p. 58; Gaurav Choudhury,
“How Slow GDP Growth Affects You,” Hindustan Times, December 4,
2012, http://www.hindustantimes.com/.
in local chains. Other retailers, such as Starbucks, have
paired up with Indian companies; Starbucks has a 50-50
joint venture with Tata, one of India’s largest conglomer-
ates. Walmart also had plans for future joint ventures in
India. In 2007, it announced a partnership with Bharti
Enterprises, but the relationship fell apart in the face of
continued limitations on what the joint venture would be
permitted to do. Allegations of corruption also soured
the deal. The Indian government has frequently commit-
ted to opening the retail sector to foreign investment,
only to bow to pressures from local competitors, result-
ing in delayed or watered-down proposals.95 Recently,
however, the Indian government has once again
announced new policies that would appear to open for-
eign investment in retail.96
As a way to remain in the market, Walmart has shifted
its attention to serving as a wholesale supplier to India’s
small mom-and-pop stores, known as kiranas. This is per-
mitted because India does not maintain restrictions on
foreign investment in wholesale. The kiranas purportedly
sell more than 95 percent of the country’s basic food-
stuffs, creating a large opportunity for a wholesaler like
Walmart. It is unclear, however, as to exactly what retail
role Walmart will be able to play long term and whether
Chapter 1 Globalization and International Linkages 43

44
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Chapter 2
THE POLITICAL, LEGAL, AND
TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
The World of International
Management
Social Media and Political
Change
T he struggle for government reform has traditionally been a long, painful process. In the past, uprisings in
the Middle East were often violently and horrifically
repressed by corrupt dictators. Governments censored and
controlled news organizations, hiding the atrocities of war
from the view of the global community. For example, the
true scale of the 1982 Hama massacre, where at least
10,000 Syrian revolutionaries were killed by government
forces, is still unclear. Over the last few years, however, the
transparency of war and the resulting pace of change
appear to be rapidly increasing.
The ongoing conflict in Syria, which arose in the wake of
the “Arab Spring” that spread across Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya
in the early 2010s, has been particularly impacted by the use
of social media. Journalism, communication, and transparency
from within Syria have all been redefined by the use of social
media by ordinary citizens. Unlike past conflicts, the Syrian
civil war and resulting refugee crisis are unraveling in real time
to a global audience in photos and videos through YouTube,
Facebook, and Twitter.
Social Media as an Organizing Tool
While previous uprisings lacked widespread communication
tools, those engaged in the Syrian conflict are equipped with
smartphones and social media. Syrian government loyalists,
Syrian revolutionaries, and the terrorist organization Islamic
State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) have all utilized social media to
quickly and efficiently organize their supporters. In the early
years of the conflict, the pro-revolution Facebook group “The
Syrian Revolution 2011” swelled to nearly half a million mem-
bers, while the group supporting Syrian President Bashar al-
Assad had nearly 3 million. ISIS has released propaganda
videos on all forms of social media, and the terror group has
maintained multiple Twitter accounts in an attempt to recruit
internationally.
Evidence suggests that revolutionaries in particular have
mobilized successfully through social media. Inspired by videos
The broader political, legal, and technological environment
faced by international managers is changing rapidly. Changes
in this environment are more common and rapid, presenting
challenges for managers seeking to respond and adapt to this
environment. Although there are many dimensions of the
external environment relevant to international management,
economic considerations covered in the last chapter are
among the most important, along with cultural issues covered
in Part Two. However, the political, legal, regulatory, and tech-
nological dimensions also bear on the international manager in
highly significant ways. The objective of this chapter is to
examine how the political, legal, regulatory, and technological
environments have changed in recent years, and how these
changes pose challenges and opportunities for international
managers. In Chapter 10, we return to some of these themes,
especially as they relate to political risk and managing the
political environment. In this chapter, we outline some of the
major trends in the political, legal, and technological environ-
ment that will shape the world in which international managers
will compete. The specific objectives of this chapter are
1. INTRODUCE the basic political systems that characterize
regions and countries around the world and offer brief
examples of each and their implications for international
management.
2. PRESENT an overview of the legal and regulatory environ-
ment in which MNCs operate worldwide, and highlight differ-
ences in approach to legal and regulatory issues in different
jurisdictions.
3. REVIEW key technological developments, including the
growth of e-commerce, and discuss their impact on MNCs
now and in the future.

45
Social Media as a Journalistic Tool
In the early stages of the war, the Syrian government banned
international news media from covering the revolution. As a
result, social media became the primary source of photos,
videos, and news stories from inside the conflict. The Syrian
civil war represented one of the first major conflicts in which
citizens could instantly record video from the front lines and,
using smartphones, transmit that footage to the Internet in real
time. News organizations, unable to gather information from
any other source, used the uploaded social media to build
their reports.9
Syrians from all sides of the conflict created and shared
this content on various social networking sites, attempting to
build international support for their cause.10 The sheer amount
of content uploaded is staggering; over a million videos from
within the revolution were uploaded to YouTube, often taken
by cellular phone. Another website, OnSyria, was used by pro-
testors to upload nearly 200,000 videos.
More importantly, smartphones and social networks
ensured that any human rights violations from either revolu-
tionaries or the government would be broadcast online, likely
eroding any international support that the inflicting party had.
In August 2013, one of the most defining moments in the
early years of the war occurred when hundreds of civilians
were killed in a sarin gas chemical attack in Ghouta, allegedly
perpetrated by the Syrian government. Almost instantly, wit-
nesses and first responders uploaded photos and video of the
aftermath to social networking sites including YouTube, Reddit,
and Twitter. These images marked a critical turning point in
the global public opinion and international involvement in the
war. The U.S. government had taken a hands-off approach
prior to the attacks; however, once these human rights viola-
tions were broadcast across social media, the U.S. had no choice
but to take a formal stand against the Syrian government.11
Social Media as a Support-Building Tool
Unlike written news releases, pictures and videos have the
ability to convey information in emotional ways that transcend
language. During the Syrian civil war, social media, used as a
visual medium, led the global community to unite behind the
plight of the Syrian refugees in an unprecedented way.
Throughout early 2015, images and videos of overloaded
rafts, filled with desperately fleeing Syrians, dominated social
media. The emotion and suffering of the refugees were con-
veyed through these images to a worldwide audience in real
uploaded to YouTube showing the Syrian government harshly
cracking down on nonviolent protesters, nearly 100,000 Syrians
organized via Facebook and staged a protest in Hama in
June  2011. The strength in numbers afforded by social media
has made the Syrian protests incredibly difficult to dissolve;
the mass scale of protests organized through social networking
sites far outnumbers the military and government forces sent
to suppress them. Tips on how to protect oneself from tear
gas and police batons are shared through Facebook groups,
and Twitter has served as a communication lifeline when gov-
ernment authorities have attempted to disperse the crowds.1,2
Social media has provided such a powerful tool to revolu-
tionaries that the Syrian government has attempted to completely
disrupt Internet service on several occasions since 2011, most
notably during massive protests demanding the removal of
President Bashar al-Assad. Widespread outages spread
through nearly all of Syria, including Damascus, essentially
shutting off all communication with the outside world.3 Cyber
attacks have also been perpetrated by supporters of the Syrian
government in an attempt to censor photos and videos coming
from the protesters; malware programs that steal Facebook
and YouTube logins have been dispatched on a massive scale.4
Smartphones have morphed into a symbol of the revolutionary
forces, with Syrian government soldiers and ISIS border guards
often demanding to inspect cell phones of anyone passing
through their posts.5
Those fleeing the conflict have also utilized social media
to  plan safe escape from Syria. Refugees who successfully
migrated to Europe assist those still making the journey
through online activity. A Facebook group dedicated to sharing
knowledge and advice with fellow refugees has over 100,000
members. Topics range from necessary supplies and route
information to messages of encouragement. Smugglers, often
necessary for safe passage, are recommended and discussed,
and even weather conditions are relayed to those making the
journey by sea.6,7 Refugees in past conflicts often separated
from their family and friends with the unfortunate yet realistic
possibility that they would never reunite. During the Syrian
conflict, refugees have been able to send messages to their
loved ones and update them on their safety throughout their
journey.8 WhatsApp, the instant messaging application, is
popular among refugees not only for familial communication
but also for its ability to connect with transportation, smug-
glers, and even Greek coast guard officials in the event of
an  emergency.

46 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
The role of social media as an organizing tool, a journalistic tool, and a support-building
tool, all in the context of political change, underscores the interesting interactions of
technological progress and political conflict and change. Social media has enabled revo-
lutionaries, governments, journalists, and even terrorists to organize quickly, communi-
cate globally, and build support for their cause, resulting in serious ramifications for
international management. It is important for international managers to think through
these complex political, legal, and technological issues that arise in a world that embraces
rapid change so that they are prepared for potential challenges. MNCs must collabora-
tively work with new governments as laws, policies, and regulations are introduced and
altered. Managing the political and legal environment will continue to be an important
challenge for international managers, as will the rapid changes in the technological envi-
ronment of global business.
■ Political Environment
Both domestic and international political environments have a major impact on MNCs.
As government policies change, MNCs must adjust their strategies and practices to
accommodate the new perspectives and actual requirements. Moreover, in a growing
number of regions and countries, governments appear to be less stable; therefore, these
areas carry more risk than they have in the past. The assessment of political risk and
strategies to cope with it will be given specific attention in Chapter 10, but in this chap-
ter we focus on general political systems with selected areas used as illustrations relevant
to today’s international managers.
The political system or system of government in a country greatly influences how
its people manage and conduct business. We discussed in Chapter 1 how the government
regulates business practices via economic systems. Here we review the general systems
currently in place throughout the world. Political systems vary greatly between nation-
states across the world. The issue with understanding how to conduct international man-
agement extends beyond general knowledge of the governmental practices to the
specifics of the legal and regulatory frameworks in place. Underlying the actions of a
government is the ideology informing the beliefs, values, behavior, and culture of the
nation and its political system. We discussed ideologies and the philosophies underpin-
ning them above. Effective management occurs when these different ideologies and
philosophies are recognized and understood.
A political system can be evaluated along two dimensions. The first dimension
focuses on the rights of citizens under governments ranging from fully democratic to
totalitarian. The other dimension measures whether the focus of the political system is
200,000 times within 24 hours. In the United States, the
United Kingdom, and Canada, the hashtag “#RefugeesWelcome”
swelled to 1.5 million shares.12 Within four days, 78 percent of
the British public had seen the photo of Al-Kurdi, and 92 per-
cent had at least heard about it. The photo was directly linked
to increased support: Those who had seen the photo were
nearly twice as likely to say that the United Kingdom should
take in more refugees.13 Support in the form of financial
donations also surged. Migrant Offshore Aid Station, an NGO
focused on search and rescue efforts, reported a 1,400 per-
cent increase in donations in the 24 hours immediately after
the pictures went viral. Donations to organizations including
Oxfam and Care Canada doubled in one week what had been
raised all year.14
time. Though thousands of images, stories, and videos were
shared over various social networks during the crisis, the
September 2015 photo of a deceased toddler, Aylan Al-Kurdi,
who had drowned during his family’s attempted escape on a
raft across the Mediterranean, provoked global outcry and
underscores the power of social media as a support-building
tool. As a direct result of this image, financial and emotional
support among the global community grew almost instantly.
World leaders, including French President François Hollande,
British Prime Minister David Cameron, and Irish Prime Minister
Enda Kenny, publically expressed support and shock after
seeing the picture of the toddler. Spreading across social
networks almost instantly, the hashtag “#kiyiyavuraninsanlik,”
meaning “Humanity Washed Ashore,” was shared more than

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 47
on individuals or the broader collective. The first dimension is the ideology of the system,
while the second measures the degree of individualism or collectivism. No pure form of
government exists in any category, so we can assume that there are many gradations
along the two extremes. The observed correlation suggests that democratic societies
emphasize individualism, while totalitarian societies lean toward collectivism.15
Ideologies
Individualism Adopters of individualism adhere to the philosophy that people should
be free to pursue economic and political endeavors without constraint. This means that
government interest should not solely influence individual behavior. In a business con-
text, this is synonymous with capitalism and is connected to a free-market society, as
discussed in Chapter 1, which encourages diversity and competition, compounded with
private ownership, to stimulate productivity. It has been argued that private property is
more successful, progressive, and productive than communal property due to increased
incentives for maintenance and focus on care for individually owned property. The idea
is that working in a group requires less energy per person to achieve the same goal, but
an individual will work as hard as he or she has to in order to survive in a competitive
environment. Simply following the status quo will stunt progress, while competing will
increase creativity and progress. Modern managers may witness this when dealing with
those who adopt an individualist philosophy and then must work in a team situation.
Research has shown that team performance is negatively influenced by those who con-
sider themselves individualistic; however, competition stimulates motivation and
encourages increased efforts to achieve goals.16
The groundwork for this ideology was founded long ago. Philosophers such as
David Hume (1711–1776), Adam Smith (1723–1790), and even Aristotle (384–322 BC)
contributed to these principles. While philosophers created the foundation for this belief
system long ago, it can be witnessed playing out through modern practice. Eastern
Europe, the former Soviet Union, areas of Latin America, Great Britain, and Sweden all
have moved toward the idea that the betterment of society is related to the level of free-
dom individuals have in pursuing economic goals, along with general individual free-
doms and self-expression without governmental constraint. The well-known movement
in Britain toward privatization was led by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher during her
11 years in office (1979–1990), when she successfully transferred ownership of many
companies from the state to individuals and reduced the government-owned portion of
gross national product from 10 to 3.9 percent. She was truly a pioneer in the movement
toward a capitalistic society, which has since spread across Europe.
International managers must remain alert as to how political changes may impact
their business, as a continuous struggle for a foothold in government power often affects
leaders in office. For example, Britain’s economy improved under the leadership of Tony
Blair; however, his support of the Iraq War severely weakened his position. Conservative
David Cameron, first elected prime minister in 2010, sought to integrate traditional con-
servative principles without ignoring social development policies, something the Labour
Party has traditionally focused on. More recently, however, increased concerns about
immigration and the role of the EU in managing affairs in member states prompted the
United Kingdom to vote to leave the EU, a process that has been termed “Brexit.” Gov-
ernment policy, in its attempt to control the economic environment, waxes and wanes,
something the international manager must be keenly sensitive to.
Europe has added complexity to the political environment with the unification of
the EU, which celebrated its 60th “birthday” in 2017. Notwithstanding the increasing
integration of the EU, MNCs still need to be responsive to the political environment of
individual countries, some due to the persistence of cultural differences, which will be
discussed in Chapter 5. Yet, there are also significant interdependencies. For example,
the recent economic crises in Greece, Spain, Portugal, and Ireland have prompted
Germany and France to mobilize public and private financial support, even though the
individualism
The political philosophy
that people should be free
to pursue economic and
political endeavors without
constraint (Chapter 2); the
tendency of people to look
after themselves and their
immediate family only
(Chapter 4).

48 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
two largest economies in the euro zone have residual distrust from earlier eras of conflict
and disagreement.17 Europe is no longer a group of fragmented countries; it is a giant
and expanding interwoven region in which international managers must be aware of what
is happening politically, not only in the immediate area of operations but also throughout
the continent. The EU consists of countries that adhere to individualistic orientations as
well as those that follow collectivist ideals.
Collectivism Collectivism views the needs and goals of society at large as more im-
portant than individual desires.18 The reason there is no one rigid form of collectivism
is because societal goals and the decision of how to keep people focused on them differ
greatly among national cultures. The Greek philosopher Plato (427–347 BC) believed
that individual rights should be sacrificed and property should be commonly owned.
While on the surface one may assume that this would lead to a classless society, Plato
believed that classes should still exist and that the best suited should rule over the
people. Many forms of collectivism do not adhere to that idea.
Collectivism emerged in Germany and Italy as “national socialism,” or fascism.
Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that
considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state and
seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or
racial attributes. Various scholars attribute different characteristics to fascism, but the
following elements are usually seen as its integral parts: nationalism, authoritarianism,
militarism, corporatism, collectivism, totalitarianism, anticommunism, and opposition to
economic and political liberalism.
We will explore individualism and collectivism again in Chapter 4 in the context
of national cultural characteristics.
Socialism Socialism directly refers to a society in which there is government ownership
of institutions but profit is not the ultimate goal. In addition to historically communist states
such as China, North Korea, and Cuba, socialism has been practiced to varying degrees in
recent years in a more moderate form—“democratic socialism”—by Great Britain’s Labour
Party, Germany’s Social Democrats, as well as in France, Spain, and Greece.19
Modern socialism draws on the philosophies of Karl Marx (1818–1883), Friedrich
Engels (1820–1895), and Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870–1924). Marx believed that govern-
ments should own businesses because in a capitalistic society only a few would benefit,
and it would probably be at the expense of others in the form of not paying wages due
to laborers. He advocated a classless society where everything was essentially communal.
Socialism is a broad political movement and forms of it are unstable. In modern times,
it branched off into two extremes: communism and social democracy.
Communism is an extreme form of socialism that was realized through violent
revolution and was committed to the idea of a worldwide communist state. During the
1970s, most of the world’s population lived in communist states. The communist party
encompassed the former Soviet Union, China, and nations in Eastern Europe, Southeast
Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Cuba, Nicaragua, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam headed
a notorious list. Today much of the communist collective has disintegrated. China still
exhibits communism in the form of limiting individual political freedom. China has
begun to move away from communism in the economic and business realms because it
has discovered the failure of communism as an economic system due to the tendency of
common goals to stunt economic progress and individual creativity.
Some transition countries, such as Russia, are postcommunist but still retain aspects
of an authoritarian government. Russia presents one of the most extreme examples of
how the political environment affects international management. Poorly managed
approaches to the economic and political transition resulted in neglect, corruption, and
confusing changes in economic policy.20 Devoid of funds and experiencing regular gas
pipeline leaks, toxic drinking water, pitted roads, and electricity shutoffs, Russia did not
present attractive investment opportunities as it moved away from communism. Yet more
collectivism
The political philosophy
that views the needs or
goals of society as a whole
as more important than
individual desires (Chapter 2);
the tendency of people to
belong to groups or
collectives and to look after
each other in exchange for
loyalty (Chapter 4).
socialism
A moderate form of
collectivism in which there
is government ownership of
institutions, and profit is not
the ultimate goal.

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 49
companies are taking the risk of investing in Russia because of increasing ease of entry,
the new attempt at dividing and privatizing the Unified Energy System, and the move-
ment by the Kremlin to begin government funding for the good of society including
education, housing, and health care.21 Actions by the Russian government over the past
few years, however, continue to call into question the transparency and reliability of the
Russian government. BP, Exxon Mobil, and Ikea have each encountered de facto expro-
priation, corruption, and state-directed industrialization (see The World of International
Management at the beginning of Chapter 10).
One of the biggest problems in Russia and in other transition economies is cor-
ruption, which we will discuss in greater depth in Chapter 3. The 2014 Corruption
Perception Index from Transparency International ranked Russia 136th out of 174 coun-
tries, falling behind Egypt and Colombia.22 Brazil, China, and India, part of the BRIC
emerging markets block, consistently score higher than Russia. In the 2015 Heritage
Foundation’s Index of Economic Freedom, Russia’s overall rating in the measurement of
economic openness, regulatory efficiency, the rule of law, and competitiveness remained
at 52.1 this year, ranking it only 2.1 points away from being a repressive economic busi-
ness environment.23 As more MNCs invest in Russia, these unethical practices will face
increasing scrutiny if political forces can be contained. To date, some multinationals feel
that the risk is too great, especially with corruption continuing to spread throughout the
country. Despite the Kremlin’s support of citizens, Russia is in danger of becoming a
unified corrupt system. Still most view Russia as they do China: Both are markets that
are too large and potentially too lucrative to ignore.
Social democracy refers to a socialist movement that achieved its goals through
nonviolent revolution. This system was pervasive in such Western nations as Australia,
France, Germany, Great Britain, Norway, Spain, and Sweden, as well as in India and
Brazil. While social democracy was a great influence on these nations at one time or
another, in practice it was not as viable as anticipated. Businesses that were nationalized
were quite inefficient due to the guarantee of funding and the monopolistic structure.
Citizens suffered a hike in both taxes and prices, which was contrary to the public inter-
est and the good of the people. The 1970s and 1980s witnessed a response to this unfair
structure with the success of Britain’s Conservative Party and Germany’s Christian Dem-
ocratic Party, both of which adopted free-market ideals. Margaret Thatcher, as mentioned
previously, was a great leader in this movement toward privatization. Although many
businesses have been privatized, Britain still has a central government that adheres to
the ideal of social democracy. With Britain facing severe budget shortfalls, Prime Min-
ister David Cameron, first elected in 2010, proposed a comprehensive restructuring of
public services that could further alter the country’s longstanding commitment to a broad
social support program. Under his administration, austerity measures, including cuts to
military and social program spending, were implemented. The Conservatives and David
Cameron were reelected in a landslide in 2015, however, the Brexit vote was seen as a
repudiation to Cameron and he later resigned.24
It is important to note here the difference between the nationalization of businesses
and nationalism. The nationalization of businesses is the transference of ownership of a
business from individuals or groups of individuals to the government. This may be done
for several reasons: The ideologies of the country encourage the government to extract
more money from the firm, the government believes the firm is hiding money, the gov-
ernment has a large investment in the company, or the government wants to secure wages
and employment status because jobs would otherwise be lost. Nationalism, on the other
hand, is an ideal in and of itself whereby an individual is completely loyal to his or her
nation. People who are a part of this mindset gather under a common flag for such
reasons as language or culture. The confusing thing for the international businessperson
is that it can be associated with both individualism and collectivism. Nationalism exists
in the United States, where there is a national anthem and all citizens gather under a
common flag, even though individualism is practiced in the midst of a myriad of cultures
and extensive diversity. Nationalism also exists in China, exemplified in the movement

50 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
against Japan in the mid-1930s and the communist victory in 1949 when communist
leader Mao Tse-tung gathered communists and peasants to fight for a common goal. This
ultimately led to the People’s Republic of China. In the case of modern China, nationalism
presupposes collectivism.
Political Systems
There are two basic anchors to political systems, each of which represents an “ideal type”
that may not exist in pure form.
Democracy Democracy, with its European roots and strong presence in Northern and
Western Europe, refers to the system in which the government is controlled by the citi-
zens either directly or through elections. Essentially, every citizen should be involved in
decision-making processes. The representative government ensures individual freedom
since anyone who is eligible may have a voice in the choices made.
A democratic society cannot exist without at least a two-party system. Once elected,
the representative is held accountable to the electorate for his or her actions, and this
ultimately limits governmental power. Individual freedoms, such as freedom of expression
and assembly, are secured. Further protections of citizens include impartial public service,
such as a police force and court systems that also serve the government and, in turn, the
electorate, though they are not directly affiliated with any political party. Finally, while
representatives may be reelected, the number of terms is often limited, and the elected
representative may be voted out during the next election if he or she does not sufficiently
adhere to the goals of the majority ruling. As mentioned above, a social democracy com-
bines a socialist ideology with a democratic political system, a situation that has charac-
terized many modern European states as well as some in Latin America and other regions.
Totalitarianism Totalitarianism refers to a political system in which there is only one
representative party, which exhibits control over every facet of political and human life.
Power is often maintained by suppression of opposition, which can be violent. Media
censorship, political repression, and denial of rights and civil liberties are dominant ide-
als. If there is opposition to government, the response is imprisonment or even worse
tactics, often torture. This may be used as a form of rehabilitation or simply a warning
to others who may question the government.
Because only one party within each entity exists, there are many forms of totalitarian
government. The most common is communist totalitarianism. Most dictatorships under the
communist party disintegrated by 1989, but as noted above, aspects and degrees of this
form of government are still found in Cuba, North Korea, Laos, Vietnam, and China. The
evolution of modern global business has substantially altered the political systems in Viet-
nam, Laos, and China, each of which has moved toward a more market-based and plural-
istic environment. However, each still exhibits some oppression of citizens through denial
of civil liberties. The political environment in China is very complex because of the gov-
ernment’s desire to balance national, immediate needs with the challenge of a free-market
economy and globalization. Since joining the WTO in 2001, China has made trade liber-
alization a top priority. However, MNCs still face a host of major obstacles when doing
business with and in China. For example, government regulations severely hamper multi-
national activity and favor domestic companies, which results in questionable treatment
such as longer document processing times for foreign firms.25 This makes it increasingly
difficult for MNCs to gain the proper legal footing. The biggest problem may well be that
the government does not know what it wants from multinational investors, and this is what
accounts for the mixed signals and changes in direction that it continually sends. All this
obviously increases the importance of knowledgeable international managers.
China may be moving further away from its communist tendencies as it begins
supporting a more open, democratic society, at least in the economic sphere. China
continues to monitor what it considers antigovernment actions and practices, but there
democracy
A political system in which
the government is
controlled by the citizens
either directly or through
elections.
totalitarianism
A political system in which
there is only one
representative party, which
exhibits control over every
facet of political and
human life.

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 51
is a discernible shift toward greater tolerance of individual freedoms.26 For now, China
continues to challenge the capabilities of current international business theory as it tran-
sitions through a unique system favoring high governmental control yet striving to
unleash a more dynamic market economy.27
Though the most common, the totalitarian form of government exhibited in China
is not the only one. Other forms of totalitarianism exhibit other forms of oppression as
well. Parties or governments that govern an entity based on religious principles will
ultimately oppress religious and political expression of its citizens. Examples are Iran
and Saudi Arabia, where the laws and government are based on Islamic principles. Con-
ducting business in the Middle East is, in many ways, similar to operating a business in
the Western world. The Arab countries have been a generally positive place to do busi-
ness, as many of these nations are seeking modern technology and most have the finan-
cial ability to pay for quality services. Worldwide fallout from the war on terrorism; the
rise of ISIS; the Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syrian wars; and the ongoing Israel–Arab con-
flicts, however, have raised tensions in the Middle East considerably, making the business
environment there risky and potentially dangerous.
The 2011 Arab Spring uprisings have affected business dealings in the authoritar-
ian and/or totalitarian countries across northern Africa and the Middle East. Reasons for
the political unrest varied, but most commonly included factors were oppressive govern-
ment rule, economic decline, high unemployment, and human rights violations. Protest-
ers successfully overthrew four government regimes and forced reforms in almost a dozen
others. The political and economic fallout from the Arab Spring, including the Syrian
civil war discussed in the opening section of this chapter, has left the business environ-
ment with much continued uncertainty. Production and GDP were negatively affected
almost overnight, and fuel prices spiked globally. Supply chain routes were disrupted for
months, increasing the shipping and logistical costs of goods passing through the region.
In Egypt, a military coup overthrew democratically elected Egyptian President Morsi in
2013, and a military general was elected president in a suspect election in 2014. In Libya,
the fall of Gaddafi has resulted in a power vacuum, inviting increased acts of terrorism.
Unemployment in Egypt and Tunisia has not recovered since the uprisings, and inflation
remains around 10 percent.28 According to a late 2011 study by Grant Thornton, 26
percent of businesses in North America, and 22 percent of businesses globally, reported
negative effects from the uprisings.29 A map of the countries that were impacted by the
Arab Spring can be seen in Figure 2–1. Though many countries in the region have
Morocco
Western
Sahara
Algeria
Tunisia Lebanon
Libya Egypt
Saudi
Arabia
Iraq
Syria
Kuwait
Jordan
Oman
Somalia
YemenSudan
Mauritania
Civil war Government overthrown Governmental changes Protests
Figure 2–1
Summary of Arab Spring
Uprisings
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh.

somewhat stabilized, the fallout from the revolutions will continue to impact international
business.
One final form of totalitarianism, sometimes referred to as “right-wing,” allows for
some economic (but not political) freedoms. While it directly opposes socialist and com-
munist ideas, this form may gain power and support from the military, often in the form
of a military leader imposing a government “for the good of the people.” This results in
military officers filling most government positions. Such military regimes ruled in
Germany and Italy from the 1930s to the 1940s and persisted in Latin America and Asia
until the 1980s, when the latter moved toward democratic forms. Recent examples include
Myanmar, where the military ruled as a dictatorship from 1962 to 2011.
■ Legal and Regulatory Environment
One reason why today’s international environment is so confusing and challenging for
MNCs is that they face so many different laws and regulations in their global business
operations. These factors affect the way businesses are developed and managed within
host nations, so special consideration must be paid to the subtle differences in the legal
codes from one country to another. Adhering to disparate legal frameworks sometimes
prevents large MNCs from capitalizing on manufacturing economies of scale and scope
within these regions. In addition, the sheer complexity and magnitude of bureaucracies
A Closer Look
The Economic Impacts of Global Terrorism
A New Challenge for the International
Business  Community
As discussed in the opening section of this chapter,
social media has made global communication easier,
which unfortunately includes the orchestration of terror-
ist attacks. Global terrorism is a relatively new challenge;
no longer are terrorist attacks small, one-person events
isolated to a particular region or country. Over the last
decade, attacks in Madrid, London, and Paris have
involved a high degree of complexity and organization.
Organizations like ISIS are recruiting worldwide through
social networking sites, working to organize attacks far
from their home base in Syria. Living in an intercon-
nected world, it would be naïve to believe that the threat
of terrorism does not affect the international business
community.
Evidence shows that the tourism industry appears to
be especially impacted by the threat of terrorism, at
least in the short term. According to the Paris Conven-
tion and Visitors Bureau, the November 2015 terrorist
attacks in Paris, which killed 130 civilians, resulted in a
sudden, yet temporary, decline in tourism activity. Res-
taurants, shops, and related businesses lost revenue,
and hotels reported that the number of visitors declined
sharply in the weeks following the attacks. Forty per-
cent of hotel bookings in Brussels were cancelled the
weekend following the Paris attacks, when suspected
terrorist apartments were raided in Belgium. In places
like France, where seven percent of economic activity
and nearly two million jobs are dependent on tourism,
even a slight decrease in visitors has a high economic
impact. There is some evidence that terrorism nega-
tively impacts other sectors of the economy as well.
According to a report issued by financial services firm
Markit, manufacturing and service providers grew at a
slower rate in November 2015 than expected. Service
providers specifically stated that the terrorist attacks in
Paris contributed to negative performance and a
decrease in consumer confidence. Some estimates
suggest that the November attacks could ultimately
cost the French economy tens of billions of euros.
Despite these setbacks, the long-term economic
impact from terrorist attacks does not appear to be sub-
stantial. Past terrorist attack locations, such as New York
City, quickly rebounded from short-term economic set-
backs. Stock market volatility following previous terror
attacks has always stabilized fairly quickly, indicating a
continued confidence from investors despite living in a
world with this new type of uncertainty. The global econ-
omy faces a variety of challenges in the 21st century—
climate change, political tensions, and demographic
shifts, to name a few. Global terrorism, like these other
challenges, will likely continue to cause some disruption
to the international business community, but it will not
stop economic progress.
Sources: Walker, Andrew, “Paris Attacks: Assessing the economic
impact,” BBC, December 2, 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/
business-34965000; “Market Flash France PMI,” Markit Economics,
November 23, 2015. https://www.markiteconomics.com/; Newton-
Small, Jay, “The Cost of the Paris Attacks,” Time, November 23, 2015.
http://time.com/4123827/paris-attacks-tourism/.
52

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 53
require special attention. This, in turn, results in slower time to market and greater costs.
MNCs must take time to carefully evaluate the legal framework in each market in which
they do business before launching products or services in those markets.
There are four foundations on which laws are based around the world. Briefly
summarized, these are
1. Islamic law. This is law derived from interpretation of the Qur’an and the
teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. It is found in most Islamic countries in
the Middle East and Central Asia.
2. Socialist law. This law comes from the Marxist socialist system and contin-
ues to influence regulations in former communist countries, especially those
from the former Soviet Union, as well as present-day China, Vietnam, North
Korea, and Cuba. Since socialist law requires most property to be owned by
the state or state-owned enterprises, MNCs have traditionally shied away from
these countries.
3. Common law. This comes from English law, and it is the foundation of the
legal system in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, New Zealand,
and other nations.
4. Civil or code law. This law is derived from Roman law and is found in the
non-Islamic and nonsocialist countries such as France, some countries in
Latin America, and even Louisiana in the United States.
With these broad notions serving as points of departure, the following sections
discuss basic principles and examples of the international legal environment facing
MNCs today.
Basic Principles of International Law
When compared with domestic law, international law is less coherent because its sources
embody not only the laws of individual countries concerned with any dispute but also
treaties (universal, multilateral, or bilateral) and conventions (such as the Geneva Conven-
tion on Human Rights or the Vienna Convention of Diplomatic Security). In addition,
international law contains unwritten understandings that arise from repeated interactions
among nations. Conforming to all the different rules and regulations can create a major
problem for MNCs. Fortunately, much of what they need to know can be subsumed under
several broad and related principles that govern the conduct of international law.
Sovereignty and Sovereign Immunity The principle of sovereignty holds that gov-
ernments have the right to rule themselves as they see fit. In turn, this implies that one
country’s court system cannot be used to rectify injustices or impose penalties in another
country unless that country agrees. So while U.S. laws require equality in the workplace
for all employees, U.S. citizens who take a job in Japan cannot sue their Japanese em-
ployer under the provisions of U.S. law for failure to provide equal opportunity for them.
International Jurisdiction International law provides for three types of jurisdictional
principles. The first is the nationality principle, which holds that every country has
jurisdiction (authority or power) over its citizens no matter where they are located. There-
fore, a U.S. manager who violates the American Foreign Corrupt Practices Act while
traveling abroad can be found guilty in the United States. The second is the territoriality
principle, which holds that every nation has the right of jurisdiction within its legal
territory. Therefore, a German firm that sells a defective product in England can be sued
under English law even though the company is headquartered outside England. The third
is the protective principle, which holds that every country has jurisdiction over behav-
ior that adversely affects its national security, even if that conduct occurred outside the
country. Therefore, a French firm that sells secret U.S. government blueprints for a
satellite system can be subjected to U.S. laws.
Islamic law
Law that is derived from
interpretation of the Qur’an
and the teachings of the
Prophet Muhammad and is
found in most Islamic
countries.
socialist law
Law that comes from the
Marxist socialist system and
continues to influence
regulations in countries
formerly associated with the
Soviet Union as well as
China.
common law
Law that derives from
English law and is the
foundation of legislation in
the United States, Canada,
and England, among other
nations.
civil or code law
Law that is derived from
Roman law and is found in
the non-Islamic and
nonsocialist countries.
principle of sovereignty
An international principle
of law that holds that
governments have the right
to rule themselves as they
see fit.
nationality principle
A jurisdictional principle of
international law that holds
that every country has
jurisdiction over its citizens
no matter where they are
located.
territoriality principle
A jurisdictional principle of
international law that holds
that every nation has the
right of jurisdiction within
its legal territory.
protective principle
A jurisdictional principle of
international law that holds
that every country has
jurisdiction over behavior
that adversely affects its
national security, even if the
conduct occurred outside
that country.

54 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
Doctrine of Comity The doctrine of comity holds that there must be mutual respect
for the laws, institutions, and governments of other countries in the matter of jurisdiction
over their own citizens. Although this doctrine is not part of international law, it is part
of international custom and tradition.
Act of State Doctrine Under the act of state doctrine, all acts of other governments
are considered to be valid by U.S. courts, even if such acts are inappropriate in the United
States. As a result, for example, foreign governments have the right to set limits on the
repatriation of MNC profits and to forbid companies from sending more than this amount
out of the host country back to the United States.
Treatment and Rights of Aliens Countries have the legal right to refuse admission of
foreign citizens and to impose special restrictions on their conduct, their right of travel,
where they can stay, and what business they may conduct. Nations also can deport aliens.
For example, the United States has the right to limit the travel of foreign scientists com-
ing into the United States to attend a scientific convention and can insist they remain
within five miles of their hotel. After the horrific events of 9/11, the U.S. government
began greater enforcement of laws related to illegal aliens. As a consequence, closer
scrutiny of visitors and temporary workers, including expatriate workers from India and
elsewhere who have migrated to the United States for high-tech positions, may result in
worker shortages.30
Forum for Hearing and Settling Disputes This is a principle of U.S. justice as it
applies to international law. At their discretion, U.S. courts can dismiss cases brought
before them by foreigners; however, they are bound to examine issues including where
the plaintiffs are located, where the evidence must be gathered, and where the property
to be used in restitution is located. One of the best examples of this principle is the
Union Carbide pesticide plant disaster in Bhopal, India. Over 2,000 people were killed
and thousands left permanently injured when a toxic gas enveloped 40 square kilome-
ters around the plant. The New York Court of Appeals sent the case back to India for
resolution.
Examples of Legal and Regulatory Issues
The principles described above help form the international legal and regulatory frame-
work within which MNCs must operate. In the following, we examine some examples
of specific laws and situations that can have a direct impact on international business.
Financial Services Regulation The global financial crisis of 2008–2010 underscored
the integrated nature of financial markets around the world and the reality that regulatory
failure in one jurisdiction can have severe and immediate impacts on others.31 The global
contagion that enveloped the world was exacerbated, in part, by the availability of global
derivatives trading and clearing and the relatively lightly regulated private equity and
hedge fund industries. The crisis and its broad economic effects have prompted regulators
around the world to consider tightening aspects of financial services regulation, espe-
cially those related to the risks associated with the derivatives activities of banks and
their involvement in trading for their own account. In the United States, financial reform
legislation was approved in July of 2010, although the degree to which that legislation
would prevent another crisis remained hotly debated.32 The nearby Closer Look box
provides a comparison of proposed and implemented financial reform approaches across
the globe.
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act During the special prosecutor’s investigation of the
Watergate scandal in the early 1970s, a number of questionable payments made by U.S.
corporations to public officials abroad were uncovered. These bribes became the focal
doctrine of comity
A jurisdictional principle of
international law that holds
that there must be mutual
respect for the laws,
institutions, and
governments of other
countries in the matter of
jurisdiction over their own
citizens.
act of state doctrine
A jurisdictional principle
of international law that
holds that all acts of other
governments are considered
to be valid by U.S. courts,
even if such acts are illegal
or inappropriate under
U.S. law.

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 55
point of investigations by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC), and Justice Department. This concern over bribes in the international
arena eventually culminated in the 1977 passage of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
(FCPA), which makes it illegal to influence foreign officials through personal payment
or political contributions. The objectives of the FCPA were to stop U.S. MNCs from
initiating or perpetuating corruption in foreign governments and to upgrade the image of
both the United States and its businesses abroad.
Critics of the FCPA feared the loss of sales to foreign competitors, especially in
those countries where bribery is an accepted way of doing business. Nevertheless, the
U.S. government pushed ahead and attempted to enforce the act. Some of the countries
that were named in early bribery cases under the law included Algeria, Kuwait, Saudi
Arabia, and Turkey. The U.S. State Department tried to convince the SEC and Justice
Department not to reveal countries or foreign officials who were involved in its investi-
gations for fear of creating internal political problems for U.S. allies. Although this
political sensitivity was justified for the most part, several interesting developments
occurred: (1) MNCs found that they could live within the guidelines set down by the
FCPA and (2) many foreign governments actually applauded these investigations under
the FCPA because it helped them crack down on corruption in their own country.
One analysis reported that since passage of the FCPA, U.S. exports to “bribe prone”
countries actually increased.33 Investigations reveal that once bribes were removed as a
key competitive tool, more MNCs were willing to do business in that country. This
proved to be true even in the Middle East, where many U.S. MNCs always assumed that
bribes were required to ensure contracts. Evidence shows that this is no longer true in
most cases; and in cases where it is true, those companies that engage in bribery face a
strengthened FCPA that now allows the courts to both fine and imprison guilty parties.
In addition, stepped-up enforcement appears to be having a real impact. A report from
the law firm Jones Day found that FCPA actions are increasingly targeting individual
executives, not just corporations; that penalties imposed under the FCPA have skyrocketed;
and that violations have spurred a number of collateral civil actions.34
Bureaucratization Very restrictive foreign bureaucracies are one of the biggest prob-
lems facing MNCs. This is particularly true when bureaucratic government controls are
inefficient and left uncorrected. A good example is Japan, whose political parties feel
more beholden to their local interests than to those in the rest of the country. As a result,
it is extremely difficult to reorganize the Japanese bureaucracy and streamline the ways
things are done because so many politicians are more interested in the well-being of their
own districts than in the long-term well-being of the nation as a whole. In turn, parochial
actions create problems for MNCs trying to do business there. The administration of
Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi of Japan tried to reduce some of this bureaucracy,
although the fact that Japan has had seven different prime ministers from 2006 to 2015
has not helped these efforts. Certainly the long-running recessionary economy of the
country is inspiring reforms in the nation’s antiquated banking system, opening up the
Japanese market to more competition.35
Japanese businesses are also becoming more aware of the fact that they are depen-
dent on the world market for many goods and services and that when bureaucratic red
tape drives up the costs of these purchases, local consumers pay the price. These busi-
nesses are also beginning to realize that government bureaucracy can create a false sense
of security and leave them unprepared to face the harsh competitive realities of the
international marketplace.
In many developing and emerging markets, bureaucratic red tape impedes business
growth and innovation. The World Bank conducts an annual survey to determine the ease
of doing business in a variety of countries around the world. The survey includes indi-
vidual items related to starting a business, dealing with construction permits, employing
workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading
across borders, enforcing contracts, and closing a business. A composite ranking, as
Foreign Corrupt Practices
Act (FCPA)
An act that makes it illegal
to influence foreign
officials through personal
payment or political
contributions; became U.S.
law in 1977 because of
concerns over bribes in the
international business
arena.

A Closer Look
Comparing Recent Global Financial Reforms
Preventing More Tax-Funded Bailouts
The G20 wants to end the belief among banks that they
are “too big to fail” by requiring resolution mechanisms
and “living wills” for speedy windups that don’t destabi-
lize markets. As a legislative body for a unified country,
the United States’ Senate was able to set up an “orderly
liquidation” process fairly quickly through Title II of the
Dodd-Frank Act. Japan’s Diet passed similar reforms by
amending its existing Deposit Insurance Act in 2013.
The EU, as a collection of 28 states with no common
insolvency laws, faces a much harder task of thrashing
out a pan-EU mechanism even though cross-border
banks dominate the sector. To ensure that resolution
funds can quickly be collected and paid even when
banks cross international borders, the European Com-
mission established a centralized banking union in
2012. This banking union essentially transfers the leg-
islating of banking policies from individual nations to the
EU as a whole. Two major initiatives have resulted from
this shift: the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) and
the Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM). The SSM, which
became operational in 2014, supervises the financial
health of banking institutions across Europe. The SRM,
which came into force on January 1, 2016, provides
restructuring assistance to failing EU banks. The SRM is
funded through contributions made by other banking
institutions, thereby protecting taxpayers.
Winners/Losers: Banks face an extra levy on top of
higher capital and liquidity requirements. Taxpayers
should be better shielded. Messy patchwork for global
banks, which will come under pressure to “subsidiarize”
operations in different countries.
Over-the-Counter Derivatives
The G20 agreed that derivatives should be standard-
ized where possible so they can be centrally cleared
and traded on an exchange by the end of 2012; three-
quarters of the G20 members were able to meet this
deadline. Some countries have taken reforms a step
further. The U.S. Senate adopted legislation (Dodd-Frank
Act) requiring banks to spin off their swaps desk to iso-
late risks from depositors, and, in 2014, Canada
expanded the ability of banking regulators to set restric-
tions over banks that trade standard derivatives.
However, some disagreement has risen between the
EU and the U.S. within the international derivatives mar-
ket. Between 2014 and 2016, regulators in Europe and
the United States were unable to agree on whether each
other’s clearinghouse rules were equivalent. Without an
agreement, European traders would have faced higher
capital requirements, likely resulting in less transnational
trading. In 2016, the EU and the United States finally
reached a deal on the oversight of clearinghouses, pav-
ing the way for a more unified global market.
Winners/Losers: Cross-border trading within the
United States and the EU will continue uninterrupted.
Corporations face costlier hedging as there will be
heavier capital charges on uncleared trades, but differ-
ences in exemption scope could be exploited.
Bonuses
The G20 has introduced principles to curb excessive
pay and bonuses, such as requiring a big chunk of a
bonus to be deferred over several years with a claw-
back mechanism. The United States and the EU are
applying these principles and taking their own actions,
such as a one-off tax in Britain.
Winners/Losers: Harder to justify big bonuses in the
future.
Credit Ratings Agencies
The G20 agreed that ratings agencies should be required
to register, report to supervisors, and show how they man-
age internal conflicts of interest. In 2014 the EU adopted
even stricter laws, increasing the disclosure requirements
regarding fees charged by credit rating agencies. Also in
2014, the Securities and Exchange Commission in the
United States adopted stricter requirements for credit rat-
ing agencies, aimed at preventing conflicts of interest and
increasing standards and transparency.
Winners/Losers: Ratings agencies will have to justify
what they do much more in the future. The “Big Three”—
Fitch, S&P, and Moody’s—may face more competition in
the EU. The sector faces more efforts to dilute their role
in determining bank capital requirements.
Hedge Funds/Private Equity
The United States and the EU are working in parallel to
introduce a G20 pledge to require hedge fund manag-
ers to register and report a range of data on their posi-
tions. U.S. law is in line with G20 but exempts private
equity and venture capital. The EU wants to go much
further by including private equity and requiring third-
country funds and managers to abide by strict require-
ments if they want to solicit European investors, a step
the United States says is discriminatory. Managers of
alternative funds in the EU would also have curbs on
remuneration, an element absent from U.S. reform.
Winners/Losers: U.S. hedge fund managers may find
it harder to do business in the EU. European investors
may end up with less choice. Regulators will have better
data on funds. EU managers may decamp to Switzer-
land, though also for tax reasons.
Banks Trading
The U.S. Senate has adopted the “Volcker Rule,” which
would ban risky trading unrelated to customers’ needs
at deposit-insured banks. The Volcker Rule’s associated
regulations were fully implemented in the United States
56

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 57
shown in Table 2–1, ranks the overall ease of doing business in these countries. Although
developed countries generally rank better (higher), there are some developing countries
(Georgia, Malaysia) that do well, and some developed economies (Greece) that do poorly.
In Table 2–1 economies are ranked on their ease of doing business, from 1 to 189,
with first place being the best. A high ranking on the ease-of-doing-business index means
the regulatory environment is conducive to the operation of business. This index averages
the country’s percentile rankings on 10 topics, made up of a variety of indicators, giving
equal weight to each topic. The rankings are benchmarked to June 2015.
Privatization
Another example of the changing international regulatory environment is the current
move toward privatization by an increasing number of countries. The German govern-
ment, for example, has sped up privatization and deregulation of its telecommunications
market. This has opened a host of opportunities for MNCs looking to create joint ventures
with local German firms. Additionally, the French government has put some of its busi-
nesses on the sale block. Meanwhile, in China the government is slowly moving forward
with plans to partially privatize many of its state-owned enterprises. In late 2015, the
Chinese government announced reforms allowing private investment in state-owned
enterprises. These reforms are likely aimed at increasing the profitability of the
in 2014. Similar regulation in Europe has been slower
to take shape. Many key EU states are against the rule
as they want to preserve their universal banking model,
though, in 2015, the European Commission sent a pro-
posal to the European Parliament for consideration.
Winners/Losers: Some trading could switch to the EU
from the United States inside global banks.
Systemic Risk
The G20 wants mechanisms in place to spot and tackle
systemwide risks better, a core lesson from the crisis.
The U.S. Senate bill sets up a council of regulators that
includes the Federal Reserve, but the U.S. House wants
a bigger role for the Fed. The EU has approved a reform
that will make the European Central Bank the hub of a
pan-EU systemic risk board.
Winners/Losers: ECB is a big winner with an enhanced
role that many see as a platform for a more pervasive
role in the future. Banks will have yet another pair of
eyes staring down at them.
Bank Capital Requirements
The push to beef up bank capital and liquidity require-
ments is being led by the global Basel Committee of
central bankers and supervisors, which is toughening up
its global accord as requested by the G20. It took at the
end of 2012. The U.S. bill directs regulators to increase
capital requirements on large financial firms as they
grow in size or engage in riskier activities. In 2015, the
Federal Reserve further increased the capital require-
ments for the eight largest banks.
The EU has approved new rules to beef up capital
on trading books and allow supervisors to slap extra
capital requirements if remuneration is encouraging
excessively risky behavior. Additional rules were imple-
mented to strengthen corporate governance and
increase transparency.
Winners/Losers: Bank return on equity is set to be
squeezed. Regulators will have many more tools to
control the sector. Higher costs are likely to be passed
on to consumer investors. There could be timing issues
as the EU has been more willing than the United States
in the past to adopt Basel rules.
Fixing Securitization
The U.S. Senate bill forces securitizers to keep a base-
line 5 percent of credit risk on securitized assets. The
EU has already approved a law to this effect.
Winners/Losers: Banks say privately the 5 percent
level is low enough not to make much difference and
that the key problem is restoring investor confidence
into the tarnished sector.
Sources: Tracy, Ryan; McGrane, Victoria; Baer, Justin, “Fed Lifts Capi-
tal Requirements for Banks,” The Wall Street Journal, July 20, 2015;
“SEC Adopts Credit Rating Agency Reform Rules,” US Securities and
Exchange Commission, August 27, 2014; Brush, Silla; Verlaine, Julia-
Ambra, “EU, U.S. Reach Deal on Clearing Rules for Derivatives Mar-
ket,” BloombergBusiness, February 10, 2016; Mayeda, Andrew,
“Canada to Increase Regulation of Over-the-Counter Derivatives,”
BloombergBusiness, February 11, 2014; “Factbox: Comparing EU
and U.S. Financial Reform,” Reuters, May 19, 2010. Additional
research by authors.

Ta
b
le
2
-1
E
as
e-
o
f-
D
o
in
g
-B
u
si
n
es
s
R
an
ki
n
g
a
m
o
n
g
S
el
ec
t
C
o
u
n
tr
ie
s
(2
0
1
5
)

E
as
e
o
f

D
o
in
g

D
ea
lin
g

B
u
si
n
es
s

w
it
h

Tr
ad
in
g

(O
ve
ra
ll)

S
ta
rt
in
g
a

C
o
n
st
ru
ct
io
n

G
et
ti
n
g

R
eg
is
te
ri
n
g

G
et
ti
n
g

P
ro
te
ct
in
g

P
ay
in
g

ac
ro
ss

E
n
fo
rc
in
g

R
es
o
lv
in
g

E
co
n
o
m
y
R
an
k
B
u
si
n
es
s
P
er
m
it
s
E
le
ct
ri
ci
ty

P
ro
p
er
ty

C
re
d
it

In
ve
st
o
rs

Ta
xe
s
B
o
rd
er
s
C
o
n
tr
ac
ts

In
so
lv
en
cy
S
in
g
ap
o
re

1

1
0

1

6

1
7

1
9

1

5

4
1

1

2
7
U
n
ite
d
K
in
g
d
o
m

6

1
7

2
3

1
5

4
5

1
9

4

1
5

3
8

3
3

1
3
U
n
ite
d
S
ta
te
s
7

4
9

3
3

4
4

3
4

2

3
5

5
3

3
4

2
1

5
S
w
e
d
e
n

8

1
6

1
9

7

1
1

7
0

1
4

3
7

1
7

2
4

1
9
F
in
la
n
d

1
0

3
3

2
7

1
6

2
0

4
2

6
6

1
7

3
2

3
0

1
Ta
iw
an

1
1

2
2

6

2

1
8

5
9

2
5

3
9

6
5

1
6

2
1
A
u
st
ra
lia

1
3

1
1

4

3
9

4
7

5

6
6

4
2

8
9

4

1
4
G
e
rm
an
y
1
5

1
0
7

1
3

3

6
2

2
8

4
9

7
2

3
5

1
2

3
Ir
e
la
n
d

1
7

2
5

4
3

3
0

3
9

2
8

8

6

4
8

9
3

2
0
M
al
ay
si
a
1
8

1
4

1
5

1
3

3
8

2
8

4

3
1

4
9

4
4

4
5
G
e
o
rg
ia

2
4

6

1
1

6
2

3

7

2
0

4
0

7
8

1
3

1
0
1
F
ra
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ce

2
7

3
2

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2
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8
5

7
9

2
9

8
7

1

1
4

2
4
U
n
ite
d
A
ra
b
E
m
ir
at
e
s
3
1

6
0

2

4

1
0

9
7

4
9

1

1
0
1

1
8

9
1
Ja
p
an

3
4

8
1

6
8

1
4

4
8

7
9

3
6

1
2
1

5
2

5
1

2
K
az
ak
h
st
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4
1

2
1

9
2

7
1

1
9

7
0

2
5

1
8

1
2
2

9

4
7
R
u
ss
ia
n
F
e
d
e
ra
tio
n

5
1

4
1

1
1
9

2
9

8

4
2

6
6

4
7

1
7
0

5

5
1
G
re
e
ce

6
0

5
4

6
0

4
7

1
4
4

7
9

4
7

6
6

2
7

1
3
2

5
4
B
ah
ra
in

6
5

1
4
0

9

7
7

2
5

1
0
9

1
1
1

8

8
5

1
0
1

8
5
S
au
d
i
A
ra
b
ia

8
2

1
3
0

1
7

2
4

3
1

7
9

9
9

3

1
5
0

8
6

1
8
9
K
e
n
ya

1
0
8

1
5
1

1
4
9

1
2
7

1
1
5

2
8

1
1
5

1
0
1

1
3
1

1
0
2

1
4
4
In
d
o
n
e
si
a
1
0
9

1
7
3

1
0
7

4
6

1
3
1

7
0

8
8

1
4
8

1
0
5

1
7
0

7
7
B
ra
zi
l
1
1
6

1
7
4

1
6
9

2
2

1
3
0

9
7

2
9

1
7
8

1
4
5

4
5

6
2
A
rg
e
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tin
a
1
2
1

1
5
7

1
7
3

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5

1
1
6

7
9

4
9

1
7
0

1
4
3

3
8

9
5
C
am
b
o
d
ia

1
2
7

1
8
0

1
8
1

1
4
5

1
2
1

1
5

1
1
1

9
5

9
8

1
7
4

8
2
In
d
ia

1
3
0

1
5
5

1
8
3

7
0

1
3
8

4
2

4
9

1
5
2

1
2
7

1
8
4

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approximately 115 large state-owned conglomerates. The returns for these businesses,
ranging from telecommunications to energy, have been far lower than those from related
private enterprises. Despite these small reforms, some still express doubt that the Com-
munist Party will allow a true market-based economy to take hold. The state still controls
80,000 small-scale businesses across the country, plans to maintain a high level of con-
trol over the nationalized conglomerates, and continues to exert a level of control over
the stock market.36,37
Poland, transitioning from a state-planned economy to a free-market economy,
underwent extensive privatization of its state-owned enterprises in the early 2000s. The
mass privatization of industries, including insurance and coal mining, boosted the Warsaw
Stock Exchange into the top ten European markets by value.38 Turkey had issued various
privatization tenders in the energy and electricity sectors; Nigeria finalized the privatiza-
tion of three of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria successor companies in 2012;
International Management in Action
Bitcoin and other Decentralized Currencies in the Digital Age
Alternative, extra-governmental currencies have sparked
the interest of many due to the global nature of online
transactions. In the past, these virtual currencies were
centrally controlled and often quickly shut down by gov-
ernmental regulations. Virtual currencies in the early
2000s, such as “E-gold” and “Liberty Reserve,” were
prone to criminal activity and illegal transactions. These
virtual currencies acted more as businesses than as
peer-to-peer transaction devices, and the currencies
provided little flexibility in real, everyday use.
In 2008, a paper published online by Satoshi Naka-
moto, titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash Sys-
tem,” outlined a new concept for digital currency, in which
open peer-to-peer transactions replace the need for cen-
tralized currency oversight and regulation. Little is known
about “Satoshi Nakamoto,” with many now believing that
the name is a pseudonym for a group of individuals. In
2009, Nakamoto released the first peer-to-peer Bitcoin
software and issued the first round of currency. Unlike its
predecessors, Bitcoin is easy to use when purchasing
real, tangible goods. In recent years, Bitcoin has quickly
grown into the most widely used digital currency.
Like traditional paper currency, Bitcoin depends on
faith of the users for the system to work. Rather than
relying on a central bank, Bitcoin relies on a decentral-
ized ledger system to maintain the overall value within
the market. On a basic level, every registered user main-
tains a copy of the ledger, which displays the individual
balance of Bitcoin for every other user. Transactions in
Bitcoin are, in essence, just the debiting and crediting
of those balances. The open, public sharing of the value
of the transactions occurring in Bitcoin is essential, as
this allows for the role of the central banking institution
to be completely replaced, thereby “decentralizing” the
currency. As of February 2016, the market capitalization
of Bitcoin was about US$6 billion. More than 1,000
retailers, both online and in brick-and-mortar locations,
now accept Bitcoin.
Bitcoin and other decentralized digital currencies
could provide an alternative method of storing value in
times of currency uncertainty. In 2015, when Greece’s
inability to meet its debt repayment schedule led to
restrictions on bank withdrawals and growing uncer-
tainty for the future of the European Union, Bitcoin saw
a surge in activity across Europe. In July, the number of
Greeks registering to buy and sell Bitcoin increased ten-
fold, and trades increased by 79 percent. Bitcoin mar-
kets in Germany, Poland, and China saw large increases
in activity from Greek computers.
Governments appear to be cautiously open to the
use of Bitcoin within their borders. Almost every country
allows the use of Bitcoin for private transactions. The
United States and EU have issued only modest warnings
regarding the use of digital currencies, and few legal
regulations exist. In 2015, the United States officially
recognized Bitcoin as a commodity.
Bitcoin’s growth has not been completely smooth. A
series of rapid increases and decreases in the value of
a Bitcoin, from US$0.08 in 2010 to over US$1,200 in
2013, has led to many economists, including former U.S.
Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan, to declare
the currency a bubble. Though the currency has stabi-
lized to a value of between US$200 and US$400 in
recent years, rapid price swings are still commonplace.
Illegal activity, including drug trafficking and money
laundering, does occur through Bitcoin marketplaces,
though the open ledger concept behind the currency
makes these activities easier to trace. As a digital cur-
rency, malware and computer viruses have also led to
some limited instances of theft. Bitcoin’s encryption,
however, is still regarded as strong.
Bitcoin appears to be reaching a tipping point. While
some economists insist that Bitcoin will ultimately sink to
a value of zero, others predict that the currency will rise
to a value of over US$40,000. Perhaps the ultimate suc-
cess or failure of Bitcoin as a digital currency lies not in
its own design, but in the uncertainties that led to its initial
rise in popularity. If consumers continue to cast doubt over
government-issued, centralized currencies, Bitcoin could
continue to grow in popularity for years to come.
59

60 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
and Pakistan had privatized 167 state-owned enterprises since its inception, yielding
US$9 billion in proceeds to the government.39 As described in the International Manage-
ment in Action box “Brazilian Economic Reform” in Chapter 1, many developing coun-
tries are privatizing their state-owned companies to provide greater competition and access
to service.
Regulation of Trade and Investment
The regulation of international trade and investment is another area in which individual
countries use their legal and regulatory policies to affect the international management
environment. The rapid increase in trade and investment has raised concerns among
countries that others are not engaging in fair trade, based on the fundamental principles
of international trade as specified in the WTO and other trade and investment agreements.
Specifically, international trade rules require countries to provide “national treatment,”
which means that they will not discriminate against others in their trade relations. Unfor-
tunately, many countries engage in government support (subsidies) and other types of
practices that distort trade. For example, many developing countries require that foreign
MNCs take on local partners in order to do business. Others mandate that MNCs employ
a certain percentage of local workers or produce a specific amount in their country. These
practices are not limited to developing countries. Japan, the United States, and many
European countries use product standards, “buy local” regulations, and other policies to
protect domestic industries and restrict trade.
In addition, most trade agreements require that countries extend most-favored-nation
status such that trade benefits accorded one country (such as tariff reductions under the
WTO) are accorded all other countries that are parties to that agreement. The emergence
of regional trade arrangements has called into question this commitment because, by
definition, agreements among a few countries (NAFTA, EU) give preference to those
specific members over those who are not part of these trading “blocs.” As discussed in
Chapter 1, many countries engage in antidumping actions intended to offset the practice
of trading partners “dumping” products at below cost or home market price, as well as
countervailing duty actions intended to offset foreign government subsidization. In each
case, there is evidence that many countries abuse these laws to protect domestic industries,
something the WTO has been more vigilant in monitoring in recent years.
■ Technological Environment and Global Shifts
in  Production
Technological advancements not only connect the world at incredible speed but also aid in
the increased quality of products, information gathering, and R&D. Manufacturing, infor-
mation processing, and transportation are just a few examples of where technology improves
organizational and personal business. The need for instant communication increases
exponentially as global markets expand. MNCs need to keep their businesses connected;
this is becoming increasingly easier as technology contributes to “flattening the world.”
Thomas Friedman, in his book The World Is Flat, writes that such events as the introduc-
tion of the Internet or the World Wide Web, along with mobile technologies, open sourc-
ing, and work flow software distribution, not only enable businesses and individuals to
access vast amounts of information at their fingertips in real time but are also resulting
in the world flattening into a more level playing field.40
Trends in Technology, Communication, and Innovation
The innovation of the microprocessor could be considered the foundation of much of the
technological and computing advancements seen today.41 The creation of a digital frame-
work allowed high-power computer performance at low cost. This then gave birth to such
breakthroughs as the development of enhanced telecommunication systems, which will

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 61
be explored in greater depth later in the chapter. Now, computers, telephones, televisions,
and wireless forms of communication have merged to create multimedia products and
allow users anywhere in the world to communicate with one another. The Internet allows
one to obtain information from literally billions of sources.
Global connections do not necessarily level the playing field, however. Throughout
the early 2000s, the challenge of integrating telecom standards became an issue for
MNCs in China. Qualcomm Corporation had wanted to sell China narrowband CDMA
(code division multiple access) technology; however, Qualcomm was initially unsuccess-
ful in convincing the government that it could build enough products locally. Instead,
China’s network, the world’s largest mobile network, used primarily the GSM technology
that is popular in Europe.42 Following the reorganization of China’s telecommunication
industry in 2009, however, CDMA gained a foothold in China. In 2015 alone, China
Telecom was expected to sell an estimated 100 million CDMA handsets.43
Furthermore, concepts like the open-source model allow for free and legal sharing
of software and code, which may be utilized by underdeveloped countries in an attempt
to gain competitive advantage while minimizing costs. India exemplifies this practice as
it continues to increase its adoption of the Linux operating system (OS) in place of the
global standard Microsoft Windows. The state of Kerala shifted the software of its 2,600
high schools to the Linux system, enabling each user to configure it to his or her needs,
with the goal of creating a new generation of adept programmers. Microsoft, through its
DreamSpark program, has been providing students access to its latest developer and
designer tools at no charge. The program aims to unlock students’ creative potential and
set them on the path to academic and career success and, since its inception, has provided
nearly 50 million free downloads. Originally launched in the United States and United
Kingdom, the DreamSpark program is now available to students in over 165 countries.44
More broadly, a number of for-profit and nonprofit firms have been aggressively working
to bring low-cost computers into the hands of the hundreds of millions of children in the
developing world who have not benefited from the information and computing revolution.
Next Thing Company, a start-up based in California, has developed an extremely
low-cost computer with the goal of providing word processing and Internet access to
people in low-income areas. Called C.H.I.P., the computers retail for US$9. The comput-
ers are roughly the size of a postcard, allowing for cheap and easy shipment to any part
of the world. Despite the low price, C.H.I.P. computers have about as much functional-
ity as a smartphone; every unit has Wi-Fi capability, a 4-gigabyte hard drive, and 512
megabytes of RAM. Accessories can be connected through USB ports, and most televi-
sions can serve as the computer’s screen, saving additional costs by negating the need
for more expensive monitors. Because of the low cost and small size, the computers are
suited to be adapted, or “hacked,” to best fit the needs of the user. Next Thing Company
plans to actively partner with schools and nonprofits to ensure that the computers ulti-
mately meet the needs of the end users in the developing world. The first 30,000 units
were shipped in January 2016.45
There also exists a great potential for disruptions as the world relies more and more
on digital communication and imaging. The world is connected by a vast network of
fiber-optic cables that we do not see because they are buried either underground or under-
water. Roughly the width of a garden hose, 200 sets of these cables carry 99 percent of
all transoceanic communication, leading to a great deal of system vulnerability.46 In 2015,
a series of accidental disruptions to one cable led to weeks of slower Internet and com-
munication problems throughout Vietnam. The fact that so many were reliant on a mere
4-inch-thick cable shows the potential risks associated with greater global connectivity.47
We have reviewed general influences of technology here, but what are some of the
specific dimensions of technology and what other ways does technology affect interna-
tional management? Here, we explore some of the dimensions of the technological envi-
ronment currently facing international management, with a closer look at biotechnology,
e-business, telecommunications, and the connection between technology, outsourcing,
and offshoring.

62 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
In addition to the trends discussed above, other specific ways in which technology
will affect international management in the next decade include
1. Rapid advances in biotechnology that are built on the precise manipulation of
organisms, which will revolutionize the fields of agriculture, medicine, and
industry.
2. The emergence of nanotechnology, in which nanomachines will possess the
ability to remake the whole physical universe.
3. Satellites that will play a role in learning. For example, communication firms
will place tiny satellites into low orbit, making it possible for millions of peo-
ple, even in remote or sparsely populated regions such as Siberia, the Chinese
desert, and the African interior, to send and receive voice, data, and digitized
images through handheld telephones.
4. Automatic translation telephones, which will allow people to communicate
naturally in their own language with anyone in the world who has access to a
telephone.
5. Artificial intelligence and embedded learning technology, which will allow think-
ing that formerly was felt to be only the domain of humans to occur in machines.
6. Silicon chips containing up to 100 million transistors, allowing computing
power that now rests only in the hands of supercomputer users to be available
on every desktop.
7. Supercomputers that are capable of 1 trillion calculations per second, which
will allow advances such as simulations of the human body for testing new
drugs and computers that respond easily to spoken commands.48
The development and subsequent use of these technologies have greatly benefited
the most developed countries in which they were first deployed. However, the most positive
effects should be seen in developing countries where inefficiencies in labor and production
impede growth. Although all these technological innovations will affect international man-
agement, specific technologies will have especially pronounced effects in transforming
economies and business practices. The following discussion highlights some specific
dimensions of the technological environment currently facing international management.
Biotechnology
The digital age has given rise to such innovations as computers, cellular phones, and
wireless technology. Advancements within this realm allow for more efficient commu-
nication and productivity to the point where the digital world has extended its effect from
information systems to biology. Biotechnology is the integration of science and technol-
ogy, but more specifically it is the creation of agricultural or medical products through
industrial use and manipulation of living organisms. At first glance, it appears that the
fusion of these two disciplines could breed a modern bionic man immune to disease,
especially with movements toward technologically advanced prosthetics, cell regeneration
through stem cell research, or laboratory-engineered drugs to help prevent or cure diseases
such as HIV or cancer.
Pharmaceutical competition is also prevalent on the global scale with China’s raw
material reserve and the emergence of biotech companies such as Genentech and Merck,
after its acquisition of Swiss biotech company Serono. India is emerging as a major
player, with its largest, mostly generic, pharmaceutical company Ranbaxy’s ability to
produce effective and affordable drugs (for further discussion on drug affordability inter-
nationally and the ethics of drug pricing, see In-Depth Integrative Case 1.2 at the end
of Part One).49 While pharmaceutical companies mainly manufacture drugs through a
process similar to that of organic chemistry, biotech companies attempt to discover
genetic abnormalities or medicinal solutions through exploring organisms at the molecu-
lar level or by formulating compounds from inorganic materials that mirror organic

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 63
substances. DNA manipulation in the laboratory extends beyond human research. As
mentioned above, another aspect of biotech research is geared toward agriculture. In the
United States and Brazil, ethanol production is expected to increase for the foreseeable
future, with corn and sugarcane serving as feedstock. Automobile gasoline in Brazil is
now mandated to consist of nearly 25 percent ethanol, and blended gasoline was initially
encouraged in the United States through tax subsidies.50 However, some have raised
concerns regarding increased food prices caused by using sugarcane and corn as a fuel
alternatives. For this and many other reasons, global companies like Monsanto are col-
laborating with others such as BASF AG to work toward creating genetically modified
seeds such as drought-tolerant corn and herbicide-tolerant soybeans.51 (See the supple-
mental online simulation related to the U.S.-EU dispute over trade in genetically modified
organisms.) Advancements in this industry include nutritionally advanced crops that may
help alleviate world hunger.52
Aside from crops, the meat industry can also benefit from this process. The out-
break of mad cow disease in Great Britain sparked concern when evidence of the disease
spread throughout Western Europe; however, the collaborative work of researchers in
the United States and Japan may have engineered a solution to the problem by eliminat-
ing the gene that is the predecessor to making the animal susceptible to this ailment.53
Furthermore, animal cloning, which simply makes a copy of preexisting DNA, could
boost food production by producing more meat or dairy-producing animals. The first
evidence of a successful animal clone was Dolly, born in Scotland in 1996. Complica-
tions arose, and Dolly aged at an accelerated rate, indicating that while she provided
hope, there still existed many flaws in the process. While the EU has banned the clon-
ing of livestock, the United States allows cloned animal products to be incorporated in
the food supply.54 Other countries actively cloning animals include Australia, China,
Japan, New Zealand, and South Korea. The world is certainly changing, and the trend
toward technological integration is far from over. Whether one desires laser surgery to
correct eyesight, a vaccine for emerging viruses, or more nutritious food, there is a
biotechnology firm competing to be the first to achieve these goals. Hunger and poor
health care are worldwide issues, and advancement in global biotechnology is working
to raise the standards.
E-Business
As the Internet becomes increasingly widespread, it is having a dramatic effect on inter-
national commerce. Table 2–2 shows Internet penetration rates for major world regions,
Table 2–2
World Internet Usage and Population Statistics
Internet Internet
World Population Users Users Penetration Growth Users %
Regions (2015 Est.) 2000 2015 (% Population) 2000–2015 of Total
Africa 1,158,355,663 4,514,400 327,145,889 28.2% 7,146.7% 9.8%
Asia 4,032,466,882 114,304,000 1,611,048,215 40.0 1,309.4 48.1
Europe 821,555,904 105,096,093 604,147,280 73.5 474.9 18.1
Middle East 236,137,235 3,284,800 123,172,132 52.2 3,649.8 3.7
North America 357,178,284 108,096,800 313,867,363 87.9 190.4 9.4
Latin America/
Caribbean 617,049,712 18,068,919 339,251,363 55.5 1,777.5 10.1
Oceania/Australia 37,158,563 7,620,480 27,200,530 73.2 256.9 0.8
WORLD TOTAL 7,259,902,243 360,985,492 3,345,832,772 46.1 826.9 100.0
Source: “Usage and Population Statistice,” Internet World Stats, www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Estimated Internet users are 3,345,832,772 for
November 15, 2015.

64 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
illustrating the dramatic increase from 2000 to 2015 and the accompanying growth rates,
with Africa exhibiting the highest rate at more than 7,000 percent.
Tens of millions of people around the world have now purchased books from Ama-
zon.com, and the company has now expanded its operations around the world (see The
World of International Management at the beginning of Chapter 11). So have a host of
other electronic retailers (e-tailers), which are discovering that their home-grown retailing
expertise can be easily transferred and adapted for the international market.55 Dell Com-
puter has been offering B2C (electronic business-to-consumer) goods and services in
Europe for a number of years, and the automakers are now beginning to move in this
direction. Tesla sells most of its cars directly to customers through the Internet, and
Toyota is testing a similar model.56 Other firms are looking to use e-business to improve
their current operations. For example, Deutsche Bank has overhauled its entire retail net-
work with the goal of winning affluent customers across the continent.57 Yet the most
popular form of e-business is for business-to-business (B2B) dealings, such as placing
orders and interacting with suppliers worldwide. Business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions
will not be as large, but this is an area where many MNCs are trying to improve their
operations.
The area of e-business that will most affect global customers is e-retailing and
financial services. For example, customers can now use their keyboard to pay by credit
card, although security remains a problem. However, the day is fast approaching when
electronic cash (e-cash) will become common. This scenario already occurs in a number
of forms. A good example is prepaid smart cards, which are being used mostly for tele-
phone calls and public transportation. An individual can purchase one of these cards and
use it in lieu of cash. This idea is blending with the Internet, allowing individuals to buy
and sell merchandise and transfer funds electronically. The result will be global digital
cash, which will take advantage of existing worldwide markets that allow buying and
selling on a 24-hour basis.
Some companies, such as Capital One 360, the U.S.’s largest direct bank, are
completely “disintermediating” banking by eliminating the branches and other “bricks-
and-mortar” facilities altogether. Through Capital One 360, all banking transactions occur
online, with higher interest rates often offered to those who agree to “paperless” state-
ments and communication. To align with its Internet-savvy clientele, Capital One 360
has developed a comprehensive social media “Savers Community,” including Twitter,
Facebook, Pinterest, and its YouTube “Challenge Your Savings” video series. And so
far, not one of the 275-plus bank failures in the U.S., since the financial crisis began in
2008, has been online banks.58 HSBC and other global banks are learning from Capital
One 360’s success and growing their Internet banking globally(see In-Depth Integrative
Case 4.1 after Part Four).
Telecommunications
One of the most important dimensions of the technological environment facing interna-
tional management today is telecommunications. To begin with, global access to afford-
able cell phone services is resulting in a form of technological leapfrogging, in which
regions of the world are moving from a situation where phones were completely unavail-
able to one where cell phones are available everywhere, including rural areas, due to the
quick and relatively inexpensive installation of cellular infrastructure. This is especially
true in sub-Saharan Africa. According to a 2015 Pew Research study, the number of
land-line phone users is nearly zero percent in the countries of Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria,
Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda, while cellular phone access in those same
countries averages over 80 percent.59 In addition, technology has merged two previously
discrete methods of communication: the telephone and the Internet. Internet access
through cellular phones has, in many ways, replaced access via computers. By 2016,
nearly half of all e-mails were opened on mobile phones. Social networking sites have
seen an even larger shift to mobile; over 900 million people were checking Facebook

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 65
daily via their smartphones, and 90 percent of all video views on Twitter were occurring
on mobile devices.60 Wireless technology is proving to be a boon for less developed
countries, such as in South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe where customers once
waited years to get a telephone installed.
One reason for this rapid increase in telecommunications services is many countries
believe that without an efficient communications system, their economic growth may
stall. Additionally, governments are accepting the belief that the only way to attract
foreign investment and know-how in telecommunications is to cede control to private
industry. As a result, while most telecommunications operations in the Asia-Pacific
region were state-run a few decades ago, a growing number are now in private hands.
Singapore Telecommunications, Pakistan Telecom, Thailand’s Telecom Asia, Korea Tele-
com, and Globe Telecom in the Philippines all have been privatized, and MNCs have
helped in this process by providing investment funds. Today, First Pacific holds a 25 per-
cent stake in the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, and the Japanese gov-
ernment has privatized nearly two-thirds of Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT). At
the same time, Australia’s Telestra is moving into the Philippines; Thailand is loosening
regulations on foreign investment in telecom; and Korea Telecom has operations in
Brunei, Mongolia, and Uzbekistan.
Many governments are reluctant to allow so much private and foreign ownership of
such a vital industry; however, they also are aware that foreign investors will go elsewhere
if the deal is not satisfactory. The Hong Kong office of Salomon Brothers, a U.S. invest-
ment bank, estimates that to meet the expanding demand for telecommunication service
in Asia, companies will need to considerably increase the investment, most of which will
have to come from overseas. MNCs are unwilling to put up this much money unless they
are assured of operating control and a sufficiently high return on their investment.
Developing countries are eager to attract telecommunication firms and offer liberal
terms. This liberalization has resulted in rapid increases in wireless penetration, with more
than 1.2 billion wireless devices in circulation in China and about a billion in India.
Between 2000 and 2012, the total number of mobile subscribers in developing countries
grew dramatically—from 250 million to nearly 4.5 billion.61 According to the International
Telecommunications Union, nearly 80 percent of people in developing nations have mobile
phones.62 Growth was rapid in all regions, but fastest in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated
that mobile phone penetration in Africa stands at over 60 percent, and, in Nigeria alone,
there are nearly 150 million mobile phones. This represents a nearly one-to-one ratio of
people to mobile devices.63 In Africa, mobile users are increasingly relying on their
devices for commerce and payment. Transactions are conducted via text message, and
users aren’t even required to hold a bank account.64 Apple and Samsung, two of the larg-
est mobile phone producers globally, have been aggressively penetrating emerging markets
with smartphone technology (see The World of International Management at the beginning
of Chapter 5). Since 2012, China has held the largest share of smartphone sales world-
wide.65 Although the counterfeiting of smartphones remains an issue in many emerging
markets, there are signs that some effort is being taken to protect authentic products; in
2015, police in Beijing busted a large-scale counterfeiting operation that included hun-
dreds of employees and six production lines. According to the Wall Street Journal, this
particular counterfeiter manufactured over 40,000 fake iPhones in 2015 alone.66
Technological Advancements, Outsourcing, and Offshoring
As MNCs use advanced technology to help them communicate, produce, and deliver their
goods and services internationally, they face a new challenge: how technology will affect
the nature and number of their employees. Some informed observers note that technology
already has eliminated much and in the future will eliminate even more of the work being
done by middle management and white-collar staff. Mounting cost pressures resulting
from increased globalization of competition and profit expectations exerted by investors
have placed pressure on MNCs to outsource or offshore production to take advantage of

66 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
lower labor and other costs.67 In the past century, machines replaced millions of manual
laborers, but those who worked with their minds were able to thrive and survive. During
the past three decades in particular, employees in blue-collar, smokestack industries such
as steel and autos have been downsized by technology, and the result has been a perma-
nent restructuring of the number of employees needed to run factories efficiently. In the
1990s, a similar trend unfolded in the white-collar service industries (insurance, banks,
and even government). Most recently, this trend has affected high-tech companies in the
late 1990s and early 2000s, when after the dot-com bubble burst, hundreds of thousands
of jobs were lost, and again in 2008–2010, when many jobs were lost in finance and
related industries as a result of the financial crisis and global recession. Furthermore, the
job recovery in the wake of the financial crisis has been largely dependent on lower-wage
jobs. According to the National Employment Law Project, 78 percent of jobs lost during
the global recession were in finance, manufacturing, and construction, but only 57 percent
of the jobs created from 2009 to 2015 were in those fields.68
Some experts predict that in the future, technology has the potential to displace
employees in all industries, from those doing low-skilled jobs to those holding positions
traditionally associated with knowledge work. For example, voice recognition is helping
to replace telephone operators; the demand for postal workers has been reduced substan-
tially by address-reading devices; and cash-dispensing machines can do 10 times more
transactions in a day than bank tellers, so tellers can be reduced in number or even
eliminated entirely in the future. Also, expert (sometimes called “smart”) systems can
eliminate human thinking completely. For example, American Express has an expert
system that performs the credit analysis formerly done by college-graduate financial
analysts. In the medical field, expert systems can diagnose some illnesses as well as
doctors can, and robots capable of performing certain operations are starting to be used.
Emerging information technology also makes work more portable. As a result,
MNCs have been able to move certain production activities overseas to capitalize on
cheap labor resources. This is especially true for work that can be easily contracted with
overseas locations. For example, low-paid workers in India and Asian countries now are
being given subcontracted work such as labor-intensive software development and code-
writing jobs. A restructuring of the nature of work and of employment is a result of such
information technology; Table 2–3 identifies some winners and losers in the workforce
in recent years.
The new technological environment has both positives and negatives for MNCs and
societies as a whole. On the positive side, the cost of doing business worldwide should
decline thanks to the opportunities that technology offers in substituting lower-cost
machines for higher-priced labor. Over time, productivity should go up, and prices should
go down. On the negative side, many employees will find either their jobs eliminated or
their wages and salaries reduced because they have been replaced by machines and their
skills are no longer in high demand. This job loss from technology can be especially
devastating in developing countries. However, it doesn’t have to be this way. A case in
point is South Africa’s showcase for automotive productivity as represented by the Delta
Motor Corporation’s Opel Corsa plant in Port Elizabeth. To provide as many jobs as pos-
sible, this world-class operation automated only 23 percent, compared to more than
85 percent auto assembly in Europe and North America.69 Even some manufacturing
processes in developed countries have traded robots for humans; in 2014, Toyota replaced
automated manufacturing machines with manual jobs in an effort to increase quality.70
Some industries can also add jobs. For example, the positive has outweighed the negative
in the computer and information technology industry, despite its ups and downs. Specifi-
cally, employment in the U.S. computer software industry has increased over the last
decade. In less developed countries such as India, a high-tech boom in recent years has
created jobs and opportunities for a growing number of people.71 Even though developed
countries such as Japan and the United States are most affected by technological displace-
ment of workers, both nations still lead the world in creating new jobs and shifting their
traditional industrial structure toward a high-tech, knowledge-based economy.

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 67
The precise impact that the advanced technological environment will have on inter-
national management over the next decade is difficult to forecast. One thing is certain,
however; there is no turning back the technological clock. MNCs and nations alike must
evaluate the impact of these changes carefully and realize that their economic perfor-
mance is closely tied to keeping up with, or ahead of, rapidly advancing technology.
The World of International Management—Revisited
Political, legal, and technological environments can alter the landscape for global com-
panies. The chapter opening The World of International Management described how
social media can be used a tool for political change—both positive and negative. It has
Table 2–3
Winners and Losers in Selected Occupations: Percentage Change Forecasts for 2014–2024
The 10 occupations with the largest projected employment growth 2014–2024
Occupation
Employment
in millions
Difference
Percent
change2014 2024
Personal care aides
Registered nurses
Home health aides
Combined food preparation and serving workers,
including fast food
Retail salespersons
Nursing assistants
Customer service representatives
Cooks, restaurant
General and operations managers
Construction laborers
1768.4
2751.0
931.5
3159.7
4624.9
1492.1
2581.8
1109.7
2124.1
1159.1
2226.5
3190.3
1261.9
3503.2
4939.1
1754.1
2834.8
1268.7
2275.2
1306.5
458.1
439.3
348.4
343.5
314.2
262.0
252.9
158.9
151.1
147.4
25.9%
16.0
38.1
10.9
6.8
17.6
9.8
14.3
7.1
12.7
The 10 occupations with the largest projected employment declines, 2014–2024
Occupation
Employment
in millions
Difference
Percent
change2014 2024
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks
Cooks, fast food
Postal service mail carriers
Executive secretaries and executive administrative
assistants
Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and
greenhouse
Sewing machine operators
Tellers
Postal service mail sorters, processors, and
processing machine operators
Cutting, punching, and press machine setters,
operators, and tenders, metal and plastic
Switchboard operators, including answering service
1760.3
524.4
297.4
776.6
470.2
153.9
520.5
117.6
192.2
112.4
1611.5
444.0
219.4
732.0
427.3
112.2
480.5
78.0
152.7
75.4
−148.7
−80.4
−78.1
−44.6
−42.9
−41.7
−40.0
−39.7
−39.5
−37.0
−8.4%
−15.3
−26.2
−5.7
−9.1
−27.1
−7.7
−33.7
−20.6
−32.9
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Tables 4 & 6,” Employment Projections. December 15, 2015. http://www.bls.gov/emp/tables.htm.

68 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
allowed political groups to organize, journalists to communicate and report on political
developments, and citizens to mobilize and build support for political movements. This
situation underscores the increasing uncertainty in the global business environment and
the rapidity and extent of political and legal change. It also highlights how technology
is contributing to accelerating change and how traditional legal systems have difficulty
keeping pace with these changes. International managers need to be aware of how dif-
fering political, legal, and technological environments are affecting their business and
how globalization, security concerns, and other developments influence these environ-
ments. Changes in political, legal, and environmental conditions also open up new busi-
ness opportunities but close some old ones.
In light of the information you have learned from reading this chapter, you should
have a good understanding of these environments and some of the ways in which they
will affect companies doing business abroad. Drawing on this knowledge, answer the
following questions: (1) How will changes in the political and legal environment in the
Middle East and North Africa, including the potential economic impacts of terrorism,
affect U.S. MNCs conducting business there? (2) How might evolving political interests
and legal systems affect future investment in the region? (3) How does technology result
in greater integration and dependencies among economies, political systems, and financial
markets, but also greater fragility?
1. The global political environment can be understood
via an appreciation of ideologies and political sys-
tems. Ideologies, including individualism and col-
lectivism, reflect underlying tendencies in society.
Political systems, including democracy and totali-
tarianism, incorporate ideologies into political struc-
tures. There are fewer and fewer purely collectivist
or socialist societies, although totalitarianism still
exists in several countries and regions. Many coun-
tries are experiencing transitions from more social-
ist to democratic systems, reflecting related trends
discussed in Chapter 1 toward more market-oriented
economic systems.
2. The current legal and regulatory environment is
both complex and confusing. There are many differ-
ent laws and regulations to which MNCs doing
business internationally must conform, and each
nation is unique. Also, MNCs must abide by the
laws of their own country. For example, U.S. MNCs
must obey the rules set down by the Foreign Cor-
rupt Practices Act. Privatization and regulation of
trade also affect the legal and regulatory environ-
ment in specific countries.
3. The technological environment is changing quickly
and is having a major impact on international busi-
ness. This will continue in the future with, for
example, digitization, higher-speed telecommunica-
tion, and advancements in biotechnology as they
offer developing countries new opportunities to
leapfrog into the 21st century. New markets are
being created for high-tech MNCs that are eager to
provide telecommunications service. Technological
developments also impact both the nature and the
structure of employment, shifting the industrial
structure toward a more high-tech, knowledge-based
economy. MNCs that understand and take advantage
of this high-tech environment should prosper, but
they also must keep up, or go ahead, to survive.
SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS
KEY TERMS
act of state doctrine, 54
civil or code law, 53
collectivism, 48
common law, 53
democracy, 50
doctrine of comity, 54
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
(FCPA), 55
individualism, 47
Islamic law, 53
nationality principle, 53
principle of sovereignty, 53
protective principle, 53
socialism, 48
socialist law, 53
territoriality principle, 53
totalitarianism, 50

Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 69
REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. In what ways do different ideologies and political
systems influence the environment in which MNCs
operate? Would these challenges be less for those
operating in the EU than for those in Russia or
China? Why or why not?
2. How do the following legal principles impact MNC
operations: the principle of sovereignty, the national-
ity principle, the territoriality principle, the protective
principle, and principle of comity?
3. How will advances in technology and telecommuni-
cations affect developing countries? Give some
specific examples.
4. Why are developing countries interested in privatiz-
ing their state-owned industries? What opportunities
does privatization have for MNCs?
Hitachi products are well known in the United States, as
well as in Europe and Asia. However, in an effort to
maintain its international momentum, the Japanese
MNC is continuing to push forward into new markets,
especially emerging markets, while also developing new
products. Visit the MNC at its website www.hitachi.com
and examine some of the latest developments that are
taking place. Begin by reviewing the firm’s current
activities in Asia, specifically Hong Kong and
Singapore. Then look at how it is doing business in
North America. Finally, read about its European opera-
tions. Then answer these three questions: (1) What
kinds of products and systems does the firm offer?
What are its primary areas of emphasis? (2) In what
types of environments does it operate? Is Hitachi pri-
marily interested in developed markets, or is it also
pushing into newly emerging markets? (3) Based on
what it has been doing over the last two to three years,
what do you think Hitachi’s future strategy will be in
competing in the environment of international business?
INTERNET EXERCISE: HITACHI GOES WORLDWIDE
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ENDNOTES

70 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
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Chapter 2 The Political, Legal, and Technological Environment 71
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toyota-s-vision-of-future.

72 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
71. Ashok Bhattacharjee, “India’s Outsourcing Tigers
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euro.html?_r=0.
77. Ibid.

73
The country has started to show some limited signs of
progress and has recently agreed to further economic
reforms in return for liquidity from its lenders. Greece is
not out of the woods, however. The bailout money has
largely gone to the country’s lenders and has not yet been
able to support the restructuring of the economy.76
You Be the International Management
Consultant
In 2015, Greece received its third bailout in five years.
Relations between Greece and its creditors remain strained
and contentious. On several occasions, Greece has threat-
ened to default on its loans and has even contemplated
exiting the European Union. The 2015 bailout allowed
creditors to demand harsh austerity programs and require
deep economic and structural reforms. These measures
included raising the retirement age, cutting pensions, lib-
eralizing the energy market, opening up protected profes-
sions, enlarging a property tax that Greeks already despise,
and moving ahead with a program to sell state-owned
enterprises and other assets.77
Questions
1. If you are a consultant for a business looking to
expand in Europe, is Greece even an option?
2. Do the facts that its population is comprised largely
of government workers, that the citizens were
largely in favor of defaulting on its national debt,
and that the country nearly left the European Union
constitute a deal breaker?
3. If the government does, in fact, implement the
agreed-upon austerity measures, would that be a
sign that the country is on the right track?
4. What other concerns would you have about entering
the Greek market?
Greece is located in southern Europe, positioned geograph-
ically between the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, Albania,
and Turkey. The country’s land mass is slightly smaller than
that of Alabama. Major natural resources include lignite,
petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite,
marble, salt, and hydro-power potential.72
Greece has a population of 10.78 million people, with
Athens, the capital, home to 3 million people. Population
growth has stabilized at zero in recent years. Greece is a
fairly homogeneous country, with close to 95 percent of
the population with Greek ethnicity. Nearly all in the
country practice the Greek Orthodox religion. With a
median age of 44 years, Greece has an older population
than most countries in the world. Approximately 34 per-
cent of the population is 55 years or older. In recent years,
the country has struggled economically, leading to the
third highest unemployment rate in the world.73
Greece’s GDP is estimated at US$238 billion. After
years of negative growth, and declines of 9.1 percent in
2011 and 7.3 percent in 2012, the country’s GDP finally
grew in 2014 by 0.7 percent. GDP per capita in Greece
is estimated at $26,000. Greece has a capitalist economy,
but the public sector accounts for approximately 40 per-
cent of GDP.74
Greece was significantly impacted by the financial cri-
sis of 2008. Greece’s poor financial management of the
country’s budget and its failure to report massive deficits
in a timely fashion to its borrowers amplified the impact
of the crisis, causing the economy to spiral downward. As
a consequence, Greece was no longer able to borrow in
global markets. Ultimately, Greece was required to take a
US$316 billion bailout from the European Union. In
return for the bailout, the Greek government was required
to implement dramatic spending cuts and tax increases to
reduce its budget deficits. In total, aid from the European
Union has amounted to approximately 3 percent of the
country’s GDP.75
Greece In the International Spotlight

74
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Chapter 3
ETHICS, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY,
AND SUSTAINABILITY
The World of International
Management
Sustaining Sustainable
Companies
W ith a more environmentally aware public, becoming a “sustainable” business has become an important part
of the business model for many MNCs. Three of these
companies—Patagonia, Nestlé, and Tesla—have in different
ways transformed their corporate strategy to emphasize
“doing good” socially and environmentally while “doing well”
economically.
Sustainability in the Supply Chain—Patagonia
Founded by Yvon Chouinard in 1972, Patagonia is a private,
outdoor-clothing company. Patagonia’s transition to a
sustainability-focused company started in 1988 after several
employees in one of their Boston retail stores suddenly fell
ill. After a thorough investigation, it was discovered that
formaldehyde, emitted from Patagonia’s cotton-based mer-
chandise, was cycling into the air. In response, Patagonia
committed in 1994 to use only formaldehyde-free, 100 per-
cent organic cotton in the manufacture of its clothing; within
just 18 months, they achieved that goal.1 Since then, Pata-
gonia has examined and modified its entire supply chain
from both a corporate social responsibility and environmen-
tal viewpoint. Its revised mission statement reflects that
ideal: “Build the best product, cause no unnecessary harm,
and use business to inspire and implement solutions to the
environmental crisis.”2
Internally, recycled products constitute a large percentage
of the material used in Patagonia’s products. Recycled polyes-
ter and nylon, made of postconsumer soda bottles and waste
fabric, are used in the production of fleece and linings.3 This
reuse cuts down on oil usage and CO2 emissions. All of
Patagonia’s wool products are now chlorine-free, preventing
the contamination of wastewater in the developing countries
where the products are manufactured. Furthermore, Patagonia’s
finished products are fully recyclable, and the company has
encouraged its customers to properly dispose of their prod-
ucts. Any Patagonia product can be dropped off at a retail
store for guaranteed recycling.4
Recent concerns about ethics, social responsibility, and sus-
tainability transcend national borders. In this era of globaliza-
tion, MNCs must be concerned with how they carry out their
business and their social role in foreign countries. This chapter
examines business ethics and social responsibility in the inter-
national arena, and it looks at some of the critical social issues
that will be confronting MNCs in the years ahead. The discus-
sion includes ethical decision making in various countries, reg-
ulation of foreign investment, the growing trends toward
environmental sustainability, and current responses to social
responsibility by today’s multinationals. The specific objectives
of this chapter are
1. EXAMINE ethics in international management and some
of the major ethical issues and problems confronting MNCs.
2. DISCUSS some of the pressures on and actions being
taken by selected industrialized countries and companies to
be more socially and environmentally responsive to world
problems.
3. EXPLAIN some of the initiatives to bring greater account-
ability to corporate conduct and limit the impact of corrup-
tion around the world.

75
Nestlé sets environmental objectives, resulting in trackable
and measurable progress. From 2005 to 2015, Nestlé cut
overall energy consumption by a quarter and greenhouse
gas emissions by 40 percent. The use of industrial refriger-
ants has been cut by 92 percent, and Nestlé’s chest freezers
now consume 50 percent less energy. In 2015, Nestlé was
able to achieve zero waste in 15 percent of its global facto-
ries. By 2017, Nestlé plans to eliminate 100,000 tons of
packaging material.11
Environmental efforts extend down Nestlé’s supply chain,
from raw material sourcing to final distribution. Environmen-
tal standards are set for all farmers conducting business with
Nestlé, and Nestlé supports those farmers through training
and informational support. Whenever possible, local farmers
are utilized to decrease the environmental impacts from ship-
ping raw materials long distances. During the manufacturing
process, the Nestlé Environmental Management System
tracks energy performance and improves efficiency and qual-
ity. Areas for improvement are identified, leading to new
manufacturing processes that lead to less waste. Final distri-
bution, though handled by third parties, is subject to Nestlé’s
environmental performance standards. Mileage and fuel con-
sumption are tracked, distribution networks are altered to
decrease congestion and noise, and greenhouse gas emis-
sions are monitored.12
Continual environmental-friendly innovation is a priority for
Nestlé. Nestlé developed an eco-design tool, called the Eco-
dEX, to assist with sustainability in its research and develop-
ment efforts. Since 2013, over 5,000 products have been
tested and assessed using this tool. All new products now
undergo an environmental assessment.13  As with Patagonia,
customers seem eager to purchase products that are sustain-
able, giving Nestlé a competitive advantage over the competi-
tion. Nestlé reached number 18 on Fortune magazine’s 2014
“Best Global Green Brands” list.14
Sustainability as a Competitive
Advantage—Tesla Motors
Tesla Motors, an independent Silicon Valley–based auto
manufacturer, focuses on creating and mass-producing reliable
electric automobiles. Using technology descended from 19th-
century physicist Nikola Tesla, Tesla Motors has developed the
longest-range electric car battery on the market. Visionary
billionaire Elon Musk, who is also behind SpaceX, cofounded
the company in 2003.15
Social sustainability, with an emphasis on employee
welfare, has also become a key tenet of Patagonia’s strat-
egy. Beginning in 1990, Patagonia instituted a policy of vis-
iting every factory that manufactured its goods to evaluate
and score working conditions.5 Patagonia refuses to do busi-
ness with any factory that does not allow full access or
breaks local labor laws. Additionally, third-party audits of
factories were established to provide nonbiased assess-
ments of the factories. Every factory along its supply chain
is listed on its website. In 1999, Patagonia became one of
the founding members of the Fair Labor Association.6 Since
1985, Patagonia has donated one percent of its sales to
environmental nonprofits.7 In 2002, Chouinard expanded on
his vision for corporate sustainability by cofounding “One
Percent for the Planet,” an international nonprofit dedicated
to philanthropy for environmental organizations. The pro-
gram encourages companies to follow Patagonia’s lead and
donate one percent of sales to worthwhile, environmentally
focused causes. As of 2015, over 1,200 companies across
48 countries have joined the organization. Over 3,300 dif-
ferent nonprofits have received funding from the over
US$100 million donated by the member companies.8
The decision to invest in sustainable products has not
been without repercussions. Chlorine-free wool has been
more costly to manufacture, cutting down on profits. Follow-
ing the shift to 10 percent organic cotton, Patagonia’s prof-
its dropped.9 Furthermore, the high priority that Patagonia
puts on only using factories that follow its strict standards
means higher labor costs than the competition. However,
Patagonia has gained a competitive advantage by doing
good. The company has developed a loyal customer base
that is willing to pay a premium for the sustainability that
Patagonia provides.
Sustainability in Operations and Products—Nestlé
Founded over 150 years ago, Nestlé S.A., a Swiss MNC, is
best known for its chocolate and other snack products. With
sales of over US$1.1 billion in 2015, the company employs
over 339,000 people across 447 factories. Nestlé maintains
operations in 197 countries and boasts over 2,000 brands. For
Nestlé, sustainability means improving its environmental
impact along the entire value chain.10
Nestlé’s sustainable efforts are centered on six core cat-
egories: resource efficiency, packaging, products, climate
change, natural capital, and information. In each category,

76 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
Unlike previously developed electric cars, which were clunky
and unattractive, Tesla aimed to design automobiles that were
attractive and high-quality. Tesla’s first vehicle, the Roadster, was
designed to be a high-performance sports car. Released in
2008, the Roadster can accelerate from zero to 60 in less than
four seconds, reaching top speeds of over 125 miles per hour.16
The Model S, released in 2012, was designed to be a luxury
sedan for the masses. Starting at US$57,400, the Model S was
introduced for less than half of the cost of the Roadster. The car
won multiple awards upon its release, including Motor Trend’s
“Car of the Year” award for 2013, and sold over 100,000 units
within its first four years.17  In late 2015, Tesla introduced a full-
size SUV, named the Model X, as the latest addition to its fleet
and in early 2016, the company started taking pre-orders for its
forthcoming US$35,000 Model 3. More than a quarter of a mil-
lion people pre-ordered the car within the first 72 hours, shat-
tering expectations.18
Inspiring sustainability across the entire automobile industry
is a secondary goal for the company. To achieve that goal,
Tesla has collaborated with several other researchers and car
manufacturers to produce greener automobiles. Panasonic
joined Tesla’s US$5 billion “Gigafactory” battery production
project in 2014, and from 2009 to 2015, Tesla partnered with
Mercedes to provide powertrain components for its electric
models.19,20,21  In its partnerships with Smart and Toyota, Tesla
produced batteries and chargers.22,23 
As an innovator, Tesla has faced some major obstacles.
Tesla’s first automobile, the Roadster, faced two high-profile
recalls, one of which dealt with the potential loss of control
of the car.24,25  In a highly publicized February 2013 article, a
New York Times reporter took the Model S on an infamous
test drive along the East Coast. Not only did the car fall short
of the estimated 200-mile range per charge, but the battery
actually ran completely out of power and the car ended up
having to be towed.26  Musk estimated that the negative New
York Times review resulted in several hundred vehicle can-
cellations and cost Tesla US$100 million in valuation.27 
Financially, Tesla has invested hundreds of millions of dollars
into its operations. Since its founding in 2003, Tesla has
only earned a quarterly profit once; Tesla posted a
US$300 million loss in 2014.28
Tesla, despite its setbacks, still maintains a competitive
advantage from its dedicated investor and customer bases.
Customers seem willing to deal with minor issues and
recalls for the sake of the overall sustainability goal of the
company. By targeting high-income customers with the
Roadster, Tesla was able to spend the funds necessary to
develop and fine-tune its technology. Investors have also
been willing to bet on the idea of Tesla Motors. The IPO on
June 29, 2010, raised US$226 million for the company, and
in the years since, Tesla’s share price has increased nearly
tenfold.29,30
Our opening discussion of Patagonia, Nestlé, and Tesla demonstrates how corporations
are shifting their focus from traditional market-responsive strategies to broader
approaches that incorporate both business and social or environmental goals. Patagonia
has radically transformed its business to focus on what it expects to be increasing
demand for “green” products as well as those that contribute to improved working
conditions in developing countries. Focusing on six core categories for creating and
tracking sustainable goals allowed Nestlé to achieve measurable progress in emissions
reductions. Tesla Motors’s Model S is focused on developing and deploying a reason-
ably priced all-electric car to the masses. By combining their commitment to social
and environmental sustainability, aligned with their business and commercial objec-
tives, these three companies appear to be setting an example for a new approach to
integrating social and business goals among global corporations, tapping into consum-
ers’ desire for products and services that are consistent with their values. This “triple
bottom line” approach, which simultaneously considers social, environmental, and
economic sustainability (“people, planet, profits”) could make a real and lasting impact on
the world’s human and environmental conditions by harnessing business and managerial
skills and techniques.
More broadly, recent scandals have called attention to the perceived lack of ethical
values and corporate governance standards in business. In addition, assisting impover-
ished countries by helping them gain a new level of independence is both responsible
and potentially profitable. Indeed, corporate social responsibility is becoming more than
just good moral behavior. It can assist in avoiding future economic and environmental
setbacks and may be the key to keeping companies afloat.

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 77
■ Ethics and Social Responsibility
The ethical behavior of business and the broader social responsibilities of corporations
have become major issues in the United States and all countries around the world. Eth-
ical scandals and questionable business practices have received considerable media atten-
tion, aroused the public’s concern about ethics in international business, and brought
attention to the social impact of business operations.
Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Management
Unbiased ethical decision-making processes are imperative to modern international
business practices. It is difficult to determine a universal ethical standard when the
views and norms in one country can vary substantially from those in others. Ethics,
the study of morality and standards of conduct, is often the victim of subjectivity as
it yields to the will of cultural relativism, or the belief that the ethical standard of a
country is based on the culture that created it and that moral concepts lack universal
application.31
The adage “When in Rome, do as the Romans do” is derived from the idea of
cultural relativism and suggests that businesses and their managers should behave in
accordance with the ethical standards of the country they are active in, regardless of
MNC headquarters location. It is necessary, to some extent, to rely on local teams to
execute under local rule; however, this can be taken to extremes. While a business
whose only objective is to make a profit may opt to take advantage of these differ-
ences in norms and standards in order to legally gain leverage over the competition,
it may find that negative consumer opinion about unethical business practices, not to
mention potential legal action, could affect the bottom line. Dilemmas that arise from
conflicts between ethical standards of a country and business ethics, or the moral code
guiding business behavior, are most evident in employment and business practices;
recognition of human rights, including women in the workplace; and corruption. The
newer area of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is closely related to ethics.
However, we discuss CSR issues separately. Ethics is the study of or the learning
process involved in understanding morality, while CSR involves taking action. Fur-
thermore, the area of ethics has a lawful component and implies right and wrong in
a legal sense, while CSR is based more on voluntary actions. Business ethics and
CSR therefore may be viewed as two complementary dimensions of a company’s
overall social profile and position.
Ethics Theories and Philosophy
There are a range of ethical theories and approaches around the world, many emanat-
ing from religious and cultural traditions. We focus on the cultural factors in Part Two
of the book. Here we review three tenets from Western philosophy and briefly describe
Eastern philosophy, which can be used to evaluate and inform international manage-
ment decisions. The International Management in Action feature explores how these
perspectives might be used to inform the ethics of a specific international business
decision.
Kantian philosophical traditions argue that individuals (and organizations) have
responsibilities based on a core set of moral principles that go beyond those of narrow
self-interest. In fact, a Kantian moral analysis rejects consequences (either conceivable
or likely) as morally irrelevant when evaluating the choice of an agent: “The moral worth
of an action does not lie in the effect expected from it, nor in any principle of action
which requires to borrow its motive from this expected effect.”32  Rather, a Kantian
approach asks us to consider our choices as implying a general rule, or maxim, that must
ethics
The study of morality and
standards of conduct.
corporate social
responsibility (CSR)
The actions of a firm to
benefit society beyond the
requirements of the law and
the direct interests of the
firm.

78 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
be evaluated for its consistency as a universal law. For Kant, what is distinctive about
rational behavior is not that it is self-interested or even purpose driven, though all actions
do include some purpose as part of their explanation. Instead, rational beings, in addition
to having purposes and being able to reason practically in their pursuit, are also capable
of evaluating their choices through the lens of a universal law, what Kant calls the moral
law, or the “categorical imperative.”33 From this perspective, we ought always to act
under a maxim that we can will consistently as a universal law for all rational beings
similarly situated.
Aristotelian virtue ethics focus on core, individual behaviors and actions and how
they express and form individual character. They also consider social and institutional
arrangements and practices in terms of their contribution to the formation of good
character in individuals. A good, or virtuous, individual does what is right for the right
reasons and derives satisfaction from such actions because his or her character is rightly
formed. For Aristotle, moral success and failure largely come down to a matter of right
desire, or appetite: “In matters of action, the principles of initiating motives are the
ends at which our actions are aimed. But as soon as people become corrupted by
pleasure or pain, the goal no longer appears as a motivating principle: he no longer
sees that he should choose and act in every case for the sake of and because of this
end. For vice tends to destroy the principle or initiating motive of action.”34 It is
important to have an understanding of what is truly good and practical wisdom to
enable one to form an effective plan of action toward realizing what is good; however,
absent a fixed and habitual desire for the good, there is little incentive for good actions.
There is also an important social component to virtue theory insofar as one’s formation
is a social process. The exemplars and practices one finds in one’s cultural context
guide one’s moral development. Virtue theory relies heavily on existing practices to
provide an account of what is good and what character traits contribute to pursuing
and realizing the good in concrete ways.
Utilitarianism—a form of consequentialism—favors the greatest good for the great-
est number of people under a given set of constraints.35 A given act is morally correct
if it maximizes utility, that is, if the ratio of benefit to harm (calculated by taking every-
one affected by the act into consideration) is greater than the ratio resulting from an
alternative act. This theory was given its most famous modern expression in the works
of Jeremy Bentham (1988) and John Stuart Mill (1957), two English utilitarians writing
in the 18th and 19th centuries, both of whom emphasized the greatest happiness prin-
ciple as their moral standard.36,37 Utilitarianism is an attractive perspective for business
decision making, especially in Western countries, because its logic is similar to an eco-
nomic calculation of utility or cost-benefit, something many Western managers are accus-
tomed to doing.
Eastern philosophy—which broadly can include various philosophies of Asia,
including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Iranian philosophy, Japanese philoso-
phy, and Korean philosophy—tends to view the individual as part of, rather than separate
from, nature. Many Western philosophers generally assume as a given that the individual
is something distinct from the entire universe, and many Western philosophers attempt
to describe and categorize the universe from a detached, objective viewpoint. Eastern
perspectives, on the other hand, typically hold that people are an intrinsic and insepa-
rable part of the universe and that attempts to discuss the universe from an objective
viewpoint, as though the individual speaking were something separate and detached from
the whole, are inherently absurd.
In international management, executives may rely upon one or more of these
perspectives when confronted with decisions that involve ethics or morality. While
they may not invoke the specific philosophical tradition by name, they likely are
drawing from these fundamental moral and ethical beliefs when advancing a specific
agenda or decision. The International Management in Action box regarding an
offshoring decision shows how a given action could be informed by each of these
perspectives.

79
■ Human Rights
Human rights issues present challenges for MNCs as there is currently no universally
adopted standard of what constitutes acceptable behavior. It is difficult to list all rights
inherent to humanity because there is considerable subjectivity involved, and cultural dif-
ferences exist among societies. Some basic rights include life, freedom from slavery or
torture, freedom of opinion and expression, and a general ambiance of nondiscriminatory
practices.38  One violation of human rights that resonated with MNCs and made them
question whether to move operations into China was the violent June 1989 crackdown on
student protesters in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square. Despite this horrific event, most MNCs
continued their involvement in China, although friction still exists between countries with
high and low human rights standards. Even South Africa is beginning to experience the
healing process of transitioning to higher human rights standards after the 1994 disman-
tling of apartheid, the former white government’s policy of racial segregation. Unfortu-
nately, human rights violations are still rampant worldwide. For several decades, for
example, Russia has experienced widespread human trafficking, but this practice has
accelerated in recent years.39 Here, we take a closer look at women in the workplace.
Women’s rights and gender equity can be considered a subset of human rights.
While the number of women in the workforce has increased substantially worldwide,
most are still experiencing the effects of a “glass ceiling,” meaning that it is difficult, if
International Management in Action
The Ethics of an Offshoring Decision
The financial services industry has been especially active
in offshoring. Western investment banks including Citi-
group, Deutsche Bank, Goldman Sachs, Credit Suisse,
and UBS have established back-office functions in India.
JP Morgan was the first to offshore staff to the country
in 2001 and has more than 8,000 staff in Mumbai, nearly
5 percent of its 170,000 employees worldwide. In Octo-
ber 2007, Credit Suisse announced the expansion of its
center of excellence in Pune, India, with 300 new jobs,
bringing staff numbers to 1,000 by December. Deutsche
Bank has 3,500 staff in Bangalore and Mumbai. UBS
began outsourcing work to third-party information tech-
nology vendors in 2003 and has 1,220 employees in
Hyderabad and Mumbai. Goldman Sachs started offshor-
ing to India three years ago and has about 2,500
employees there. On October 17, 2007, JP Morgan
announced plans to build a back-office workforce of
5,000 in the Philippines over the next two years. Its tra-
ditional offshoring center of Mumbai in India has become
overcrowded by investment banks that have set up
similar operations. The bank will develop credit card and
treasury services in the Philippines. A source close to the
bank said the move was to diversify its back-office loca-
tions and because JP Morgan has strong links with a
human resources network in the country. Mark Kobayashi-
Hillary, an outsourcing specialist, said: “Because India’s
finance center is almost wholly based in Mumbai, the
resources are finite and there is a supply and demand
problem. It’s no surprise people are looking elsewhere.
But banks are not just after keeping costs down; these
moves are also strategic.” He said he was surprised that
banks had not opened more offices in the Philippines,
considering its strong links with the U.S., cheap rent, and
wealth of resources. “In Manila there is a high density of
people who have worked in the financial sector with the
skills that investment banks look for. We should see
more banks setting up shop there soon.”
Ethical philosophy and reasoning could be used to
inform offshoring decisions such as these. A Kantian
approach to offshoring would require us to consider a
set of principles in accord with which offshoring choices
were made such that decisions were measured against
these core tenets, such as a corporate code of conduct.
A virtue theory perspective would suggest that the deci-
sion should consider the impact on communities and a
goal of humans flourishing more generally; such an
analysis could include economic as well as social
impacts. A utilitarian perspective would urge that ben-
efits and costs be measured; e.g., who is losing jobs,
who is gaining, and do the gains (measured in either
jobs, income, utility, or quality of life) outweigh the
losses. An Eastern philosophical approach would sug-
gest a broader, more integrative and longer-term view,
considering impacts not just on humans but also on the
broader natural environment in which they operate.
Taken together, an understanding of these ethical
perspectives could help managers to decide how to
make their own ethical decisions in the international
business environment.
Source: Jonathan Doh and Bret Wilmot, “The Ethics of Offshoring,”
Working Paper, Villanova University, 2010; David Smith, “Offshoring:
Political Myths and Economic Reality,” World Economy, March 2006,
pp. 249–256.

80 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
not impossible, to reach the upper management positions. Japan is a good example
because both harassment and a glass ceiling have existed in the workplace. Sexual harass-
ment also remains a major social issue in Japan. Many women college graduates in Japan
are still offered only secretarial or low-level jobs. Japanese management still believes
that women will quit and get married within a few years of employment, leading to a
two-track recruiting process: one for men and one for women.40,41 Japan ranked 101st in
the “gender gap index” study by the World Economic Forum, an international nonprofit
organization that measured the economic opportunities and political empowerment of
women by nation in 2015. Iceland ranked no. 1, and the U.S. was no. 28. Japanese women
make up only 8 percent of senior executives and managers, a tiny share compared with
21 percent in the U.S., 38 percent in China, and 26 percent in France, according to Grant
Thornton’s 2015 Women in Business report. Two-thirds of Japanese businesses still have
no female members on their senior leadership teams.42
Equal employment opportunities may be more troubled in Japan than other coun-
tries, but the glass ceiling is pervasive throughout the world. Today, women earn less
than men for the same job in the United States, although progress has been made in this
regard. France, Germany, and Great Britain have seen an increase in the number of
women not only in the workforce but also in management positions. Unfortunately,
women in management tend to represent only the lower level and do not seem to have
the resources to move up in the company. This is partially due to social factors and
perceived levels of opportunity or lack thereof. The United States, France, Germany, and
Great Britain all have equal opportunity initiatives, whether they are guaranteed by law
or are represented by growing social groups. Despite the existence of equal opportunity
in French and German law, the National Organization for Women in the United States,
and British legislation, there is no guarantee that initiatives will be implemented. It is a
difficult journey as women attempt to make their mark in the workplace, but soon it may
be possible for them to break through the glass ceiling.
Labor, Employment, and Business Practices
Labor policies vary widely among countries around the world. Issues of freedom to work,
freedom to organize and engage in collective action, and policies regarding notification
and compensation for layoffs are treated differently in different countries. Political, eco-
nomic, and cultural differences make it difficult to agree on a universal foundation of
employment practices. It does not make much sense to standardize compensation pack-
ages within an MNC that spans both developed and underdeveloped nations. Elements
such as working conditions, expected consecutive work hours, and labor regulations also
create challenges in deciding which employment practice is the most appropriate. For
example, the low cost of labor entices businesses to look to China; however, workers in
China are not well paid, and to meet the demand for output, they often are forced to
work 12-hour days, seven days a week. In some cases, children are used for this work.
Child labor initially invokes negative associations and is considered an unethical employ-
ment practice. The reality is that of the 168  million children age 5–17 working globally
in 2016, most are engaged in work to help support their families.43  In certain countries
it is necessary for children to work due to low wages. UNICEF and the World Bank
recognize that in some instances, family survival depends on all members working, and
that intervention is necessary only when the child’s developmental welfare is compro-
mised. There has been some progress in the reduction of child labor. It continues to
decline, especially among girls, but only modestly, with the International Labour Orga-
nization reporting a 25 percent reduction between 2000 and 2015.44 There has also been
considerable progress in the ratification of ILO standards concerning child labor. Conven-
tion 182 (on the worst forms of child labor) has been ratified by 180 countries, with only
India and a few Pacific island nations yet to endorse. Convention 138 (on minimum age),
however, has found less acceptance and remains yet to be ratified by nearly two dozen
countries, including the United States, India, and Australia. Roughly one-quarter of the
children in the world live in countries that have not ratified Convention 138.45

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 81
In early 2010, the issue of relatively low wages paid by Chinese subcontractors
made the headlines after a number of suicides by workers at factories run by Foxconn,
one of the largest contractors for electronics firms such as Apple, and a strike by work-
ers at a Honda plant. A year later, in May 2011, an explosion at a Foxconn iPad factory
killed two employees. In a survey of Foxconn employees, over 43 percent of workers
stated that they have seen or been part of a workplace accident.46  As a result of these
controversies, Foxconn, which employs more than 800,000 workers in China making
products for companies such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard, and Apple, agreed to raise its
base wage by more than 30 percent. Earlier, Honda had raised wages at some of its
factories by 24 percent.47  Additional pressure from Apple in 2012 further improved
employee safety and reduced working hours at Foxconn. By July 2013, weekly work
hours were limited to just 49 per employee; this reduced overtime hours from 80 per
month to just 36. Apple also partnered with the Fair Labor Association to independently
audit the safety of the Foxconn plants.48 Some analysts believe these higher wages, com-
bined with the longstanding shortage and high turnover of factory workers in China, will
eventually result in the lowest wage manufacturing moving to other countries, such as
Vietnam, while higher value-added production will remain in China.
Ensuring that all contractors along the global supply chain are compliant with
company standards is an ongoing issue and one that is not without challenges. This issue
came to a head once again when a Bangladesh factory that produced products for Walmart
caught fire in November 2012, killing 112 workers. Walmart immediately responded by
severing all ties with suppliers who use subcontractors without Walmart’s knowledge and
began requiring all overseas factories to pass audits before they could be used to produce
Walmart products.49  Yet, a subsequent collapse of a garment factory in Bangladesh in
April of 2013 that killed more than 1,000 and a fire not two weeks later, also in
Bangladesh, killing eight, underscored the challenges companies face in trying to develop
and implement policies for production that is largely outsourced. After a number of
NGOs pressed companies to take responsibility for the conditions that allowed for these
tragedies, several global apparel firms, including Swedish-based retailer H&M; Inditex,
owner of the Zara chain; the Dutch retailer C&A; and British companies Primark and
Tesco, agreed to a plan to help pay for fire safety and building improvements in
Bangladesh. The Bangladesh government announced that it would improve its labor laws,
raise wages, and ease restrictions on forming trade unions.50 Walmart and Gap chose not
to sign on to the European-led agreement out of concerns that they could be subject to
litigation. Instead, they initiated a separate agreement with U.S. retail trade groups and
a bipartisan think tank. These challenges, and the reforms they bring, should contribute
to improved workers’ conditions and help prevent similar tragedies.
Environmental Protection and Development
Conservation of natural resources is another area of ethics and social responsibility in
which countries around the world differ widely in their values and approach. Many poor,
developing countries are more concerned with improving the basic quality of life for
their citizens than worrying about endangered species or the quality of air or water. There
are several hypotheses regarding the relationship between economic development, as
measured by per capita income, and the quality of the natural environment. The most
widely accepted thesis is represented in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), which
hypothesizes that the relationship between per capita income and the use of natural
resources and/or the emission of wastes has an inverted U-shape. (See Figure 3–1.)
According to this specification, at relatively low levels of income, the use of natural
resources and/or the emission of wastes increase with income. Beyond some turning
point, the use of the natural resources and/or the emission of wastes decline with income.
Reasons for this inverted U-shaped relationship are hypothesized to include income-
driven changes in (1) the composition of production and/or consumption, (2) the prefer-
ence for environmental quality, (3) institutions that are needed to internalize externalities,
and/or (4) increasing returns to scale associated with pollution abatement. The term

82 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
“EKC” is based on its similarity to the time-series pattern of income inequality described
by Simon Kuznets in 1955. A 1992 World Bank Development Report made the notion
of an EKC popular by suggesting that environmental degradation can be slowed by
policies that protect the environment and promote economic development. Subsequent
statistical analysis, however, showed that while the relationship might hold in a few cases,
it could not be generalized across a wide range of resources and pollutants.51
Despite difficulty in achieving international consensus on environmental reform, recent
progress holds promise. For two weeks in December 2015, representatives from over 185
countries converged in the suburbs of Paris at the 21st annual United Nations Climate Change
Conference. Throughout the conference, representatives debated and drafted a wide-ranging
greenhouse gas agreement that aims to drastically reduce global emissions beginning in 2020.
On December 12, 2015, the text of the “Paris Agreement” was adopted by all 196 parties at
the convention. A summary of some of the agreement’s 27 articles is included in Table 3-1.
Figure 3–1
The Environmental
Kuznets Curve
P
o
llu
ti
o
n
Income per capita
Table 3–1
Highlights of the Paris Agreement on Climate Policy
Article 2
•   Outlines the objectives of the agreement, which includes limiting the increase in the average temperature globally to under 
2 degrees Celsius and aiming for just a 1.5 degrees Celsius increase. Also states goals of developing lower greenhouse
gas emissions technology and structuring financing to nations so that adaption to the impacts of climate change and lower
greenhouse gas emissions technology is implemented.
Article 4
•   Affirms that the global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions should be reached as soon as possible to ensure that goals 
can be reached. The long-term goal is to achieve net zero global emissions by 2070. Each individual country is tasked with
determining its own contributions, with developed countries tasked with taking the lead. Smaller, less developed nations are
to be assisted by developed nations.
Article 7
•  Requires countries to submit reports indicating their strategies for adapting to the effects of climate change.
Article 8
•  Provides a method for smaller, more vulnerable countries to mitigate potential financial losses due to climate change.
Article 9
•   Requires more developed countries to provide financing to developing countries to meet emissions goals and adapt to the 
effects of climate change.
Article 13
•  Requires all countries to be transparent with their progress towards emissions reduction goals.
Article 14
•  Requires that every five years, countries are to update, evaluate, and set new targets based on their progress.
Source: Summarized from the Paris Agreement,  https://unfccc.int/.

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 83
For the Paris Agreement to officially take effect, ratification of the deal must now
take place by at least 55 countries representing at least 55 percent of global emissions.
As the two largest emitters of greenhouse gas, China and the United States are critical
in reaching the 55 percent emission threshold. The signing of the agreement officially
commenced on April 22, 2016, in New York City. If fully ratified, the Paris Agreement
will be the largest international agreement on environmental reform since the Kyoto
Protocol of 1997.
Despite improvements in environmental protection and ethical business practices,
many companies continue to violate laws and/or jeopardize safety and environmental
concerns in their operations. This is particularly true in emerging and developing coun-
tries, where environmental laws may be reasonably strong but are not as vigorously
enforced as in higher income countries. As one example, in April 2016, China’s govern-
ment announced it would investigate a report that nearly 500 students became sick with
various ailments, including cancer, at a school built near a recently closed chemical plant
in Changzhou.52    As citizens become more demanding that governments and businesses
take action to address environmental pollution, and the media report on these controver-
sies, officials are likely to feel pressure to respond.    
■ Globalization and Ethical Obligations of MNCs
All this prompts the question, how much responsibility do MNCs have in changing these
practices? Should they adopt the regulations in the country of origin or yield to those in
the country of operation? One remedy could be to instill a business code of ethics that
extends to all countries, or to create contracts for situations that may arise. The nearby
International Management in Action box regarding Volkswagen underscores how, despite
a strong code of conduct, VW found itself the subject of numerous ethical problems,
which resulted in lawsuits and severely tarnished its reputation.
“Doing the right thing” is not always as simple as it appears. Some years back,
Levi Strauss experienced this issue with its suppliers from Bangladesh. Children under
the age of 14 were working at two locations, which did not violate the law in Bangladesh
but did go against the policy of Levi Strauss. Ultimately, Levi Strauss decided to con-
tinue paying the wages of the children and secured a position for them once they reached
the age of 14, after their return from schooling.53 While the level of involvement is hard
to standardize, having a basic set of business ethics and appropriately applying it to the
culture in which one is managing is a step in the right direction. Managers need to be
cautious not to blur the lines of culture in these situations. The Prince of Wales was
once quoted as saying, “Business can only succeed in a sustainable environment. Illiter-
ate, poorly trained, poorly housed, resentful communities, deprived of a sense of belong-
ing or of roots, provide a poor workforce and an uncertain market.”54  Businesses face
much difficulty in attempting to balance organizational and cultural roots with the
advancement of globalization.
One recent phenomenon in response to globalization has been not just to off-
shore low-cost labor-intensive practices, as described in Chapter 1, but to transfer a
large percentage of current employees of all types to foreign locations. The inexpen-
sive labor available through offshore outsourcing in India has aided many institutions,
but also has put a strain on some industries, particularly home-based technology ser-
vices. More than a third of the global IT workforce is now located in India. It is
estimated that IBM now bases more than 30 percent of its employees in India and
Accenture, a company specializing in management consulting, technology services,
and outsourcing, now has more than double the number of employees in India than
it has in the United States. With labor costs in India at less than half of those in the
United States, companies like Accenture gain a competitive advantage by offering
similar low-cost services, but with consulting expertise that is not yet matched by
Indian cohorts.55

84
The transfer of the labor force overseas creates an interesting dynamic in the scope
of ethics and corporate responsibility. While most international managers concern them-
selves with understanding the social culture in which the corporation is enveloped and
how that can mesh with the corporate culture, this recent wave involves the extension of
an established corporate culture into a new social environment. The difference here is
that the individuals being moved offshore are part of a corporate citizenship, meaning
that they will identify with the corporation and not necessarily the outside environment;
the opposite occurs when the firm moves to another country and seeks to employ local
citizens. Accenture proves that it is possible to succeed with such an effort, but as more
and more companies follow suit, other questions and concerns may arise. How will the
two cultures work together? Will employees adhere to the work schedule of the home or
the host country? Will the host country be open or reluctant to an influx of new citizens?
International Management in Action
Volkswagen’s Challenges with Ethical Business Practices
In the fiercely competitive global automotive industry,
the Volkswagen Group (VW) has pursued an ongoing
global strategy that emphasizes both centralization and
regional adaptation and leverages the range of capa-
bilities from its various brands and their production. VW
operates manufacturing facilities in nearly 30 countries,
including two joint ventures in China, and sells its cars
in over 150 countries. After two decades of sales lead-
ership in Europe, VW reached a significant milestone in
its 78-year history when, for the first half of 2015, it
surpassed Toyota to become the top automobile pro-
ducer by sales worldwide. However, celebrations would
be short-lived.
In late 2015, VW found itself in a major ethical crisis
after numerous independent investigations confirmed
that VW’s engine software was intentionally bugged to
alter a car’s performance when the vehicle was under-
going emissions testing. The VW-manufactured diesel
engines were programmed to function in such a way
that good gas mileage could be achieved during road
tests (when emissions were not being tested) and
acceptable nitrogen oxide readings were emitted dur-
ing lab tests (when gas mileage was not being tested).
In reality, however, the amount of nitrogen oxide emit-
ted during regular road driving was nearly 40 times
greater than what was emitted during testing, far
exceeding permissible emissions levels regulated in the
United States and Europe. In September 2015, the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formally issued
a Notice of Violation to VW. The software modification
was installed on nearly 11 million vehicles across the
globe, affecting all VW diesel engines manufactured
between 2009 and 2015. It has been speculated that
over 30 management-level employees participated in
or had knowledge of the intentional attempt to cheat
on these emissions tests.
Within hours of the issuance of the EPA Notice of Vio-
lation, the scandal was receiving worldwide news cover-
age. Perhaps learning from the experience of other
companies entangled in ethical scandals over the last
several years, VW was quick to assume full responsibility.
A number of key figureheads, including global CEO Mar-
tin Winterkorn and American President Michael Horn,
resigned. Maintaining transparency, including open testi-
mony before the U.S. Congress, was a key element of
VW’s approach to rebuilding public trust. “We’ve totally
screwed up,” stated former American VW President Horn.
The financial fallout from the scandal has been dev-
astating to VW. After starting the year as the top global
automaker, VW slumped in the final few months of 2015,
and annual sales declined for the first time in 13 years.
The company’s stock price dropped by a third over the
last several months of 2015. In the third quarter of 2015,
VW posted its first quarterly loss in 15 years. VW has set
aside over $7 billion to cover costs incurred due to the
recall and repair of the vehicles. However, as of mid
2016, Volkswagen still did not have an economical
approach to lowering emissions in the affected cars.  
In November 2015, the company offered vouchers
worth $1,000 to all U.S. affected customers, and in April
2016, Volkswagen gave U.S. customers the option to
return their vehicle for a full refund. No compensation
package, however, has been extended to those custom-
ers outside of the U.S. Fines and associated lawsuits are
likely to cost VW even more in the coming years. The
EPA has the ability to fine VW $37,500 per car sold in
the United States—or about $18 billion. Over 500 law-
suits have already been filed in the United States against
VW, with additional pressure due to a pending $46 bil-
lion suit filed by the U.S. Department of Justice.  
In its 15-page code of conduct, published in the years
prior to the emissions scandal, VW emphasizes its com-
mitment to its strong reputation. The trust that the public
placed in the VW brand aided in its growth from a small
German automaker to a global giant. Now, that reputation
appears to be in jeopardy. Will VW be able to recover?
Sources: Volkswagen website, www.vw.com/; Russell Hotten, “Volkswa-
gen: The Scandal Explained,”  BBC, December 10, 2015, www.bbc.
com/news/business-34324772.

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 85
The latter may not be a current concern due to the infrequency of offshoring, but MNCs
may face a time when they have to consider more than just survival of the company.
One must also bear in mind the effects these choices will have on both cultures.
Reconciling Ethical Differences across Cultures
As noted in the introduction to this section, ethical dilemmas arise from conflicts between
ethical standards of a country and business ethics, or the moral code guiding business
behavior. Most MNCs seek to adhere to a code of ethical conduct while doing business
around the world, yet must make some adjustments to respond to local norms and values.
Navigating this natural tension can be challenging. One approach advocated by two
prominent business ethicists suggests that there exist implied social contracts that gener-
ally govern behavior around the world, some of which are universal or near universal.
These “hyper” norms include fundamental principles like respect for human life or
abstention from cheating, lying, and violence. Local community norms are respected
within the context of such hyper norms when they deviate from one society to another.
This approach, called “Integrative Social Contracts Theory” (ISCT), attempts to
navigate a moral position that does not force decision makers to engage exclusively in
relativism versus absolutism. It allows substantial latitude for nations and economic com-
munities to develop their unique concepts of fairness but draws the line at flagrant neglect
of core human values. It is designed to provide international managers with a framework
when confronted with a substantial gap between the apparent moral and ethical values
in the country in which the MNC is headquartered and the many countries in which it
does business. Although ISCT has been criticized for its inability to provide precise
guidance for managers under specific conditions, it nonetheless offers one approach to
helping reconcile a fundamental contradiction in international business ethics.56
Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability
In addition to expectations that they adhere to specific ethical codes and principles,
corporations are under increasing pressure to contribute to the societies and communities
in which they operate and to adopt more socially responsible business practices through-
out their entire range of operations. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be defined
as the actions of a firm to benefit society beyond the requirements of the law and the
direct interests of the firm.57 It is difficult to provide a list of obligations since the social,
economic, and environmental expectations of each company will be based on the desires
of the stakeholders. Pressure for greater attention to CSR has emanated from a range of
stakeholders, including civil society (the broad societal interests in a given region or
country) and from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). These groups have urged
MNCs to be more responsive to the range of social needs in developing countries, includ-
ing concerns about working conditions in factories or service centers and the environ-
mental impacts of their activities.58  The increased CSR efforts by businesses appear to
be effective in increasing public opinion; more than 50 percent of global respondents to
a recent Edelman survey expressed trust in business and government in 2016, reaching
a record high (see Figure 3–2).59
Many MNCs such as Intel, HSBC, Lenovo, TOMS, and others take their CSR
commitment seriously (see Brief Integrative Case 1.2 at the end of Part One). These
firms have integrated their response to CSR pressures into their core business strategies
and operating principles around the world (see the section “Response to Social and
Organizational Obligations”.
Civil Society, NGOs, MNCs, and Ethical Balance The emergence of organized civil
society and NGOs has dramatically altered the business environment globally and the
role of MNCs within it. Although social movements have been part of the political and
economic landscape for centuries, the emergence of NGO activism in the United States
nongovernmental
organizations (NGOs)
Private, not-for-profit
organizations that seek to
serve society’s interests by
focusing on social, political,
and economic issues such
as poverty, social justice,
education, health, and the
environment.

86 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
during the modern era can be traced to mid-1984, when a range of NGOs, including
church and community groups, human rights organizations, and other antiapartheid activ-
ists, built strong networks and pressed U.S. cities and states to divest their public pension
funds of companies doing business in South Africa. This effort, combined with domes-
tic unrest, international governmental pressures, and capital flight, posed a direct, sus-
tained, and ultimately successful challenge to the white minority rule, resulting in the
collapse of apartheid.
Since then, NGOs generally have grown in number, power, and influence. Large
global NGOs such as Save the Children, Oxfam, CARE, Amnesty International, World
Wildlife Fund, and Conservation International are active in all parts of the world. Their
force has been felt in a range of major public policy debates, and NGO activism has
been responsible for major changes in corporate behavior and governance. Some observ-
ers now regard NGOs as a counterweight to business and global capitalism. NGO criti-
cisms have been especially sharp in relation to the activities of MNCs, such as Nike,
Levi’s, Chiquita, and others whose sourcing practices in developing countries have been
alleged to exploit low-wage workers, take advantage of lax environmental and workplace
standards, and otherwise contribute to social and economic problems. Three recent exam-
ples illustrate the complex and increasingly important impact of NGOs on MNCs.
In November 2015, on the opening day of the United Nations climate summit in
Paris, Morgan Stanley and Wells Fargo announced that they would no longer provide
financing to coal-mining companies in both the developed and developing world. Morgan
Stanley also stated that it, as a financier, has a responsibility to guide the global com-
munity towards a low-carbon economy. This announcement came after several months
of aggressive pressure and lobbying by environmental protection groups, including the
Rainforest Action Network (RAN). An online petition initiated by RAN drew thousands
of signatures.60 After heavy lobbying from NGOs, in August 2003, the U.S. pharmaceu-
tical industry dropped its opposition to relaxation of intellectual property provisions
under the WTO to make generic, low-cost antiviral drugs available to developing coun-
tries facing epidemics or other health emergencies.61 In November 2009, after nearly two
years of student campaigning in coordination with the apparel workers, a Honduran
workers’ union concluded an agreement with Russell Athletics, the apparel manufacturer
owned by Fruit of the Loom, that puts all of the workers back to work, provides com-
pensation for lost wages, recognizes the union and agrees to collective bargaining, and
provides access for the union to all other Russell apparel plants in Honduras for union
organizing drives in which the company will remain neutral. According to a November 18,
Figure 3–2
Public Trust Reaches
Record Highs in 2016
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh based on data from 2016  Edelman Trust
Barometer, www.edelman.com/insights/intellectual-property/2016-edelman-trust-barometer/.
50%
47%
46%
38%
55%
53%
49%
43%
35%
40%
45%
50%
55%
60%
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
NGOs MediaBusinesses Government

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 87
2009, press release of United Students Against Sweatshops, this has been an “unprece-
dented victory for labor rights.”62
Many NGOs recognize that MNCs can have positive impacts on the countries in
which they do business, often adhering to higher standards of social and environmental
responsibility than local firms. In fact, MNCs may be in a position to transfer “best
practices” in social or environmental actions from their home to host countries’ markets.
In some instances, MNCs and NGOs collaborate on social and environmental projects
and in so doing contribute both to the well-being of communities and to the reputation
of the MNC. The emergence of NGOs that seek to promote ethical and socially respon-
sible business practices is beginning to generate substantial changes in corporate
management, strategy, and governance.
Response to Social and Organizational Obligations MNCs are increasingly en-
gaged in a range of responses to growing pressures to contribute positively to the
social and environmental progress of the communities in which they do business. One
response is the agreements and codes of conduct in which MNCs commit to maintain
certain standards in their domestic and global operations. These agreements, which
include the U.N. Global Compact (see Table 3–2), the Global Reporting Initiative,
the social accountability “SA8000” standards, and the ISO 14000 environmental qual-
ity standards, provide some assurances that when MNCs do business around the world,
they will maintain a minimum level of social and environmental standards in the
workplaces and communities in which they operate.63,64 These codes help offset the
real or perceived concern that companies move jobs to avoid higher labor or environ-
mental standards in their home markets. They may also contribute to the raising of
standards in the developing world by “exporting” higher standards to local firms in
those countries.
Another interesting trend among businesses and NGOs is the movement toward
increasing the availability of “fairly traded” products. Beginning with coffee and moving
to chocolate, fruits, and other agricultural products, fair trade is an organized social
movement and market-based approach that aims to help producers in developing coun-
tries obtain better trading conditions and promote sustainability. See the A Closer Look
box for a discussion of fair trade systems and products.
fair trade
An organized social
movement and market-
based approach that aims to
help producers in
developing countries obtain
better trading conditions
and promote sustainability.
Table 3–2
Principles of the Global Compact
Human Rights
Principle 1: Support and respect the protection of international human rights within their sphere of influence.
Principle 2: Make sure their own corporations are not complicit in human rights abuses.
Labor
Principle 3: Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining.
Principle 4: The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labor.
Principle 5: The effective abolition of child labor.
Principle 6: The elimination of discrimination with respect to employment and occupation.
Environment
Principle 7: Support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges.
Principle 8: Undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility.
Principle 9: Encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies.
Anticorruption
Principle 10: Business should work against all forms of corruption, including extortion and bribery.
Source: From The Ten Principles of the UN Global Compact, by The United Nations, © 2016 United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.

88
Sustainability In the boardroom, the term sustainability may first be associated with
financial investments or the hope of steadily increasing profits, but for a growing number
of companies, this term means the same to them as it does to an environmental conser-
vationist. Partially this is due to corporations recognizing that dwindling resources will
eventually halt productivity, but the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, has
also played a part in bringing awareness to this timely subject. In a report published in
2012, the World Economic Forum discussed the challenges created by the speed of busi-
ness growth. With half as many people living in poverty as just 30 years ago, the con-
sumer class is growing rapidly in emerging markets. The report focused on how
sustainable consumption of energy and resources can be used to ease the problems
brought about from this need for rapid business scaling.65
While the United States has the Environmental Protection Agency to provide infor-
mation about and enforce environmental laws,66  the United Nations also has a division
dedicated to the education, promotion, facilitation, and advocacy of sustainable practices
and environmentally sound concerns called the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP).67 The degree to which global awareness and concern are rising extends beyond
laws and regulations, as corporations are now taking strides to be leaders in this “green”
movement.
Walmart, one of the most well-known and pervasive global retailers, has begun to
recognize the numerous benefits of the adage, “Think globally, act locally.” Walmart has
set three broad corporate goals in regards to sustainability: to use 100 percent renewable
energy, to achieve zero-waste, and to sell products that are sustainable for the environ-
ment and people.68  Working with environmentalists, it discovered that many changes in
production and supply chain practices could reduce waste and pollution and therefore
reduce costs. By cutting back on packaging, Walmart saves an estimated $2.4 million a
sustainability
Development that meets
humanity’s needs without
harming future generations.
A Closer Look
Fair Trade in the U.S.: Fair trade USA http://www.fairtradeusa.org/
Fair Trade helps farming families across Latin America,
Africa, and Asia to improve the quality of life in their
communities. Fair Trade certification empowers farm-
ers and farm workers to lift themselves out of poverty
by investing in their farms and communities, protect-
ing the environment, and developing the business
skills necessary to compete in the global marketplace.
Fair Trade is much more than a fair price. Fair Trade
principles include
• Fair price: Democratically organized farmer
groups receive a guaranteed minimum floor price
and an additional premium for certified organic
products. Farmer organizations are also eligible
for preharvest credit.
• Fair labor conditions: Workers on Fair Trade farms
enjoy freedom of association, safe working condi-
tions, and living wages. Forced child labor is
strictly prohibited.
• Direct trade: With Fair Trade, importers purchase
from Fair Trade producer groups as directly as
possible, eliminating unnecessary middlemen
and empowering farmers to develop the business
capacity necessary to compete in the global
marketplace.
• Democratic and transparent organizations: Fair
Trade farmers and farm workers decide democrati-
cally how to invest Fair Trade revenues.
• Community development: Fair Trade farmers and
farm workers invest Fair Trade premiums in social
and business development projects like scholar-
ship programs, quality improvement training, and
organic certification.
• Environmental sustainability: Harmful agrochemi-
cals and GMOs are strictly prohibited in favor of
environmentally sustainable farming methods that
protect farmers’ health and preserve valuable eco-
systems for future generations.
Fair Trade USA, a nonprofit organization, is the only inde-
pendent, third-party certifier of Fair Trade products in the
U.S. and one of 20 members of Fairtrade Labeling Orga-
nizations International (FLO). Fair Trade USA’s rigorous
audit system, which tracks products from farm to finished
product, verifies industry compliance with Fair Trade cri-
teria. Fair Trade USA  allows U.S. companies to display
the Fair Trade Certified label on products that meet strict
Fair Trade standards. Fair Trade certification is currently
available in the U.S. for coffee, tea and herbs, cocoa and
chocolate, fresh fruit, sugar, rice, and vanilla.

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 89
year, 3,800 trees, and 1 million barrels of oil. Over 80,000 suppliers compete to put their
products on Walmart shelves, which means that this company has a strong influence on
how manufacturers do business.69,70 To encourage sustainability from these suppliers,
Walmart created a “Sustainability Hub” website to share standards and encourage inno-
vation.71  And Walmart’s efforts are truly global. In line with the three corporate goals,
the company is buying solar and wind power in Mexico, sourcing local food in China
and India, and analyzing the life-cycle impact of consumer products in Brazil. Alleviat-
ing hunger has become a goal of Walmart’s charitable efforts, and so with CARE it is
backing education, job-training, and entrepreneurial programs for women in Peru, Ban-
gladesh, and India. Walmart is attempting to change global standards as it offers higher
prices to coffee growers in Brazil and increases pressures on the factory owners in China
to reduce energy and fuel costs.72 Although Walmart has faced some setbacks in its global
CSR efforts, it continues to respond to pressures for social responsibility and sustain-
ability (see In-Depth Integrated Case 2.2 at the end of Part Two).
GE has pursued an aggressive initiative to integrate environmental sustainability
with its business goals through the “ecomagination” program. Management styles again
are changing as agendas are refocused on not only seeing the present but also looking
to the future of human needs and the environment. Ecomagination is a GE strategic
initiative to use innovation to improve energy efficiency across the globe. By meeting
the demand for “green” products and services, GE is generating value for shareholders
as well as promoting environmental sustainability. At a GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy power
plant in North Carolina, a new wastewater system “has reduced water usage by 25 mil-
lion gallons annually, avoiding nearly 80 tons per year of CO2 emissions and realizing
annual savings of $160,000 in water and energy costs.” GE’s ecomagination ZeeWeed®
membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology transforms up to 65,000 gallons per day of
wastewater into treated water that can be used in the facility’s cooling towers. GE Jen-
bacher engines capture gas from various fuel sources, even garbage, to create power.
Jenbacher engines are at the core of a Mexican landfill gas-to-energy project, which
President Felipe Calderón called “a model renewable energy project” for Latin America.
This project’s power supports “Monterrey’s light-rail system during the day and city
street lights at night.”
In addition, GE’s Flight Management System (FMS) for Boeing 737 planes has
enabled airlines to lower fuel costs and reduce emissions. According to a GE Ecomagi-
nation Annual Report, “The FMS enables pilots to determine, while maintaining a highly
efficient cruise altitude, the exact point where the throttle can be reduced to flight idle
while allowing the aircraft to arrive precisely at the required runway approach point
without the need for throttle increases.”73 SAS Scandinavian Airlines estimates that FMS
will save the airline $10 million annually. According to CEO Jeffrey R. Immelt and vice
president of Ecomagination Steven M. Fludder, “Ecomagination is playing a role in
boosting economic recovery, supporting the jobs of the future, improving the environ-
mental impact of our customers’ (and our own) operations, furthering energy indepen-
dence, and fostering innovation and growth in profitable environmental solutions.”74
Corporate Governance
The recent global, ethical, and governance scandals have placed corporations under intense
scrutiny regarding their oversight and accountability. Adelphia, Arthur Andersen, Enron,
Olympus, HSBC, Tyco, and Barclays are just a few of the dozens of companies that have
been found to engage in inappropriate and often illegal activities related to governance.
In addition, a number of financial services firms, including Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank,
Lehman Brothers, Citigroup, and many others, have been found to have engaged in inap-
propriate trading or other activities. Corporate governance is increasingly high on the
agenda for directors, investors, and governments alike in the wake of financial collapses
and corporate scandals in recent years. The collapses and scandals have not been limited
to a single country, or even a single continent, but have been a global phenomenon.

90 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
Corporate governance can be defined as the system by which business corpora-
tions are directed and controlled.75 The corporate governance structure specifies the dis-
tribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the
corporation—such as the board, managers, shareholders, and other stakeholders—and
spells out the rules and procedures for making decisions on corporate affairs. By doing
this, it also provides the structure through which the company objectives are set and the
means of attaining those objectives and monitoring performance.
Governance rules and regulations differ among countries and regions around the
world. For example, the UK and U.S. systems have been termed “outsider” systems
because of dispersed ownership of corporate equity among a large number of outside
investors. Historically, although institutional investor ownership was predominant,
institutions generally did not hold large shares in any given company; hence, they had
limited direct control.76  In contrast, in an insider system, such as that in many conti-
nental European countries, ownership tends to be much more concentrated, with shares
often being owned by holding companies, families, or banks. In addition, differences
in legal systems, as described in Chapter 2, also affect shareholders’ and other stake-
holders’ rights and, in turn, the responsiveness and accountability of corporate manag-
ers to these constituencies. Notwithstanding recent scandals, in general, North
American and European systems are considered comparatively responsive to sharehold-
ers and other stakeholders. In regions with less well-developed legal and institutional
protections and poor property rights, such as some countries in Asia, Latin America,
and Africa, forms of “crony capitalism” may emerge in which weak corporate gover-
nance and government interference can lead to poor performance, risky financing pat-
terns, and macroeconomic crises.
Corporate governance will undoubtedly remain high on the agenda of governments,
investors, NGOs, and corporations in the coming years, as pressure for accountability
and responsiveness continues to increase.
Corruption
As noted in Chapter 2, government corruption is a pervasive element in the international
business environment. Recently publicized scandals in Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Egypt,
Pakistan, Russia, South Africa, and elsewhere underscore the extent of corruption glob-
ally, especially in the developing world. However, a number of initiatives have been taken
by governments and companies to begin to stem the tide of corruption.77,78
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) makes it illegal for U.S. companies
and their managers to attempt to influence foreign officials through personal payments
or political contributions. Prior to passage of the FCPA, some American multinationals
had engaged in this practice, but realizing that their stockholders were unlikely to
approve of these tactics, the firms typically disguised the payments as entertainment
expenses, consulting fees, and so on. Not only does the FCPA prohibit these activities,
but the U.S. Internal Revenue Service also continually audits the books of MNCs. Those
firms that take deductions for such illegal activities are subject to high financial penal-
ties, and individuals who are involved can even end up going to prison. Strict enforce-
ment of the FCPA has been applauded by many people, but some critics wonder if such
a strong stance has hurt the competitive ability of American MNCs. On the positive
side, many U.S. multinationals have now increased the amount of business in countries
where they used to pay bribes. Additionally, many institutional investors in the United
States have made it clear that they will not buy stock in companies that engage in
unethical practices and will sell their holdings in such firms. Given that these institu-
tions have hundreds of billions of dollars invested, senior-level management must be
responsive to their needs.
Looking at the effect of the FCPA on U.S. multinationals, it appears that the law
has had far more of a positive effect than a negative one. Given the growth of American
MNCs in recent years, it seems fair to conclude that bribes are not a basic part of business
corporate governance
The system by which
business corporations are
directed and controlled.

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 91
in many countries, for when multinationals stopped this activity, they were still able to
sell in that particular market. On the other hand, this does not mean that bribery and
corruption are a thing of the past.
Indeed bribery continues to be a problem for MNCs around the world. In fact,
recent scandals at ALSTOM, BAE, Daimler, Halliburton, Siemens, Walmart, and
many other multinationals underscore the reality that executives continue to partici-
pate in bribery and corruption. Although Siemens paid a record fine, U.S. authorities
are still concerned about enforcement of corruption laws in other countries.79 Figure 3–3
gives the latest corruption index of countries around the world. Notice that the United
States ranks 16th in this independent analysis. These rankings fluctuate somewhat
from year to year. Factors that appear to contribute to these fluctuations include
changes in government or political party in power, economic crises, and crackdowns
in individual countries.
In complying with the provisions of the FCPA, U.S. firms must be aware of
changes in the law that make FCPA violators subject to Federal Sentencing Guide-
lines. The origin of this law and the guidelines that followed can be traced to two
Lockheed Corporation executives who were found guilty of paying a $1 million bribe
to a member of the Egyptian parliament in order to secure the sale of aircraft to the
Egyptian military. One of the executives was sentenced to probation and fined $20,000
and the other, who initially fled prosecution, was fined $125,000 and sentenced to 18
months in prison.80
Another development that promises to give teeth to “antibribing” legislation is the
recent formal agreement by a host of industrialized nations to outlaw the practice of
bribing foreign government officials. The treaty, which initially included 29 nations that
belong to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), marked
a victory for the United States, which outlawed foreign bribery two decades previously
but had not been able to persuade other countries to follow its lead. As a result, American
firms had long complained that they lost billions of dollars in contracts each year to
rivals that bribed their way to success.81
This treaty does not outlaw most payments to political party leaders. In fact, the
treaty provisions are much narrower than U.S. negotiators wanted, and there undoubtedly
will be ongoing pressure from the American government to expand the scope and cover-
age of the agreement. For the moment, however, it is a step in the direction of a more
ethical and level playing field in global business. Additionally, in summing up the impact
and value of the treaty, one observer noted: “For their part, business executives say the
treaty . . . reflects growing support for antibribery initiatives among corporations in
Europe and Japan that have openly opposed the idea. Some of Europe’s leading industrial
corporations, including a few that have been embroiled in recent allegations of bribery,
have spoken out in favor of tougher measures and on the increasingly corrosive effect of
corruption.”82
In addition to the 34 members of the OECD, a number of developing countries,
including Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, and South Africa, have signed on to the OECD
agreement. Latin American countries have established the Organization of American
States (OAS) Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, which entered into force
in March 1997, and more than 25 Western Hemisphere countries are signatories to the
convention, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and the United States. As a way
to prevent the shifting of corrupt practices to suppliers and intermediaries, the Transpar-
ent Agents Against Contracting Entities (TRACE) standard was developed after a review
of the practices of 34 companies. It applies to business intermediaries, including sales
agents, consultants, suppliers, distributors, resellers, subcontractors, franchisees, and
joint-venture partners, so that final producers, distributors, and customers can be confident
that no party within a supply chain has participated in corruption.
Both governments and companies have made important steps in their efforts to
stem the spread of corruption, but much more needs to be done in order to reduce the
impact of corruption on companies and the broader societies in which they operate.83
Figure 3–3
Transparency International
Corruption Perceptions
Index Ratings, Selected
Countries, 2016
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell
under supervision of Jonathan Doh
based on data from Transparency
International Corruption Perceptions
Index Ratings 2016.
0 Denmark
Hong Kong
South Korea
R
a
n
ki
n
g
H
ig
h
e
r
le
ve
ls
o
f
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rc
e
iv
e
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r
le
ve
ls
o
f
p
e
rc
e
iv
e
d
c
o
rr
u
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tio
n
South Africa
Indonesia
Mexico
Russia
Somalia
China
India
Brazil
United States
United Kingdom
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20

92 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
International Assistance
In addition to government- and corporate-sponsored ethics and social responsibility prac-
tices, governments and corporations are increasingly collaborating to provide assistance
to communities around the world through global partnerships. This assistance is particu-
larly important for those parts of the world that have not fully benefited from globaliza-
tion and economic integration. Using a cost-benefit analysis of where investments would
have the greatest impact, a recent study identified the top priorities around the world for
development assistance. The results of this analysis are presented in Table 3–3. Fighting
malnutrition, controlling malaria, and immunizing children are shown to be the best
investments. Governments, international institutions, and corporations are involved in
several ongoing efforts to address some of these problems.
At a United Nations summit in September 2015, world leaders placed development
at the heart of the global agenda by adopting the Sustainable Development Goals (see
Table 3–4). The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals constitute an ambitious
agenda to significantly improve the human condition by 2030. The goals set clear targets
for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, and inequalities, while protecting the environment
and climate. For each goal, targets and indicators have been defined and are used to track
the progress in meeting the goals.84
A more specific initiative is the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and
Malaria, which was established in 2001. Through the end of 2015, the Global Fund had
committed over US$33 billion in grants to over 151 countries.85
Through these and other efforts, MNCs, governments, and international organiza-
tions are providing a range of resources to communities around the world to assist them
as they respond to the challenges of globalization and development. International manag-
ers will increasingly be called upon to support and contribute to these initiatives.
Table 3–3
Copenhagen Consensus Investment Priorities
Ranking Investment
1 Bundled micronutrient interventions to fight hunger and improve education
2 Expanding the subsidy for malaria combination treatment
3 Expanded childhood immunization coverage
4 Deworming of schoolchildren, to improve educational and health outcomes
5 Expanding tuberculosis treatment
6 R&D to increase yield enhancements, to decrease hunger, fight biodiversity
destruction, and lessen the effects of climate change
7 Investing in effective early warning systems to protect populations against natural
disaster
8 Strengthening surgical capacity
9 Hepatitis B immunization
10 Using low-cost drugs in the case of acute heart attacks in poorer nations (these
are already available in developed countries)
11 Salt reduction campaign to reduce chronic disease
12 Geo-engineering R&D into the feasibility of solar radiation management
13 Conditional cash transfers for school attendance
14 Accelerated HIV vaccine R&D
15 Extended field trial of information campaigns on the benefits from schooling
16 Borehole and public hand pump intervention
Source: Copenhagen Consensus 2012.

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 93
The World of International Management—Revisited
The World of International Management feature that opened this chapter outlines how three
companies have sought to incorporate social responsibility and sustainability into their busi-
ness strategy and operations. In each case, the companies have responded to changes in the
external environment and sought to capitalize on increasing interest in and support of sustain-
ability in business. This interest has spread around the globe such that both developed and
developing countries and their companies are increasingly committed to a sustainable future.
In this chapter we focused on ethics and social responsibility in global business
activities, including the role of governments, MNCs, and NGOs in advancing greater
ethical and socially responsible behavior. MNCs’ new focus on environmental sustain-
ability and “doing well by doing good” is an important dimension of this broad trend.
Global ethical and governance scandals have rocked the financial markets and
implicated dozens of individual companies. New corporate ethics guidelines passed in
the United States have forced many MNCs to take a look at their own internal ethical
practices and make changes accordingly. Lawmakers in Europe and Asia have also made
adjustments in rules over corporate financial disclosure. The continuing trend toward
globalization and free trade appears to be encouraging development of a set of global
ethical, social responsibility, and anticorruption standards. This may actually help firms
cut compliance costs as they realize that economies have common global frameworks.
Having read the chapter, answer the following questions: (1) Do governments and
companies in developed countries have an ethical responsibility to contribute to economic
growth and social development in developing countries? (2) Are governments, companies, or
NGOs best equipped to provide this assistance? How might collaboration among these sectors
provide a comprehensive approach? (3) Do corporations have a responsibility to use their
“best” ethics and social responsibility practices when they do business in other countries,
even if those countries’ practices are different? (4) How can companies leverage their ethical
reputation and social and environmental responsibility to improve business performance?
Table 3–4
The U.N. Sustainable Development Goals
Goal 1: Poverty—End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
Goal 2: Food—End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.
Goal 3: Health—Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
Goal 4: Education—Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
Goal 5: Women—Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
Goal 6: Water—Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
Goal 7: Energy—Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
Goal 8: Economy—Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth; full and productive employment; and decent
work for all.
Goal 9: Infrastructure—Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation.
Goal 10:  Inequality—Reduce inequality within and among countries.
Goal 11:  Habitation—Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable.
Goal 12:  Consumption—Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
Goal 13:  Climate—Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
Goal 14:  Marine ecosystems—Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development.
Goal 15:  Ecosystems—Protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems; sustainably manage forests; com-
bat desertification; halt and reverse land degradation; and halt biodiversity loss.
Goal 16:  Institutions—Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development; provide access to justice for all;
and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels.
Goal 17:  Sustainability—Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
Source: www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/.

94 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
1. Ethics is the study of morality and standards of
conduct. It is important in the study of international
management because ethical behavior often varies
from one country to another. Ethics manifests itself
in the ways societies and companies address issues
such as employment conditions, human rights, and
corruption. A danger in international management is
the ethical relativism trap—“When in Rome, do as
the Romans do.”
2. During the years ahead, multinationals likely will
become more concerned about being socially
responsible. NGOs are forcing the issue. Countries
are passing laws to regulate ethical practices and
governance rules for MNCs. MNCs are being more
proactive (often because they realize it makes good
business sense) in making social contributions in
the regions in which they operate and in developing
codes of conduct to govern ethics and social
responsibility. One area in which companies have
been especially active is in pursuing strategies that
blend environmental sustainability and business
objectives.
3. MNCs—in conjunction with governments and
NGOs—are also contributing to international devel-
opment assistance and working to ensure that cor-
porate governance practices are sound and effective.
SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS
KEY TERMS
corporate governance, 90
corporate social responsibility
(CSR), 77
ethics, 77
fair trade, 87
nongovernmental organizations
(NGOs), 85
sustainability, 88
REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. How might different ethical philosophies influence
how managers make decisions when it comes to
offshoring of jobs?
2. What lessons can U.S. multinationals learn from the
bribery and corruption scandals in recent years,
such as those affecting contractors doing business
in Iraq (Halliburton), as well as large MNCs such
as Siemens, HP, and others? Discuss two.
3. In recent years, rules have tightened such that those
who work for the U.S. government in trade negotia-
tions are now restricted from working for lobbyists
for foreign firms. Is this a good idea? Why or why
not?
4. What are some strategies for overcoming the impact
of counterfeiting? Which strategies work best for
discretionary (for instance, movies) versus nondis-
cretionary (pharmaceutical) goods?
5. Why are MNCs getting involved in corporate social
responsibility and sustainable business practice? Are
they displaying a sense of social responsibility, or is
this merely a matter of good business, or both?
Defend your answer.
1. “Becoming a Responsible Company,” Patagonia.
com, www.patagonia.com/responsible-company.html.
2. “Patagonia Mission Statement: Our Reason for
Being,” Patagonia.com. www.patagonia.com/
company-info.html.
3. “Becoming a Responsible Company.”
4. Ibid.
5. “Corporate Responsibility: Promoting Fair Labor
Practices and Safe Working Conditions throughout
Patagonia’s Supply Chain,” Patagonia.com, www.
patagonia.com/corporate-responsibility.html.
6. Ibid.
7. “Becoming a Responsible Company.”
8. “About us,” 1% for the Planet, http://onepercentfor-
theplanet.org/about/.
ENDNOTES

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 95
26. John M. Broder, “Stalled Out on Tesla’s Electric
Highway,” The New York Times, February 8, 2013,
www.nytimes.com/2013/02/10/automobiles/stalled-
on-the-ev-highway.html.
27. Paul Chesser, “Tesla CEO Elon Musk Fights Per-
ceptions as Stock Drops,” NLPC.org, February 26,
2013, http://nlpc.org/stories/2013/02/25/tesla-ceo-
elon-musk-fights-perceptions-stock-drops.
28. John Lippert, “Will Tesla Ever Make
Money?”  Bloomberg Markets, March 4, 2015, 
www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-03-04/
as-tesla-gears-up-for-suv-investors-ask-where-the-
profits-are.
29. Ibid.
30. Kristen Scholer and Lee Spears, “Tesla Posts
Second-Biggest Rally for 2010 U.S. IPO,”
Bloomberg Businessweek, June 29, 2010.
31. Thomas Donaldson, The Ethics of International Busi-
ness (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).
32. I. Kant, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics
of Morals, trans. Thomas K. Abbott (New York:
Macmillan, 1949 [1785]), p. 18.
33. Ibid.
34. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, trans. Martin Ost-
wald New York: Macmillan, 1962, p. 153.
35. W. Frankena, Ethics, 2nd ed. (Engelwood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall, 1973).
36. J. Bentham, The Principles of Morals and Legisla-
tion (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1988
[1789]),
37. J. S. Mill, Utilitarianism (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill,
1957 [1861]).
38. R. J. Vincent, Human Rights and International
Relations (New York: Cambridge University Press,
1986).
39. Vladimir Kovalev, “EU Presses Russia on Human
Trafficking,”BusinessWeek, February 23, 2007,
www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2007-02-23/
eu-presses-russia-on-human-traffickingbusinessweek-
business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice.
40. Andrew Pollack, “In Japan, It’s See No Evil;
Have No Harassment,” The New York Times,
May 7, 1996, p. C5.
41. Howard W. French, “Diploma at Hand, Japanese
Women Find Glass Ceiling Reinforced with Iron,”
The New York Times, January 1, 2001, p. A4.
42. Grant Thornton, “Women in Business: The Path to
Leadership,”  Grant Thornton International Business
Report 2015,  www.grantthornton.global/
globalassets/1.-member-firms/global/insights/ibr-
charts/ibr2015_wib_report_final .
9. “Supply Chain: The Footprint Chronicles: 20 Years
of Organic Cotton,” Patagonia.com, www.patagonia.
com/20-years-of-organic-cotton.html.
10. “About Us,”  Nestlé,  www.nestle.com/aboutus  (last
visited January 30, 2016).
11. “Environmental Sustainability,”  Nestlé,  www.nestle.
com/csv/environmental-sustainability  (last visited
January 30, 2016).
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Brian Dumaine, “Is Apple ‘Greener’ Than Star-
bucks?”  Fortune, June 24, 2014,  http://fortune.
com/2014/06/24/50-best-global-green-brands-2014/.
15. “About Tesla,” Tesla Motors, www.teslamotors.com/
about.
16. “Features and Specs,” Tesla Motors, http://maben.
homeip.net/static/auto../tesla/Tesla%20roadster%20
specifications%201 .
17. “Model S: Features and Specs,” Tesla Motors,
www.teslamotors.com/models/features#/
performance.
18. Joe Romm, “Tesla’s Model 3 Is Already Shattering
Expectations,”  Climate Progress, April 6,
2016,  http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2016/04/
06/3766982/next-apple-tesla-model-3-presales/.
19. “Panasonic, Tesla Agree to Partnership for US Car
Battery Plant,”  Nikkei Asian Review, July 29,
2014,  http://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Deals/Pana-
sonic-Tesla-agree-to-partnership-for-US-car-battery-
plant.
20. “Mercedes Electric Car by Tesla Test Drive–Video
Tesla Mercedes A Class,” The Daily Green, Sep-
tember 3, 2010.
21. Steve Hanley, “Mercedes Is Saying Goodbye to
Tesla,”  GAS2, August 21, 2015,  http://gas2.
org/2015/08/21/mercedes-is-saying-goodbye-to-
tesla/.
22. Chuck Squatriglia, “Tesla Motors Joins Daimler on
a Smart EV | Autopia,” Wired.com, January 13,
2009, www.wired.com/autopia/2009/01/tesla-
motors-jo/.
23. Tori Tellem, “2012 Toyota RAV4-EV: Take Two,”
The New York Times, November 17, 2011.
24. Tesla Motors, “Tesla Initiates Voluntary Recall after
Single Customer Incident,” press release,  October 1,
2010, www.teslamotors.com/about/press/releases/
tesla-initiates-voluntary-recall-after-single-customer-
incident.
25. Suzanne Ashe, “Tesla Motors Recalls Electric
Roadster,” CNET, May 28, 2009, http://reviews.cnet.
com/8301-13746_7-10251758-48.html.

96 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
57. Abagail McWilliams and Donald Siegel, “Corporate
Social Responsibility: A Theory of the Firm Per-
spective,” Academy of Management Review 26, no.
1 (2001), pp. 117–127.
58. “Non-governmental Organizations and Business:
Living with the Enemy,” The Economist, August 9,
2002, pp. 49–50.
59. “2016 Edelman Trust Barometer: Annual Global
Study,”  Edelman  (2016),  www.edelman.com/
insights/intellectual-property/2016-edelman-trust-
barometer/.
60. Blair FitzGibbon,  “Morgan Stanley and Wells Fargo
Cut Coal Financing, Join Growing Movement by
Banks in U.S. and Europe,” RAN press
release,  November 30, 2015,  www.ran.org/morgan_
stanley_and_wells_fargo_cut_coal_financing.
61. “WTO to Allow Access to Cheap Drug Treatments,”
Los Angeles Times, August 31, 2003, p. A4.
62. “USAS Press Release on Jerzees de Honduras
Victory,” USAS, November 18, 2009, http://usas.
org/2009/11/18/usas-press-release-on-jerzees-de-
honduras-victory/.
63. Jonathan P. Doh and Terrence R. Guay,
“Globalization and Corporate Social Responsibility:
How Nongovernmental Organizations Influence
Labor and Environmental Codes of Conduct,”
Management International Review 44, no. 3 (2004),
pp. 7–30.
64. Petra Christmann and Glen Taylor, “Globalization
and the Environment: Strategies for International
Voluntary Environmental Initiatives,” Academy
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pp. 121–135.
65. More with Less: Scaling Sustainable Consumption
and Resource Efficiency (Geneva: World Economic
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66. For more information, visit www.epa.gov.
67. For more information regarding the role of the
UNEP, visit www.unep.org.
68. “Sustainability,” Walmart,  http://corporate.walmart.
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69. Marc Gunther, “The Green Machine,” Fortune,
August 7, 2006, pp. 42–57.
70. Marc Gunther, “Wal-Mart: Still the Green Giant,”
May 19, 2010, www.marcgunther.com/2010/05/19/
walmart-still-the-green-giant/.
71. “SustainabilityHUB,” Walmart,  www.
walmartsustainabilityhub.com/.
72. Gunther, “The Green Machine.”
73. GE Ecomagination, 2008 Ecomagination Annual
Report, p. 29, www.ge.com/about-us/ecomagination. 
43. “Child Labour,” International Labour Organiza-
tion  (2015),  http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/child-
labour/lang–en/index.htm.
44. Ibid.
45. “C138—Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No.
138): Countries That Have Not Ratified This Con-
vention,”  International Labour Organization (2015),
www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:
11310:0::NO:11310:P11310_INSTRUMENT_
ID:312283:NO.
46. Mikey Campbell, “Foxconn Promises to Fix a Mul-
titude of Violations Found by FLA Audit,” Apple
Insider, March 29, 2012,  http://appleinsider.com/
articles/12/03/29/foxconn_promises_to_fix_
violations_found_by_fla_audit.html.
47. David Barboza, “After Spate of Suicides, Technol-
ogy Firm in China Raises Workers’ Salaries,” The
New York Times, June 3, 2010, p. B3.
48. Campbell, “Foxconn Promises to Fix a Multitude of
Violations Found by FLA Audit.”
49. Shelly Banjo, “Wal-Mart Toughens Supplier Poli-
cies,” The Wall Street Journal, January 21, 2013.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323
301104578256183164905720.html.
50. Steven Greenhouse and Jim Yardley, “Global Retail-
ers Join Safety Plan for Bangladesh,” The New York
Times, May 14, 2013, p. A1.
51. David Stern, “The Rise and Fall of the Environ-
mental Kuznets Curve,” World Development 32, no.
8 (2004), pp. 1419–1439.
52. Gerry Shih, “School in China Near Closed Plants
Has 500 Sick Kids,”  U.S. News and World Report,
April 18, 2016,  www.usnews.com/news/articles/
2016-04-18/changzhou-china-school-has-500-sick-
kids-due-to-toxins-report-says.
53. Ron Duska and Nicholas M. Rongione, Ethics and
Corporate Responsibility: Theory, Cases and
Dilemmas (New York: Thomas Custom Publishing,
2003).
54. Paul M. Minus, The Ethics of Business in a Global
Economy (Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
1993).
55. Shilpa Phadnis and Sujit John, “Top Global IT
Firms Have More Staff in India Than Home
Nations,”  The Times of India, November 6,
2013,  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/tech/jobs/
Top-global-IT-firms-have-more-staff-in-India-than-
home-nations/articleshow/25280494.cms.
56. Thomas Donaldson and Thomas W. Dunfee, Ties
That Bind: A Social Contracts Approach to Busi-
ness Ethics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business
Press, 1999).

Chapter 3 Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability 97
82. Edmund L. Andrews, “29 Nations Agree to Outlaw
Bribing Foreign Officials,” The New York Times,
November 21, 1997, p. C2.
83. “Special Report: The Short Arm of the Law—
Bribery and Business,” The  Economist, March 2,
2002, p. 85.
84. “Sustainable Development Goals,” United
Nations,  www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sus-
tainable-development-goals/.
85. “Financials,”  The Global Fund,  www.theglobalfund.
org/en/financials/  (last visited February 14, 2016).
86. CIA, “Cuba,”  The World Factbook  (2016),  https://
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
geos/cu.html.
87. Ibid.
88. Ibid.
89. Ibid.
90. Heritage Foundation, “Cuba,” Index of Economic
Freedom  (2016), http://www.heritage.org/index/
country/cuba.
91. Miguel  Heft, “Why Airbnb Thinks Cuba Can
Become a Case Study,”  Forbes, September 6, 2015,
www.forbes.com/sites/miguelhelft/2015/09/06/inside-
airbnbs-cuba/#42de19b7c3ec.
74. Ibid., p. 3.
75. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Devel-
opment, Corporate Governance: A Survey of OECD
Countries (Paris: OECD, 2003).
76. Stijn Claessens and Joseph P. H. Fan, “Corporate
Governance in Asia: A Survey,” International
Review of Finance 3, no. 2 (2002), pp. 71–103.
77. Bob Davis, “The Economy: U.S. Nears Pact on
Corruption Treaty,” The Wall Street Journal, August
13, 2003, p. A2.
78. See also Jonathan P. Doh, Peter Rodriguez, Klaus
Uhlenbruck, Jamie Collins, and Lorraine Eden,
“Coping with Corruption in Foreign Markets,”
Academy of Management Executive 17, no. 3
(2003), pp. 114–127.
79. Ken Stier, “Too Big to Be Nailed,” Fortune, April
19, 2001, http://archive.fortune.com/2010/04/19/
news/companies/hewlett_packard_bribery.fortune/
index.htm.
80. Tipton F. McCubbins, “Somebody Kicked the
Sleeping Dog—New Bite in the Foreign
Corrupt Practices Act,” Business Horizons,
January–February 2001, p. 27.
81. Greg Steinmetz, “U.S. Firms Are among Least
Likely to Pay Bribes Abroad, Survey Finds,” The
Wall Street Journal, August 25, 1997, p. 5.

98
restrictions have been eased. In 2016, Presidents Obama
and Castro held a series of in-person meetings over sev-
eral days on the island. Telecom giants Verizon and
Sprint have been able to establish roaming agreements
with the state-owned telecommunications company in
Cuba for U.S. citizens, and U.S. citizens can now use
debit cards in Cuba.90
You Be the International Management
Consultant
As the tension in the relations between the United States
and Cuba have begun to thaw, trade and business oppor-
tunities may open up, making Cuba a potentially attractive
investment for U.S. companies. One company that has
already taken advantage of this new market is “Airbnb,”
the private house and room rental website, which opened
in the Cuban marketplace in April 2015. As the Cuban
government begins allowing more and more private enter-
prise in the country, room rentals are quickly becoming
one of the most successful ways for Cubans to earn for-
eign currency. Airbnb’s hope is that, as relations continue
to normalize, it can provide reliable rentals in this previ-
ously unvisited country. As it will take time for a full
restoration of Cuban-U.S relations, Airbnb does not see
the island nation as a major source of profit any time in
the near future. But with over 200,000 American visitors
expected in 2017, and with that number projected to grow
by 30 percent in the coming years, Airbnb believes that
its early investment in Cuba will pay off.91
Questions
Although Cuba is allowing more private enterprise into
the country, it is still very much under communist rule,
and the government still has a deplorable record when
dealing with human rights.
1. Would you advise a company to become an early
investor in Cuba?
2. Do you think Airbnb’s investment in Cuba will
eventually see success and become a reliable
profit stream?
3. Do you think Cuba will ultimately become
an attractive long-term tourist destination for
Americans?
Cuba is an island nation located between the Atlantic
Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The country is positioned
just 150 kilometers from Key West, Florida. Cuba is
slightly smaller in area than Pennsylvania. The country
has few natural resources, but it does possess some depos-
its of cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, tim-
ber, silica, petroleum, and arable land.86
Cuba’s population is estimated at 11 million people.
Havana, the capital, is home to over 2 million Cubans.
The country’s population is currently decreasing, at 0.15
percent per year, and the country boasts a higher-than-
average median age of 40.4 years old. More than 70 per-
cent of the population is older than 25.87
Cuba’s GDP stands at US$77.15 billion, although this
number is disputed due to Cuba’s economic isolation from
many other countries. For 50 years, foreign exchange of
currency has been highly limited. Additionally, the coun-
try has two currencies in circulation, one for local Cubans
and one for tourists and traders. After a significant reces-
sion and steady economic decline from 2006 until 2009,
Cuba’s GDP growth stabilized at about 1 percent annually.
In 2015, GDP grew at about 1.3 percent. The country’s
GDP per capita is estimated at around US$10,000, but
some believe this number is highly inflated.88
Cuba is a communist state. The president is indirectly
elected by the legislative body, the National Assembly, for
a five-year term. There are no term limits and, since 1976,
there have only been two presidents: Fidel Castro, who
stepped aside in 2008, and his brother Raul Castro.
The economy remains sluggish due to the effects of
the long-time communist regime and poor economic
policies and management. Cuba’s public sector, which
controls nearly all public services and private busi-
nesses in the country, employs well over 75 percent of
the employed population.89  The country suffers from
corruption that occurs within its state-owned businesses,
its military, and the political elite class. In the past,
Cuba has been able to gain the majority of its foreign
investment from countries like Venezuela, but due to
dramatic drops in oil prices, Cuba may now be looking
towards the United States and other Western investors.
In 2014, President Barack Obama and President Raul
Castro announced that the two countries would seek to
normalize their relationship. As a consequence, each
country reopened its embassy in the other and travel
CubaIn the International Spotlight

99
became the first among its peers to release a complete
listing of all of the overseas factories that it contracts for
labor. That same year, Nike released the pay scales of the
factory workers and addressed actions it was taking to
further improve conditions. Even so, the stigma of past
practices—whether perceived or real—remained embla-
zoned on its image and brand name. Nike found itself
constantly defending its activities, striving to shake this
reputation and perception.
In 2002, Marc Kasky sued Nike, alleging that the com-
pany knowingly made false and misleading statements in
its denial of direct participation in abusive labor condi-
tions abroad. Through corporate news releases, full-page
ads in major newspapers, and letters to editors, Nike
defended its conduct and sought to show that allegations
of misconduct were unwarranted. The action by the plain-
tiff, a local citizen, was predicated on a California state
law prohibiting unlawful business practices. He alleged
that Nike’s public statements were motivated by market-
ing and public relations and were simply false. According
to the allegation, Nike’s statements misled the public and
thus violated the California statute. Nike countered by
claiming its statements fell under and within the protec-
tion of the First Amendment, which protects free speech.
The state court concluded that a firm’s public statements
about its operations have the effect of persuading consum-
ers to buy its products and therefore are, in effect, adver-
tising. Therefore, the suit could be adjudicated on the
basis of whether Nike’s pronouncements were false and
misleading. The court stated that promoting a company’s
reputation was equivalent to sales solicitation, a practice
clearly within the purview of state law. The majority of
justices summarized their decision by declaring, “because
messages in question were directed by a commercial
speaker to a commercial audience, and because they made
representations of fact about the speaker’s own business
operations for the purpose of promoting sales of its prod-
ucts, we conclude that these messages are commercial
speech for purposes of applying state laws barring false
and misleading commercial messages” (Kasky v. Nike
Inc., 2002). The conclusion reached by the court was that
statements by a business enterprise to promote its reputa-
tion must, like advertising, be factual representations and
that companies have a clear duty to speak truthfully about
such issues.2
Nike Inc., the global leader in the production and market-
ing of sports and athletic merchandise including shoes,
clothing, and equipment, has enjoyed unparalleled world-
wide growth for many years. Consumers around the world
recognize Nike’s brand name and logo. As a supplier to
and sponsor of professional sports figures and organiza-
tions, and as a large advertiser to the general public, Nike
is widely known. Nike was a pioneer in offshore manu-
facturing, establishing company-owned assembly plants
and engaging third-party contractors in developing coun-
tries.
In 1996, Life magazine published a landmark article
about the labor conditions of Nike’s overseas subcontrac-
tors, entitled “On the Playgrounds of America, Every
Kid’s Goal Is to Score: In Pakistan, Where Children Stitch
Soccer Balls for Six Cents an Hour, Their Goal Is to Sur-
vive.” Accompanying the article was a photo of a 12-year-
old Pakistani boy stitching a Nike-embossed soccer ball.
The photo caption noted that the job took a whole day,
and the child was paid US$0.60 for his effort. Up until
this time, the general public was neither aware of the wide
use of foreign labor nor familiar with the working arrange-
ments and treatment of laborers in developing countries.
Almost instantly, Nike became a poster child for the ques-
tionable unethical use of offshore workers in poorer
regions of the world. This label continued to plague the
corporation as many global human interest and labor
rights organizations have monitored and often condemned
Nike for its labor practices around the world.
In the years following, Nike executives were frequent
targets at public events, especially at universities where
students pressed administrators and athletic directors to
ban products that had been made under “sweatshop” con-
ditions. Indeed, at the University of Oregon, a major gift
from Phil Knight, Nike’s CEO, was held up in part
because of student criticism and activism against Nike on
campus.1
Nike took immediate action to repair its damaged
brand. In 2001, the company established a Corporate
Responsibility and Sustainability Committee to ensure
that labor practices were ethical across its supply chain.
By 2003, the company employed 86 compliance officers
(up from just three in 1996) to monitor its plant operations
and working conditions and ensure compliance with its
published corporate code of conduct. In 2005, Nike
Brief Integrative Case 1.1
Advertising or Free Speech? The Case
of Nike and Human Rights

100 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
amount of water needed for dyeing processes. Nike has
pledged to eliminate all hazardous chemicals from its
supply chain by 2020.
As part of its domestic CSR profile, Nike is primarily
concerned with keeping youth active, presumably for
health, safety, educational, and psychological/esteem rea-
sons. Nike has worked with Head Start (2005) and Special
Olympics Oregon (2007), as well as created its own com-
munity program, NikeGO, to advocate physical activity
among youth. Partnering with then First Lady Michelle
Obama, Nike worked to implement the “Let’s Move”
campaign (2013) into schools across the U.S. Nike also
sponsors Project Play (2014), which aims to reshape the
direction of youth sports by encouraging children to stay
involved and feel included. Furthermore, Nike is commit-
ted to domestic efforts such as Hurricane Katrina relief
and education, the latter through grants made by the Nike
School Innovation Fund in support of the Primary Years
Literacy Initiative.7   
Despite Nike’s impressive CSR profile, if the Califor-
nia State Supreme Court decision is sustained and sets a
global precedent, Nike’s promotion or “advertisement” of
its global CSR initiatives could still be subjected to legal
challenge. This could create a minefield for multinational
firms. It would effectively elevate statements on human
rights treatment by companies to the level of corporate
marketing and advertising. Under these conditions, it
might be difficult for MNCs to defend themselves against
allegations of human rights abuses. In fact, action such as
the issuance and dissemination of a written company code
of conduct could fall into the category of advertising dec-
larations. Although Kasky v. Nike was never fully resolved
in court, the issues that it raised remain to be addressed
by global companies.
Also to be seen is what effect a court decision would
have on Nike’s financial success. Despite the publicity of
the case, at both the state and Supreme Court levels, and
the lingering criticism about its labor practices overseas,
Nike has maintained strong and growing sales and profits.
The company has expanded its operations into different
types of clothing and sports equipment and has continued
to choose successful athletes to advertise its gear. Nike
has shown no signs of slowing down, suggesting that its
name and logo have not been substantially tarnished in
the global market.
Questions for Review
1. What ethical issues faced by MNCs in their treatment
of foreign workers could bring allegations of miscon-
duct in their operations?
2. Would the use of third-party independent contractors
insulate MNCs from being attacked? Would that
practice offer MNCs a good defensive shield against
charges of abuse of “their employees”?
In January 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to
hear Nike’s appeal of the decision in Kasky v. Nike Inc.
from the California Supreme Court. In particular, the U.S.
Supreme Court agreed to rule on whether Nike’s previous
statements about the working conditions at its subcon-
tracted, overseas plants were in fact “commercial speech”
and, separately, whether a private individual (such as
Kasky) has the right to sue on those grounds. Numerous
amici briefs were filed on both sides. Supporters of Kasky
included California, as well as 17 other states; Ralph
Nader’s Public Citizen Organization; California’s AFL/
CIO; and California’s attorney general. Nike’s friends of
the court included the American Civil Liberties Union,
the Business Roundtable, the U.S. Chamber of Com-
merce, other MNCs including Exxon/Mobil and Micro-
soft, and the Bush administration (particularly on the
grounds that it does not support private individuals acting
as public censors).3
Despite the novelty of this First Amendment debate
and the potentially wide-reaching effects for big business
(particularly MNCs), the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed
the case (6 to 3) in June 2003 as “improvidently granted”
due to procedural issues surrounding the case. In their
dissenting opinion, Justices Stephen G. Breyer and Sandra
Day O’Connor suggested that Nike would likely win the
appeal at the U.S. Supreme Court level. In both the con-
curring and dissenting opinions, Nike’s statements were
described as a mix of “commercial” and “noncommer-
cial” speech.4 This suggested to Nike, as well as other
MNCs, that if the Court were to have ruled on the sub-
stantive issue, Nike would have prevailed.
Although this case has set no nationwide precedent
for corporate advertising about business practices or
corporate social responsibility (CSR) in general, given
the sensitivity of the issue, Nike has allowed its actions
to speak louder than words in recent years. As part of
its international CSR profile, Nike has assisted relief
efforts (donating $1 million to tsunami relief in 2004)
and advocated fair wages and employment practices in
its outsourced operations. Nike claims that it has not
abandoned production in certain countries in favor of
lower-wage labor in others and that its factory wages
abroad are actually in accordance with local regulations,
once one accounts for purchasing power and cost-of-
living differences.5 The Nike Foundation, a nonprofit
organization supported by Nike, is also an active sup-
porter of the Millennium Development Goals, particu-
larly those directed at improving the lives of adolescent
girls in developing countries (specifically Bangladesh,
Brazil, China, Ethiopia, and Zambia) through better
health, education, and economic opportunities.6  Envi-
ronmental impact is also a key component of Nike’s
CSR profile. The company has focused on preserving
water in the areas where its products are manufactured,
incorporating new technology that minimizes the

Brief Integrative Case 1.1 Advertising or Free Speech? The Case of Nike and Human Rights 101
nothing, (b) construct a corporate code of ethics, or
(c) align itself with some of the universal covenants
or compacts prepared by international agencies?
5. What does Nike’s continued financial success, in
spite of the lawsuit, suggest about consumers’ reac-
tions to negative publicity? Have American media
and NGOs exaggerated the impact of a firm’s labor
practices and corporate social responsibility on its
sales? How should managers of an MNC respond to
such negative publicity?
Source: This case was prepared by Lawrence Beer, W. P. Carey
School of Business, Arizona State University as the basis for class
discussion. It is not intended to illustrate either effective or ineffective
managerial capability or administrative responsibility.
3. Do you think that statements by companies that
describe good social and moral conduct in the treat-
ment of their workers are part of the image those
companies create and therefore are part of their
advertising message? Do consumers judge companies
and base their buying decision on their perceptions
of corporate behavior and values? Is the historic
“made in” question (e.g., “Made in the USA”) now
being replaced by a “made by” inquiry (e.g., “Made
by Company X” or “Made for Company X by Com-
pany Y”)?
4. Given the principles noted in the case, how can com-
panies comment on their positive actions to promote
human rights so that consumers will think well of
them? Would you propose that a company (a) do
1. “Nike CEO Retracts University Donation over
Human Rights,”  SocialFunds.com, May 3,
2000,  www.socialfunds.com/news/print.
cgi?sfArticleId=237.
2. Marc Kasky v. Nike Inc., No. 994446, 02 C.D.O.S.
3790 (Cal., San Francisco Superior Ct. 2002),
http://law.justia.com/cases/california/supreme-
court/4th/27/939.html  (accessed November, 15, 2016).
3. Linda Greenhouse, “Free Speech for Companies on
Justices’ Agenda,”  New York Times,  April 20, 2003,
p. A17.
4. Linda Greenhouse, “Nike Free Speech Case Is
Unexpectedly Returned to California,”  New  York
Times,  June 27, 2003, p. A16.
5. “Nike and child labour – how it went from laggard
to leader,”  www.mallenbaker.net/csr/CSRfiles/nike.
html  (accessed November 16, 2016).
6. Nike Inc., “Nike Foundation Secures Footing in
Helping to Reach Millennium Development
Goals,” press release,  www.nikebiz.com  (accessed
September 15, 2005).
7. Nike Inc., “Nike Announces $200,000 Grant to
Hillsboro Schools,” press release,  www.nikebiz.
com  (accessed March 6, 2007).
ENDNOTES

102
Argentina for the first time.9  Later that year, Mycoskie
moved to Los Angeles, where he co-founded his third
start-up, cable network Reality Central. For this new ven-
ture, Mycoskie joined forces with Larry Namer, a founder
of E! Entertainment Television.10  The network debuted in
2003, with a planned format of airing both new, original
programming as well as reruns of past successful realty
shows. The venture was able to raise large amounts of
funding from backers and proved successful until 2005,
when competitor channel Fox Reality began to dominate
ratings.11 A short time later, Mycoskie (holding true to his
entrepreneurial spirit) partnered with the founders of Traf-
ficschool.com to create his fourth business, Drivers Ed
Direct, which functioned as an online-based drivers educa-
tion service.12 To increase brand awareness, Mycoskie cre-
ated a viral marketing company, the Closer Marketing
Group, to better promote his driver education business.13
The TOMS Experiment
On the heels of these successes, Mycoskie took his pivotal
trip to Argentina in 2006. As his adventure was nearing
its conclusion, Mycoskie happened to stumble upon an
aid worker conducting a volunteer shoe drive. She was
working to provide impoverished children with new shoes,
explaining to  Mycoskie that, even in more-developed
countries like Argentina, children in poverty often lacked
shoes.14  Without shoes, simple daily tasks can be quite
difficult and children are also especially vulnerable to dis-
ease and illness when lacking proper footwear. According
to the volunteer, inconsistent donations limited the suc-
cess of events like shoe drives.
Over the next few days, Mycoskie’s eyes were opened
to the realities of poverty across Argentina. He traveled
with the volunteer to several local villages, observing pov-
erty among children first hand. The experience left an
strong impression on Mycoskie, stimulating him to con-
sider getting involved in addressing poverty.15  Mycoskie
strategized how to address the problem. Although he con-
sidered forming a charity to fund shoe donations for the
children, the uncertainty posed by often inconsistent and
uneven donations led Mycoskie to consider more busi-
ness-oriented solutions. Having a constant flow of shoes
available for donation was deemed as a critical element
to the success of the effort. Mycoskie therefore settled on
creating a for-profit business in which the sale of each
pair of shoes would fund the donation of a pair of shoes
for impoverished children. Mycoskie, reflecting on his
Nearing 30 years old and tired from working long hours
on his fourth start-up, serial entrepreneur Blake Mycoskie
took a much-needed extended vacation to Argentina in
2006.1 While there, Mycoskie fully immersed himself in
the local culture, learning to dance the tango, enjoying
fine Argentine wine, and engaging in sports such as polo.2
Mycoskie also took note of the diverse Argentine fashion
culture. One trend in particular that caught Mycoskie’s
eye was the soft canvas footwear called the “alpargata,”
worn by nearly all Argentines.3 During his stay, Mycoskie
purchased and began wearing his own alpargatas. He
quickly realized how functional and comfortable the shoes
were, leading him to wonder: Would consumers in the
United States also be interested in such a product?
Blake Mycoskie: Serial Entrepreneur
Blake Mycoskie, born in Arlington, Texas, is the founder
and “Chief Shoe Giver” for TOMS Shoes. A world trav-
eler and former realty show contestant, Mycoskie has
spent his entire career involved in start-ups.4  Much of
Mycoskie’s business knowledge was self-taught through
reading biographies of successful businesspeople. Though
originally enrolled at Southern Methodist University
(SMU), Mycoskie dropped out after just two years when
he lost his tennis scholarship due to an injury.5 This newly
found freedom gave Mycoskie the chance to put his entre-
preneurial spirit into action.
His first start-up business, EZ Laundry, was a small
laundry service located at SMU. The university, with no
campus dry cleaning service, provided steady demand.6 By
1999, EZ Laundry had expanded to three more universi-
ties, and Mycoskie sold the company to his partner.7 Fol-
lowing this experience, Mycoskie moved to Nashville and
founded his next venture, Mycoskie Media. As an outdoor
billboard company, Mycoskie Media focused on market-
ing country music. The company turned a steady profit,
and Mycoskie sold it in just nine months.8
With two successful businesses behind him, Mycoskie
and his sister, Paige, applied to be on the reality show
Survivor in 2001. Although they did not make the cut for
Survivor, they were ultimately cast in the travel-based real-
ity series, The Amazing Race. Through this experience,
Mycoskie was able to venture to Africa, Asia, and South
America. Ultimately finishing the race as second runner-
ups, the brother/sister team missed out on the million U.S.
dollar prize by just a few minutes. However, and perhaps
more importantly, the adventure exposed Mycoskie to
Brief Integrative Case 1.2
TOMS Puts Its Right Foot Forward

Brief Integrative Case 1.2 TOMS Puts Its Right Foot Forward 103
February 2006
May 2006
October 2006
April 2007
August 2011
December 2011
June 2013
March 2014
February 2015
June 2016
The company reaches 10,000 shoes sold, and the first
“shoe drop” occurs in Argentina.
The first “A Day Without Shoes” social media campaign
is launched, increasing donations and brand awareness.
TOMS launches its eyewear brand, maintaining the
same “One for One” concept.
TOMS reaches the milestone of over 2 million shoes
donated.
TOMS reaches the milestone of over 10 million shoes
donated.
TOMS reaches the milestone of over 60 million shoes
donated.
TOMS Bag Collection is launched, focusing on donations
to aid mothers in childbirth.
TOMS Roasting Company begins business, expanding
TOMS’s product line into consumable products.
Sales begin. Following a string of positive press, shoe
sales skyrocket.
Blake Mycoskie founds TOMS & begins development
of his first shoe line.
Figure 1 A Brief Timeline of TOMS
Argentine adventure, based the shoe design on the “alpar-
gata” shoes, which he believed held potential for success
in the U.S. market. “Shoes for a Better Tomorrow,” which
Mycoskie originally named the company, was based on
shoe sales today leading to donated shoes tomorrow. The
name was eventually shortened to “Tomorrow’s Shoes,”
which again was shortened to TOMS (see Figure 1).16
Products That Solve Problems
TOMS is built around the concept of expanding community
outreach efforts through reliable business practices. As often
discussed, TOMS was founded with the “One for One”
company philosophy: every pair of shoes purchased would
fund the donation of a pair of shoes to a child in need. First
focusing on developing and selling the simple Argentine
alpargata shoe, the company has since diversified its product
line greatly. Current shoe selection includes winter boots,
wet-weather shoes, sports shoes, and even locally produced
shoes. Through this program, local locations manufacture
their own traditional shoe, spurring job creation in develop-
ing areas. Each type of shoe that is donated is tailored to
the specific geographic region to which it is sent.17
In 2011, the company expanded to incorporate eye-
glasses. With every pair of sunglasses purchased, TOMS
funds the donation of a pair of prescription glasses to a
person in need.18 Furthermore, the purchase of sunglasses
funds more intensive eye-related procedures, including
sight-saving surgery and medical treatments. Educational
programs regarding proper eye care have also been spon-
sored through TOMS’s donations. Through this venture,
TOMS partners with 14 different organizations in 13 dif-
ferent countries to help diverse communities.19
TOMS continues to expand its product line and the
scope of its social outreach programs. TOMS formed its
first consumable product offering, a coffee business called
TOMS Roasting Company, in 2014. With each bag of cof-
fee purchased, TOMS provides 140 liters of water to a com-
munity in need. This equates to a week’s supply of fresh,
safe water to an individual person.20  To date, TOMS has
provided over 250,000 weeks of safe water to locations
around the globe.21  In 2015, TOMS expanded into the
handbag industry, with the charitable link of ensuring safe
childbirth for expecting mothers in developing locations. A
leading cause of childbirth complications for both the
mother and the infant is infections; with a portion of the
profits from the sale of its bags, TOMS is financially sup-
porting partners in its network by delivering materials and
training that is needed, decreasing the chance of an infec-
tion for delivering mothers by up to 80 percent.22 

104 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
Social Responsibility, Sustainability,
and Business Strategy
Early on, one of the most common criticisms of TOMS’s
philanthropic programs was that it was not creating new
jobs within local populations.29 Using this feedback con-
structively, Mycoskie expanded the “One for One” phi-
losophy and focused his company’s next efforts on
creating job opportunities for those in the developing
nations where donations were being directed.
In 2013, TOMS committed to producing one-third of its
shoes within the regions where they are actually distributed.
This effort has proven successful; over 700 jobs have been
created in the regions where shoes are donated. Furthermore,
employment opportunities have been kept at an equal ratio
for male and female workers, promoting gender equality in
developing locations.30 Today, TOMS maintains factories in
all six countries in which it donates shoes: Argentina, China,
Ethiopia, Haiti, India, and Kenya. Another example of
TOMS’s recent push towards social responsibility can be
seen through TOMS Roasting Company. The coffee-produc-
ing subsidiary now engages in sourcing practices that pro-
vide farmers with a fair wage and ensure that clean water is
accessible to people in the regions in which it sources its
coffee beans. Interestingly, TOMS’s internally conducted
studies indicate that its overseas production initiatives are not
negatively affecting domestic shoe manufacturers.31
Helping like-minded start-ups has evolved into another
priority for TOMS. Specifically, TOMS seeks to assist new
socially oriented enterprises in developing locations. Major
end-goals of these efforts are the creation of additional jobs
in poverty-stricken areas and the reinvestment of revenue
into the improvement of the lives of locals.32 To help facil-
itate these efforts, TOMS has created a platform called
TOMS Marketplace to highlight specific social enterprises
and to assist them in their efforts to improve communities. 
Another program that Mycoskie started is funded
directly by sales of his award winning book,  Start Some-
thing That Matters.33 Mycoskie donates 100 percent of the
profits from the book to the Start Something That Matters
Foundation, which has helped create over 20 socially
responsible start-ups including Charlize Theron’s African
Outreach Project, Charity: Water, Movember, and Ben
Affleck’s Eastern Congo Initiative.34
Charity: Water is a nonprofit organization focused on
solving the water shortage problems common to areas all
over the world. Charity: Water takes donations from indi-
viduals that are then reinvested into organizations experi-
enced in building sustainable, community-owned water
projects.35 Charity: Water now maintains operations in 24
different countries, funding almost 20,000 projects and
providing over 6 million people with safe water.36
Movember, another nonprofit organization, is commit-
ted to the happiness and health of men. The organization
has raised over US$650 million and funded over 1,000
projects. Efforts are primarly focused on combating
testicular and prostate cancers, the first and second most
As TOMS carries on its “One for One” philosophy, it
continues to expand its product line. It is effectively gen-
erating more revenue and at the same time helping more
people in need. TOMS is also spreading its philosophy
and gaining more partners to help it with the same cause.
The Unconventional Leader
Mycoskie takes a somewhat unconventional approach to
managing the everyday operations at TOMS. While many
entrepreneurs spend long days at the office, Mycoskie
takes his duties on the road with him, acting as a traveling
brand representative. This allows him to personally con-
vey the TOMS philosophy to potential customers. Back
at the office, a carefully selected management team han-
dles the day-to-day operations.23  Even when he is in the
office, Mycoskie takes an unorthodox approach to manag-
ing his staff. Informal meetings are often held out on his
sailboat.
Mycoskie’s personal life is equally unconventional.
Prior to his recent marriage and the birth of his child,
Mycoskie resided in his sailboat, docked in Marina del
Ray, California. He would arise around 8:30 a.m., con-
sume a Cliff Bar for breakfast, and spend several hours
writing before finally heading into the office. Mycoskie
is also a long-time user of a personal diary, allowing him
to track his thoughts as they occur.24 In fact, his journaling
has filled over 50 books, containing his thoughts on all
aspects of his life. He usually revisits these notes months
later. In a world where instant communication is often
demanded by employers, Mycoskie is notorious for leav-
ing his e-mail inbox untouched for several days at a time.
He also has been known to frequently bypass e-mail com-
pletely, utilizing handwritten letters instead. On many
days, however, Mycoskie is up early to head to the airport
and function as the company’s traveling spokesper-
son.25 Mycoskie spends much of his time speaking at dif-
ferent events and universities to promote personal social
responsibility, the TOMS ideology, and other messages
that he believes create positive impact in the world. For
two or three months in the year, Mycoskie also takes time
off to go travel as it continues to inspire him through
seeing the world and meeting new people.26
In the years since visiting Argentina and building the
TOMS brand, Mycoskie has largely focused on the cor-
porate responsibility and charitable side of the business.
Several times a year, Mycoskie leads teams of volunteers
and employees on “shoe drops.” “Shoe drop” is the term
that is used to describe when a TOMS team, composed
of roughly 10 to 15 staff and volunteers, heads out into
the field to hand out shoes to those in need.27  This oppor-
tunity is considered an honor; an employee must earn the
ability to participate by staying with the company for sev-
eral years. TOMS now donates shoes in over 40 countries,
preventing more diseases and providing the means for
many children to live better lives.28

Brief Integrative Case 1.2 TOMS Puts Its Right Foot Forward 105
40  million women in four countries during childbirth,
decreasing the likelihood of infection or death.42 
Socially responsible companies have gained traction in
the global society as people work to raise awareness and
promote a higher standard of life; TOMS, leveraging this
trend, is now valued at US$625 million.43 Building on the
one-for-one model pioneered by TOMS, other companies
have pursued similar approaches, such as Blanket Amer-
ica, which gives a blanket for every blanket purchased,
and Smile Squared, which donates a toothbrush for every
one bought. It appears as if some consumers find the
direct connection between buying and giving to be appeal-
ing, and companies such as TOMS—and the charities
they support—are thriving as a result.44,45 
Questions for Review
1. How might combining commercial objectives and
social goals improve the impact of corporate social
responsibility efforts? How might the two conflict?
2. What aspects of the “One for One” philosophy
appeal to consumers? How might it appeal to con-
sumers who may not otherwise be motivated to
support corporate social responsibility?
3. Could a company like TOMS have come about
absent the role of Blake Mycoskie? What is the
role of the individual in entrepreneurial ventures
such as TOMS?
Source: This case was prepared by Otto Eberle of Villanova Univer-
sity under the supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh as the basis for
class discussion. Additional research assistance was provided by Ben
Littell. It is not intended to illustrate either effective or ineffective
managerial capability or administrative responsibility.
common cancers in males, as well as poor mental health
and physical inactivity. An interesting symbol of this
organization is their pride in having moustaches.37
Global Impact and Influence
Through TOMS’s ideology of “One for One,” the original
organization and its offshoots have had a significant impact
on the lives of those in need. TOMS partners with several
different organizations in its Giving Partners program.
These partners, numbering more than 100, provide exper-
tise and input, working closely with TOMS in its shoes,
sight, water, safe birth, and bullying-prevention efforts.
The statistics highlight how effective many of the com-
pany’s efforts have been. An estimated 2 million children
have been protected from hookworm with the TOMS
shoes provided, and, following shoe distribution, there has
been a 42 percent increase in maternal health-care pro-
gram participation and a 1,000-student increase in enroll-
ment.38 The awareness program One Day Without Shoes
has reached millions, showing the difficulties that people
without shoes experience while also donating a pair of
shoes for every social media photo shared that shows
someone without shoes.39 
The statistics from TOMS’s other product initiatives
are just as encouraging. TOMS’s sunglasses purchases
have funded hospitals and doctors with the help of 14
different partners. An estimated 325,000 people with cur-
able eye ailments have had their sight restored as a result
of TOMS’s efforts, and another 175,000 have received
needed eye surgeries.40  Funds raised through TOMS
Roasting Co. have supported partners like Water for Peo-
ple and Aguayuda with the development and maintenance
of safe water systems in local communities.41  From bag
sales, TOMS and three of its partners have helped
1. Blake  Mycoskie, “How I Did It: The TOMS Story,”
Entrepreneur, September 20, 2011, https://www.
entrepreneur.com/article/220350.
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid.
4. Kelsey Hubbard, “Sole Man Blake Mycoskie,”
The Wall Street Journal, January 7, 2012,  www.wsj.
com/articles/SB100014240529702046322045771310
31031671906.
5. Jessica Shambora, “How TOMS Shoes Founder
Blake Mycoskie Got Started,”  CNN, March 16, 2010,
http://archive.fortune.com/2010/03/16/smallbusiness/
toms_shoes_blake_mycoskie.fortune/index.htm.
6. Karen  Bates, “‘Soul Mates’: Shoe Entrepreneur
Finds Love in Giving,”  NPR, March 7, 2014,
www.npr.org/2010/11/23/131550142/-soul-mates-
shoe-entrepreneur-finds-love-in-giving.
7. Shambora, “How TOMS Shoes Founder Blake
Mycoskie Got Started.”
8. Imran Amed and Vikram Alexei Kansara, “Founder
Stories: Blake Mycoskie of Toms on Social Entre-
preneurship and Finding His ‘Business Soulmate,’”
Business of Fashion, July 29, 2013, https://www.
businessoffashion.com/articles/founder-stories/
founder-stories-blake-mycoskie-of-toms-on-
social-entrepreneurship-and-finding-his-business-
soulmate.
9. Gillian Telling, “Saving Soles,”  Hemispheres, April
1, 2009,  http://old.hemimag.us/2009/04/01/blake-
mycoskie-saves-the-world-step-by-step/.
10. J. J. Colao, “The Trials of Entrepreneurship: TOMS
Founder Blake Mycoskie on Starting Up Again . . .
and Again,”  Forbes, March 3, 2014,  www.
forbes.com/sites/jjcolao/2014/03/03/the-trials-of-
ENDNOTES

106 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
29. Cheryl Davenport,  “The Broken ‘Buy-One, Give-
One’ Model: 3 Ways to Save Toms Shoes,” factsco-
exist.com, April 10, 2012,  www.fastcoexist.
com/1679628/the-broken-buy-one-give-one-model-
three-ways-to-save-toms-shoes.
30. Kevin  Short, “Toms CEO Blake Mycoskie Offers
Surprising Answer to His Critics,” Huffington Post,
November 14, 2013,  www.huffingtonpost.
com/2013/11/14/toms-ceo-critics_n_4274637.html.
31. “TOMS: One for One,”  TOMS,  www.toms.
com/#expanding-local-production.
32. “Beyond One for One: Social Enterprise,”
TOMS,  www.toms.com/beyond-one-for-one.
33. “Hardcover Business Books,”  New York Times,
October 2011,  www.nytimes.com/books/best-sellers/
2011/10/09/hardcover-business-books/.
34. Sandi L.  Gordon, “Change the World—Start Some-
thing That Matters,”  Ezine, January 3, 2013,
http://ezinearticles.com/?Change-the-World—Start-
Something-That-Matters&id=7447820.
35. Gregory  Ferenstein, “Trickle-Forward Economics:
Scott Harrison’s Water-Based Experiment in Viral
Philanthropy,”  Fast Company, October 24,
2011,  https://www.fastcompany.com/1790136/trickle-
forward-economics-scott-harrisons-water-based-
experiment-viral-philanthropy.
36. Charity: Water home page,  www.charitywater.org/.
37. Movember Foundation home page,  https://us.
movember.com/?home.
38. “What We Give: Giving Shoes,” TOMS,  www.
toms.com/what-we-give-shoes.
39. Julee  Wilson, “TOMS Shoes Annual ‘One Day With-
out Shoes,’ Plus Barefoot Celebs,”  Huffington Post,
April 10, 2012,  www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/10/
toms-one-day-without-shoes_n_1414470.html.
40. “What We Give: Giving Sight,” TOMS, http://www.
toms.com/what-we-give-sight
41. “What We Give: Giving Water,”  TOMS,  www.toms.
com/what-we-give-water.
42. “What We Give: Safe Births,”  TOMS,  www.toms.
com/what-we-give-safe-births.
43. Marcela Isaza and Leanne Italie,  “Blake Mycoskie
on 10 Years of Toms,”  Business of Fashion, May 6,
2016,  https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/
news-analysis/blake-mycoskie-on-10-years-of-toms.
44. Adam L.  Penenberg, “Blanket America’s Charitable
Capitalism Is Going Viral,”  Fast Company, November
12, 2009,  https://www.fastcompany.com/1449664/
blanket-americas-charitable-capitalism-going-viral.
45. Michelle Juergen, “Smile Squared Donates Tooth-
brushes to Children in Need,” Entrepreneur, November
7, 2012, https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/224444.
entrepreneurship-toms-founder-blake-mycoskie-on-
starting-up-again-and-again/#76895a42669d.
11. “Get to the Top with Mycoskie’s 5 tips,”  CNN
World Business, September 26, 2008,  www.cnn.
com/2008/BUSINESS/09/26/mycoskie.tips/index.
html?iref=nextin.
12. Colao, “The Trials of Entrepreneurship.”
13. “Blake Mycoskie, Contributor Profile,”  Huffington
Post, 2014,  www.huffingtonpost.com/author/blake-
mycoskie.
14. Blake  Mycoskie, “Blake Mycoskie Conceived
the Idea for TOMS Shoes While Sitting on a
Farm, Pondering Life, in Argentina,”
Business Insider, September 21, 2011,  www.
businessinsider.com/blake-mycoskie-argentina-
toms-shoes-2011-09.
15. Ibid.
16. Mycoskie, “How I Did It.”
17. “Improving Lives,”  http://www.toms.com/improving-
lives.
18. Booth  Moore, “Toms Founder Blake Mycoskie Is
Known for Pairing Fashion and Causes,” Los
Angeles Times, June 11, 2011,  http://articles.latimes.
com/2011/jun/11/image/la-ig-toms-20110611.
19. “What We Give: Giving Sight,”  TOMS,  www.toms.
com/what-we-give-sight.
20. Stephanie  Strom, “Turning Coffee into Water to
Expand Business Model,”  New York Times, March
11, 2014,  www.nytimes.com/2014/03/12/business/
turning-coffee-into-water-to-expand-a-one-for-one-
business-model.html.
21. Jefferson  Graham, “SXSW | Toms Expands to
Coffee,”  USA Today, March 12, 2014,  www.
usatoday.com/story/tech/2014/03/12/sxsw–toms-
expands-to-coffee/6284525/.
22. “Every Newborn: An Action Plan to End Prevent-
able Deaths,”  World Health Organization, June
2014,  www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/
topics/newborn/enap_consultation/en/.
23. Tamara  Schweitzer, “The Way I Work: Blake
Mycoskie of Toms Shoes,”  Inc.com, June 1, 2010,
www.inc.com/magazine/20100601/the-way-i-work-
blake-mycoskie-of-toms-shoes.html.
24. Ibid.
25. Ibid.
26. Ibid.
27. Ibid.
28. Michael  Murray, “Person of the Week: TOMS
Shoes Founder Blake Mycoskie,”  ABC News,
April 8, 2011,  abcnews.go.com/International/
PersonOfWeek/person-week-toms-shoes-founder-
blake-mycoskie/story?id=13331473.

107
conditions, such as long hours, unhealthy conditions, and/
or an oppressive environment. Some observers see these
work environments as essentially acceptable if the labor-
ers freely contract to work in such conditions. For others,
to call a workplace a sweatshop implies that the working
conditions are illegitimate and immoral. The U.S. Govern-
ment Accountability Office (the name since July 7, 2004)
would hone this definition for U.S. workplaces to include
those environments where an employer violates more than
one federal or state labor, industrial homework, occupa-
tional safety and health, workers’ compensation, or indus-
try registration laws. The AFL-CIO Union of Needletrades,
Industrial and Textile Employees would expand on that to
include workplaces with systematic violations of global
fundamental workers’ rights. The Interfaith Center on
Corporate Responsibility (ICCR) defines sweatshops
much more broadly than either of these; even where a
factory is clean, well organized, and harassment free, the
ICCR considers it a sweatshop if its workers are not paid
a sustainable living wage. The purpose of reviewing these
varied definitions is to acknowledge that, by definition,
sweatshops are oppressive, unethical, and patently unfair
to workers.12
History of Sweatshops
Sweatshop labor systems were most often associated with
garment and cigar manufacturing of the period 1880–
1920. Sweated labor can also be seen in laundry work,
green grocers, and most recently in the “day laborers,”
often legal or illegal immigrants, who landscape suburban
lawns.13 Now, sweatshops are often found in the clothing
industry because it is easy to separate higher- and lower-
skilled jobs and contract out the lower-skilled ones. Cloth-
ing companies can do their own designing, marketing, and
cutting and contract out sewing and finishing work. New
contractors can start up easily; all they need are a few
sewing machines in a rented apartment or factory loft
located in a neighborhood where workers can be
recruited.14 Sweatshops make the most fashion-oriented
clothing—women’s and girls’—because production has to
be flexible, change quickly, and be done in small batches.
In less style-sensitive sectors—men’s and boys’ wear,
hosiery, and knit products—there is less change and lon-
ger production runs, and clothing can be made competi-
tively in large factories using advanced technology.15
Introduction
In November 2009, after nearly two years of student cam-
paigning in coordination with the apparel workers, the Hon-
duran workers’ union concluded an agreement with Russell
Athletic, a major supplier of clothing and sportswear to col-
lege campuses around the country. The agreement included
a commitment by Russell to put all of the workers back to
work, to provide compensation for lost wages, to recognize
the union and agree to collective bargaining, and to allow
access for the union to all other Russell apparel plants in
Honduras for union organizing drives in which the company
will remain neutral. According to a November 18, 2009,
press release of United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS),
this has been an “unprecedented victory for labor rights.”1
Outsourcing of production facilities and labor to devel-
oping countries has been one of the important business
strategies of large U.S. corporations. While in the United
States, a typical corporation is subject to various regula-
tions and laws such as minimum wage law, labor laws,
safety and sanitation requirements, and trade union organiz-
ing provisions, in some developing countries these laws are
soft and rudimentary, allowing a large corporation to derive
significant cost benefits from outsourcing. Moreover, many
developing countries like Bangladesh, China, Honduras,
India, Pakistan, and Vietnam encourage the outsourcing of
work from the developed world to factories within their
borders as a source of employment for their citizens, who
otherwise would suffer from lack of jobs in their country.
However, in spite of the obvious positive fact of creating
new jobs in the hosting country, large multinational corpo-
rations very often have been criticized for violating the
rights of the workers, creating unbearable working condi-
tions, and increasing workloads while cutting compensa-
tion. They have been attacked for creating a so-called
sweatshop environment for their employees. A few of the
recent targets of the criticism have been Walmart,2 Disney,3
JCPenney, Target, Sears,4 ToysRUs,5 Nike,6 Reebok,7
adidas,8 Gap,9 IBM, Dell, HP,10 Apple, and Microsoft,11 etc.
This case addresses advocacy by students and other
stakeholders toward one of these companies and docu-
ments the evolution and outcome of the dispute.
What Is a Sweatshop?
By common agreement, a sweatshop is a workplace that
provides low or subsistence wages under harsh working
In-Depth Integrative Case 1.1
Student Advocacy and “Sweatshop” Labor:
The Case of Russell Athletic

108 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
sweatshops were difficult to locate and could easily close
and move to avoid union organizers and government inspec-
tors. In the 1960s, sweatshops began to reappear in large
numbers among the growing labor force of immigrants, and
by the 1980s sweatshops were again “business as usual.” In
the 1990s, atrocious conditions at a sweatshop once again
shocked the public.20 A 1994 U.S. Department of Labor spot
check of garment operations in California found that 93 per-
cent had health and safety violations, 73 percent of the gar-
ment makers had improper payroll records, 68 percent did
not pay appropriate overtime wages, and 51 percent paid
less than the minimum wage.21
Sweatshop Dilemma
The fight against sweatshops is never a simple matter;
there are mixed motives and unexpected outcomes. For
example, unions object to sweatshops because they are
genuinely concerned about the welfare of sweated labor,
but they also want to protect their own members’ jobs
from low-wage competition even if this means ending the
jobs of the working poor in other countries.22 Also, sweat-
shops can be evaluated from moral and economic perspec-
tives. Morally, it is easy to declare sweatshops
unacceptable because they exploit and endanger workers.
But from an economic perspective, many now argue that,
without sweatshops, developing countries might not be
able to compete with industrialized countries and achieve
export growth. Working in a sweatshop may be the only
alternative to subsistence farming, casual labor, prostitu-
tion, and unemployment. At least most sweatshops in
other countries, it is argued, pay their workers above the
poverty level and provide jobs for women who are other-
wise shut out of manufacturing. And American consumers
have greater purchasing power and a higher standard of
living because of the availability of inexpensive imports.23
NGOs’ Anti-Sweatshop Initiatives
International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have
attempted to step into the sweatshop conflict to suggest
voluntary standards to which possible signatory countries
or organizations could commit. For instance, the Interna-
tional Labour Office has promulgated its Tripartite Decla-
ration of Principles Concerning Multinational Enterprises
and Social Policy, which offers guidelines for employment,
training, conditions of work and life, and industrial rela-
tions. The “Tripartite” nature refers to the critical coopera-
tion necessary from governments, employers’ and workers’
organizations, and the multinational enterprises involved.24
On December 10, 1948, the General Assembly of the
United Nations adopted its Universal Declaration of
Human Rights, calling on all member countries to pub-
licize the text of the Declaration and to cause it to be
disseminated, displayed, and read. The Declaration rec-
ognizes that all humans have an inherent dignity and
specific equal and inalienable rights. These rights are
Since their earliest days, sweatshops have relied on immi-
grant labor, usually women, who were desperate for work
under any pay and conditions. Sweatshops in New York
City, for example, opened in Chinatown, the mostly Jewish
Lower East Side, and Hispanic neighborhoods in the bor-
oughs. Sweatshops in Seattle are near neighborhoods of
Asian immigrants. The evolution of sweatshops in London
and Paris—two early and major centers of the garment
industry—followed the pattern in New York City. First, gar-
ment manufacturing was localized in a few districts: the
Sentier of Paris and the Hackney, Haringey, Islington, Tower
Hamlets, and Westminster boroughs of London. Second, the
sweatshops employed mostly immigrants, at first men but
then primarily women, who had few job alternatives.16
In developing countries, clothing sweatshops tend to be
widely dispersed geographically rather than concentrated
in a few districts of major cities, and they often operate
alongside sweatshops, some of which are very large, that
produce toys, shoes (primarily athletic shoes), carpets, and
athletic equipment (particularly baseballs and soccer balls),
among other goods. Sweatshops of all types tend to have
child labor, forced unpaid overtime, and widespread viola-
tions of workers’ freedom of association (i.e., the right to
unionize). The underlying cause of sweatshops in develop-
ing nations—whether in China, Southeast Asia, the Carib-
bean, or India and Bangladesh—is intense cost-cutting
done by contractors who compete among themselves for
orders from larger contractors, major manufacturers, and
retailers.17 Sweatshops became visible through the public
exposure given to them by reformers in the late 19th and
early 20th centuries in both England and the United States.
In 1889–1890, an investigation by the House of Lords
Select Committee on the Sweating System brought atten-
tion in Britain. In the United States, the first public inves-
tigations came as a result of efforts to curb tobacco
homework, which led to the outlawing of the production
of cigars in living quarters in New York State in 1884.18
The spread of sweatshops was reversed in the United
States in the years following a horrific fire in 1911 that
destroyed the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a women’s
blouse manufacturer near Washington Square in New York
City. The company employed 500 workers in notoriously
poor conditions. One hundred forty-six workers perished in
the fire; many jumped out windows to their deaths because
the building’s emergency exits were locked. The Triangle
fire made the public acutely aware of conditions in the
clothing industry and led to pressure for closer regulation.
The number of sweatshops gradually declined as unions
organized and negotiated improved wages and conditions
and as government regulations were stiffened (particularly
under the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act, which imposed a
minimum wage and required overtime pay for work of more
than 40 hours per week).19 Unionization and government
regulation never completely eliminated clothing sweatshops,
and many continued on the edges of the industry; small

In-Depth Integrative Case 1.1 Student Advocacy and “Sweatshop” Labor: The Case of Russell Athletic 109
company. USAS pressure tactics persuaded one of the
nation’s leading sportswear companies, Russell Athletic,
to agree to rehire 1,200 workers in Honduras who lost
their jobs when Russell closed their factory soon after the
workers had unionized.29
Russell Corporation, founded by Benjamin Russell in
1902, is a manufacturer of athletic shoes, apparel, and
sports equipment. Russell products are marketed under
many brands, including Russell Athletic, Spalding,
Brooks, Jerzees, Dudley Sports, and others. This company
with more than 100 years of history has been a leading
supplier of team uniforms at the high school, college, and
professional level. Russell Athletic™ active wear and col-
lege-licensed products are broadly distributed and mar-
keted through department stores, sports specialty stores,
retail chains, and college bookstores.30 After an acquisi-
tion in August 2006, Russell’s brands joined Fruit of the
Loom in the Berkshire-Hathaway family of products.
Russell/Fruit of the Loom is the largest private em-
ployer in Honduras. Unlike other major apparel brands,
Russell/Fruit of the Loom owns all eight of its factories
in Honduras rather than subcontracting to outside manu-
facturers.31 The incident related to Russell Athletic’s busi-
ness in Honduras that led to a major scandal in 2009 was
the company’s decision to fire 145 workers in 2007 for
supporting a union. This ignited the anti-sweatshop cam-
paign against the company. Russell later admitted its
wrongdoing and was forced to reverse its decision. How-
ever, the company continued violating worker rights in
2008 by constantly harassing the union activists and mak-
ing threats to close the Jerzees de Honduras factory. It
finally closed the factory on January 30, 2009, after
months of battling with a factory union.32
NGOs’ Anti-Sweatshop Pressure
The Worker Rights Consortium (WRC) has conducted a
thorough investigation of Russell’s activities, and ultimately
released a 36-page report on November 7, 2008, document-
ing the facts of worker rights violations by Russell in its
factory Jerzees de Honduras, including the instances of
death threats received by the union leaders.33 The union’s
vice president, Norma Mejia, publicly confessed at a Berk-
shire-Hathaway shareholders’ meeting in May 2009 that
she had received death threats for helping lead the union.34
The Worker Rights Consortium continued monitoring the
flow of the Russell Athletic scandal and issued new reports
and updates on this matter throughout 2009, including its
recommendation for Russell’s management on how to
mediate the situation and resolve the conflict.
As stated in its mission statement, the Worker Rights
Consortium is an independent labor rights monitoring
organization, whose purpose is to combat sweatshops and
protect the rights of workers who sew apparel and make
other products sold in the United States. The WRC con-
ducts independent, in-depth investigations, issues public
based on the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace.
The UN stated that the rights should be guaranteed with-
out distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, lan-
guage, religion, political or other opinion, national or
social origin, property, birth, or other status. Further-
more, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the
political, jurisdictional, or international status of the
country or territory to which a person belongs. The foun-
dational rights also include the right to life, liberty, and
security of person and protection from slavery or servi-
tude, torture, or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment
or punishment.25 Articles 23, 24, and 25 discuss issues
with immediate implications for sweatshops. By extrapo-
lation, they provide recognition of the fundamental
human right to nondiscrimination, personal autonomy or
liberty, equal pay, reasonable working hours and the abil-
ity to attain an appropriate standard of living, and other
humane working conditions. All these rights were rein-
forced by the United Nations in its 1966 International
Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights.26
These are but two examples of standards promulgated
by the international labor community, though the enforce-
ment of these and other norms is spotty. In the apparel
industry in particular, the process of internal and external
monitoring has matured such that it has become the norm
at least to self-monitor, if not to allow external third-
party monitors to assess compliance of a supplier factory
with the code of conduct of a multinational corporation
or with that of NGOs. Though a number of factors
affected this evolution, one such factor involved pressure
by American universities on their apparel suppliers,
which resulted in two multistakeholder efforts—the Fair
Labor Association, primarily comprising and funded by
the multinational retailers, and the Worker Rights Con-
sortium, originally perceived as university driven.
Through a cooperative effort of these two organizations,
large retailers such as Nike and Adidas not only have
allowed external monitoring, but Nike has now published
a complete list of each of its suppliers.27
The Case of Russell Athletic
While some argue that sweatshop scandals cause little or
no impact on the corporate giants because people care
more for the ability to buy cheap and affordable products
rather than for working conditions of those who make
these products,28 the recent scandal around the Russell
Athletic brand has proved that it may no longer be as easy
for a corporation to avoid the social responsibility for its
outsourcing activities as it has been for a long time.
November 2009 became a tipping point in the many years
of struggle between the student anti-sweatshop movement
and the corporate world. An unprecedented victory was
won by the United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS)
coalition against Russell Athletic, a corporate giant owned
by Fruit of the Loom, a Berkshire-Hathaway portfolio

110 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
products. The students even sent activists to knock on
Warren Buffett’s door in Omaha because his company,
Berkshire-Hathaway, owns Fruit of the Loom, Russell’s
parent company.39
United Students Against Sweatshops involved students
from more than 100 campuses where it did not have chap-
ters in the anti-Russell campaign. It also contacted students
at Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, where
Fruit of the Loom has its headquarters.40 The USAS activ-
ists even reached Congress, trying to gain more support
and inflict more political and public pressure on Russell
Athletic. On May 13, 2009, 65 congressmen signed the
letter addressed to Russell CEO John Holland expressing
their grave concern over the labor violations.
In addition, the Fair Labor Association (FLA), a non-
profit organization dedicated to ending sweatshop condi-
tions in factories worldwide, issued a statement on June 25,
2009, putting Russell Athletic on probation for noncompli-
ance with FLA standards.41 The Fair Labor Association,
one of the powerful authorities that oversees the labor prac-
tices in the industry, represents a powerful coalition of
industry and nonprofit sectors. The FLA brings together
colleges and universities, civil society organizations, and
socially responsible companies in a unique multistake-
holder initiative to end sweatshop labor and improve work-
ing conditions in factories worldwide. The FLA holds its
participants, those involved in the manufacturing and mar-
keting processes, accountable to the FLA Workplace Code
of Conduct.42 The 19-member Board of Directors, the
FLA’s policy-making body, comprises equal representation
from each of its three constituent groups: companies, col-
leges and universities, and civil society organizations.43
Victory for USAS and WRC
As mentioned at the start of this case, on November 2009,
after nearly two years of student campaigning in coordina-
tion with the apparel workers, the Honduran workers’
union concluded an agreement with Russell that put all of
the workers back to work, provided compensation for lost
wages, recognized the union and agreed to collective bar-
gaining, and provided access for the union to all other
Russell apparel plants in Honduras for union-organizing
drives in which the company will remain neutral. Accord-
ing to the November 18, 2009, press release of USAS,
this has been an “unprecedented victory for labor
rights.”44  Rod Palmquist, USAS International Campaign
Coordinator and University of Washington alumnus, noted
that there were no precedents for a factory apparently
being shut down to dislodge a union and “later reopened
after a worker-activist campaign.”45
This was not an overnight victory for the student move-
ment and the coalition of NGOs such as USAS, WCR,
and FLA. It took over 10 years of building a movement
that persuaded scores of universities to adopt detailed
reports on factories producing for major U.S. brands, and
aids workers at these factories in their efforts to end labor
abuses and defend their workplace rights. The WRC is
supported by over 175 college and university affiliates
and is primarily focused on the labor practices of factories
that make apparel and other goods bearing university
logos.35
Worker Rights Consortium assessed that Russell’s
decision to close the plant represented one of the most
serious challenges yet faced to the enforcement of univer-
sity codes of conduct. If allowed to stand, the closure
would not only unlawfully deprive workers of their liveli-
hoods, it would also send an unmistakable message to
workers in Honduras and elsewhere in Central America
that there is no practical point in standing up for their
rights under domestic or international law and university
codes of conduct and that any effort to do so will result
in the loss of one’s job. This would have a substantial
chilling effect on the exercise of worker rights throughout
the region.36
The results of the WRC investigation of Russell Ath-
letic unfair labor practices in Honduras spurred the nation-
wide student campaign led by United Students Against
Sweatshops (USAS), who persuaded the administrations
of Boston College, Columbia, Harvard, NYU, Stanford,
Michigan, North Carolina, and 89 other colleges and uni-
versities to sever or suspend their licensing agreements
with Russell. The agreements—some yielding more than
$1 million in sales—allowed Russell to put university
logos on T-shirts, sweatshirts, and fleeces.37
As written in its mission statement, USAS is a grass-
roots organization run entirely by youth and students.
USAS strives to develop youth leadership and run strategic
student-labor solidarity campaigns with the goal of build-
ing sustainable power for working people. It defines
“sweatshop” broadly and considers all struggles against the
daily abuses of the global economic system to be a struggle
against sweatshops. The core of its vision is a world in
which society and human relationships are organized coop-
eratively, not competitively. USAS struggles toward a world
in which all people live in freedom from oppression, in
which people are valued as whole human beings rather than
exploited in a quest for productivity and profits.38
The role of USAS in advocating for the rights of the
Honduran workers in the Russell Athletic scandal is hard
to overestimate. One can only envy the enthusiasm and
effort contributed by students fighting the problem that
did not seem to have any direct relationship to their own
lives. They did not just passively sit on campus, but went
out to the public with creative tactical actions such as
picketing the NBA finals in Orlando and Los Angeles to
protest the league’s licensing agreement with Russell, dis-
tributing fliers inside Sports Authority sporting goods
stores, and sending Twitter messages to customers of
Dick’s Sporting Goods urging them to boycott Russell

In-Depth Integrative Case 1.1 Student Advocacy and “Sweatshop” Labor: The Case of Russell Athletic 111
Questions for Review
1. Assume that you are an executive of a large U.S.
multinational corporation planning to open new
manufacturing plants in China and India to save on
labor costs. What factors should you consider when
making your decision? Is labor outsourcing to
developing countries a legitimate business strategy
that can be handled without risk of running into a
sweatshop scandal?
2. Do you think that sweatshops can be completely
eliminated throughout the world in the near future?
Provide an argument as to why you think this can
or cannot be achieved.
3. Would you agree that in order to eliminate sweat-
shop conflicts, large corporations such as Russell
Athletic should retain the same high labor standards
and regulations that they have in the home country
(for example, in the U.S.) when they conduct busi-
ness in developing countries? How hard or easy can
this be to implement?
4. Do you think that the public and NGOs like USAS
should care about labor practices in other countries?
Isn’t this a responsibility of the government of each
particular country to regulate the labor practices
within the borders of its country? Who do you
think provides a better mechanism of regulating and
improving the labor practices: NGOs or country
governments?
5. Would you agree that Russell Athletic made the
right decision by conceding to USAS and union
demands? Isn’t a less expensive way to handle this
sort of situation simply to ignore the scandal?
Please state your pros and cons regarding Russell’s
decision to compromise with the workers’ union
and NGOs as opposed to ignoring this scandal.
Source: This case was prepared by Professor Jonathan Doh and Tety-
ana Azarova of Villanova University as the basis for class discussion.
Additional research assistance was provided by Ben Littell. It is not
intended to illustrate either effective or ineffective managerial capabil-
ity or administrative responsibility.
codes of conduct for the factories used by licensees like
Russell.46 It is another important lesson for the corporate
world in the era of globalization, which can no longer
expect to conduct business activities in isolation from the
rest of the world. The global corporations such as Russell
Athletic, Nike, Gap, Walmart, and others will have to
assess the impact of their business decisions on all the
variety of stakeholders and take higher social responsibil-
ity for what they do in any part of the world.
More recently, a fire at a Bangalore textile factory in
late 2012, and two horrific accidents at garment factories
in Bangladesh in 2013, have placed renewed pressure on
U.S. and European clothing brands to take greater respon-
sibility for the working conditions of the factories from
which they source products. On April 24, 2013, more
than 1,000 workers were killed when an eight-story
building collapsed while thousands of people were work-
ing inside. Less then two weeks later, eight people were
killed in a fire at a factory in Dhaka that was producing
clothes for Western retailers. After a number of investor,
religious, labor, and human rights groups voiced con-
cerns about the lack of oversight and accountability by
the major companies, several of the world’s largest
apparel firms agreed to a plan to help pay for fire safety
and building improvements. Companies agreeing to the
plan included the Swedish-based retailer H&M; Inditex,
owner of the Zara chain; the Dutch retailer C&A; and
British companies Primark and Tesco. At the same time,
the Bangladesh government announced that it would
improve its labor laws and raise wages, and ease restric-
tions on forming trade unions. U.S. retailers Walmart and
Gap did not commit to the agreement, expressing con-
cerns about legal liability in U.S. courts. Instead, with
the help of a U.S.-based think tank, they announced they
would pursue a separate accord to improve factory condi-
tions in Bangladesh.47
Despite these promises by various companies and gov-
ernmental organizations, and a commitment of over a
quarter of a billion dollars, much work remains to be done.
According to December 2015 report by NYU Stern Center
for Business and Human Rights, only eight out of over
3,000 factories in Bangladesh had cleared violations in the
years since the garment fires and building collapse.48
1. USAS Press Release on “Jerzees de Honduras
Victory,” USAS, November 18, 2009, usas.
org/2009/11/18/usas-press-release-on-jerzees-de-
honduras-victory/.
2. David Barboza, “In Chinese Factories, Lost Fingers
and Low Pay,” New York Times, January 5,
2008, www.nytimes.com/2008/01/05/business/
worldbusiness/05sweatshop.html.
3. Ibid.
4. “Tearing Down a Sweatshop,” Duke University News,
June 15, 2001, https://today.duke.edu/2001/06/
peterle615.html.
5. Dexter Roberts and Aaron Bernstein, “Inside a
Chinese Sweatshop: A Life of Fines and Beating,”
BusinessWeek, October 2, 2000, www.bloomberg.
ENDNOTES

112 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
27. Ibid.
28. Laura Fitch, “Do Sweatshop Scandals Really
Damage Brands?”  Brandchannel, November 20,
2009, www.brandchannel.com/home/post/2009/
11/20/Do-Sweatshop-Scandals-Really-Damage-
Brands.aspx#continue.
29. Steven Greenhouse, “Labor Fight Ends in Win for
Students,”  New York Times,  November 17,
2009,  www.nytimes.com/2009/11/18/
business/18labor.html.
30. Russell Athletic home page,  www.fotlinc.com/pages/
russell-athletic-classic-athletic-apparel-and-uniforms.
html#.WCNTKPorKUk.
31. “USAS Press Release on Jerzees de Honduras Victory.”
32. “Russell Corporation’s Rights Violations in Hondu-
ras,” Worker Rights Consortium, News and Projects,
http://workersrights.org/RussellRightsViolations.asp.
33. Ibid.
34. Greenhouse, “Labor Fight Ends in Win for Students.”
35. “Mission,”  Worker Rights Consortium,  http://
workersrights.org/about/.
36. “Russell Corporation’s Rights Violations in Honduras.”
37. Greenhouse, “Labor Fight Ends in Win for Students.”
38. USAS, “Mission and Vision,”  http://usas.org/about/
mission-vision-organizing/.
39. Greenhouse, “Labor Fight Ends in Win for Students.”
40. Ibid.
41. FLA Board Resolution on Special Review for
Russell Corporation, adopted June 25, 2009,  Fair
Labor Association,  www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/
files/documents/reports/board_resolution_06.28.09 .
42. “FLA Workplace Code of Conduct,” Fair Labor
Association,  www.fairlabor.org/our-work/labor-
standards.
43. “Board of Directors,”  Fair Labor Association,  www.
fairlabor.org/about-us/board-directors.
44. USAS Press Release on “Jerzees de Honduras
Victory.”
45. Ibid.
46. Greenhouse, “Labor Fight Ends in Win for Students.”
47. Steven Greenhouse and Jim Yardley, “Global Retailers
Join Safety Plan for Bangladesh.” New York Times,
May 14, 2013, p. A1.
48. Gillian B. White, “Are Factories in Bangladesh Any
Safer Now?,” The Atlantic Magazine, December 17,
2015, www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/12/
bangladesh-factory-workers/421005/.
com/news/articles/2000-10-01/inside-a-chinese-
sweatshop-a-life-of-fines-and-beating.
6. Tim Connor, “Still Waiting for Nike to Do It,”
Global  Exchange,  May 2001,  www.globalexchange.
org/campaigns/sweatshops/nike/stillwaiting.html.
7. Ann Harrison and Jason Scorse, “Multinationals
and Anti-Sweatshop Activism,”American Economic
Review  100, no. 1  (March 2010),  https://www.
aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.100.1.247.
8. Ibid.
9. Ibid.
10. “Working in a Chinese Sweatshop for HP, Micro-
soft, Dell and IBM,”  France 24,  December 2, 2009,
observers.france24.com/en/20090212-working-hp-
microsoft-china-serving-prison-sentence-
sweatshop-dell-ibm-china.
11. Jonathan Adams and Kathleen E. McLaughlin,
“Special Report: Silicon Sweatshops,” Globalpost,
November 17, 2009,  sacom.hk/special-report-
silicon-sweatshops/.
12. Laura P. Hartman,  Encyclopedia of Business
Ethics and Society,  vol. 4, ed. Robert W. Kolb
(Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2008),
pp. 2034–2041.
13. Richard A. Greenwald,  Dictionary of American
History, 3rd ed., vol. 8, ed. Stanley I. Kutler (New
York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2003), pp. 34–35.
14. Gary Chaison,  Encyclopedia of Clothing and  Fash-
ion,  vol. 3, ed. Valerie Steele (Detroit: Charles
Scribner’s Sons, 2005), pp. 247–250.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid.
18. Greenwald,  Dictionary of American  History,
pp. 34–35.
19. Chaison,  Encyclopedia of Clothing and  Fashion, 
pp. 247–250.
20. Ibid.
21. Hartman,  Encyclopedia of Business  Ethics and
Society,  pp. 2034–2041.
22. Chaison,  Encyclopedia of  Clothing and Fashion, 
pp. 247–250.
23. Ibid.
24. Hartman,  Encyclopedia of  Business Ethics and
Society,  pp. 2034–2041.
25. Ibid.
26. Ibid.

113
spending. In 2014, drug prices grew by 12.2 percent from
the previous year, and prices for some medications,
including effective treatments for hepatitis-C, cancer, and
multiple sclerosis, grew by as much as $50,000.4
Patients need reliable drugs that can be used to treat
their conditions; however, the costs to patients vary widely
based on the health-care system of the countries in which
they live, whether they are subject to public or private
insurance (or no insurance at all), and various other fac-
tors. In the United States, insurance options vary widely,
with some patients paying out of pocket, others opting for
coverage under their employer-paid or commercial insur-
ance, and some utilizing a form of government-paid insur-
ance, like Medicare. The type of provider and type of plan
ultimately determine the cost that the patient must pay out
of pocket for any prescription medications. Some plans
require co-pays, premiums, or deductibles to cover the
costs of prescriptions and some pay a certain percentage
of prescription costs, leaving the balance to the patient.
In many countries featuring single-payer models, health
plans determine which drugs are available and how they
are to be allocated to patients. In a similar vein, insurance
plans in the United States maintain a “booklet” or listing
of what prescription medications are covered under a
given plan. This booklet can change from year-to-year,
meaning that one year a given insurance company will
cover costs for a certain medication and, due to factors
like huge price increases, the medication may not be cov-
ered the following year.
In the United States, prescribing doctors are an impor-
tant stakeholder in this issue. Until recently, their respon-
sibility and incentives were not always well established.
In the past, it was common practice for pharmaceutical
companies to offer doctors fees for research and clinical
assessments. Because these fees created at least the
appearance of a conflict of interest, legislation and regu-
lation began to require greater disclosure and reporting.
Now, all compensation, including nonmonetary items
such as food and entertainment, that pharmaceutical com-
panies provide to doctors in exchange for research and
promotional activities must be reported.5
Putting that role aside, doctors are generally expected
to treat patients with whatever means result in the highest
efficacy levels. Higher prescription drug prices inevitably
interact with that responsibility. Recent trends seem to
indicate that these tensions will only grow; the number of
Americans using prescription medication has increased
nearly 10 percent since 1999, to 60 percent of Americans,
In September 2015, Turing Pharmaceuticals, headed by
former hedge fund manager Martin Shrkeli, increased the
price of a 62-year-old drug used for treating life-threaten-
ing parasitic infections in HIV and cancer patients by over
5,000 percent—from US$13.50 to US$750 per tablet.1
Also in 2015, Valeant Pharmaceuticals raised the price of
a standard-use diabetes pill from US$896 to US$10,020,
pills used for Wilson’s Disease from US$1,395 and
US$888 to US$21,267 and US$26,139 respectively, and a
heart rate medication from $4,489 to $36,811.2 In the same
year, Rodelis Therapeutics increased the price of a drug
used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from around
US$500 to US$10,800 per 30 pills.3 These highlight just
a few examples of numerous recent extreme price increases
that have fueled the debate regarding the cost of prescrip-
tion medication in the United States, prompting compari-
sons to drug prices in other industrialized countries.
Moreover, a related debate has simmered regarding access
to life-saving medicine in developing countries, the rela-
tively low investments by major global pharma companies
in developing new medicines for diseases such as tubercu-
losis and malaria, and the prices major pharmaceutical
companies charge for HIV/AIDS medications.
Pharmaceuticals and Pricing—A Complicated
Calculation
The issue of drug pricing is incredibly complex and, as
more prescription medications are becoming available to
the growing global population, that complexity is increas-
ing. Debates regarding prescription medication pricing
involve such hot-button issues as the appropriate levels of
corporate profits, the responsibility of the corporations
who own the medication (profit for shareholders versus
providing a need for suffering patients), and insurance
coverage, to name a few. The ethical debate over drug
pricing is not confined to just the United States, but
extends to developed and developing companies alike.
The pricing of pharmaceuticals is influenced by a
myriad of stakeholders who represent a wide range of
competing interests. These include the patients taking the
drugs, the doctors prescribing the drugs, the insurance
companies paying for the drugs, the pharmaceutical man-
ufacturers that either produce or acquire the rights and
supply the drug, and the governmental forces that often
act as a bulk purchaser and regulator, policing the entire
process. Tensions among these diverse stakeholders are
aggravated by continued growth in prescription-drug
In-Depth Integrative Case 1.2
The Ethics of Global Drug Pricing

114 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
In the most egregious cases of price increases, compa-
nies like Valeant and Turing buy the rights to specialty
medications that have been on the market for years and for
which there are few direct substitutes. These companies
then raise the prices of the drugs exponentially. Decades-
old specialty medications often do not have generic alter-
natives due to traditionally low sales volumes. Therefore,
patients who require these medications and have been
using them as standard care are left without any real cost-
effective alternative when prices skyrocket.
Pharmaceutical companies also argue that they provide
subsidies—sometimes significant ones—for patients who
are not able to pay the full cost. These programs include
providing medication free of charge to patients in both
developed and developing countries, as well as offering a
type of financial aid to help other patients obtain the
medication at a discount. Pharma companies’ programs to
provide access to medicines for patients in developing
countries are discussed below.
When taken together, the many considerations associ-
ated with drug costs and pricing conspire to create a con-
fusing web of social, economic, and political challenges,
some of which are detailed below.
Drug Pricing in the United States and
around the World
Although the United States is facing rapidly increasing
prescription medication prices, this is not the case in
much of the world. In the United States, a mostly market-
based system provides economic and other incentives for
companies that develop new drugs or improve existing
ones. The drug companies in market-based systems, ben-
efiting from patent-protected exclusivity, ultimately
recoup their large research and development investments
with higher market-based prices for their breakthrough
products. In other parts of the world, where public health
care and prescription drug purchasing systems are com-
monplace, different factors prevail.
The Wall Street Journal conducted a study comparing
prescription drug prices in the market-based United States,
using the data available through Medicare Part B, to the
prices found in three countries with public health care sys-
tems: Norway, England, and Canada’s Ontario province.
This investigation used both public and nonpublic data.12
Table 1 summarizes the results of that study. Among the
findings was that, in the case of the top 40 selling drugs,
prices in the United States were 93 percent higher than in
Norway. Similarly, England and Ontario also showed sig-
nificantly cheaper prices than those found in the U.S.
Research seems to conclude that, in general, branded pre-
scription drugs are more expensive in the market-based
U.S. system than in other developed countries.13
The patent protection and exclusivity prevalent in the
market-based U.S. system are not the only reason for steep
and the number of patients who take five or more medica-
tions has doubled to 15 percent.6  As drug prices continue
to soar, doctors are placed in the difficult situation of pre-
scribing their patients medication that may not be afford-
able or performing alternative methods with lower efficacy.
In defending relatively high prices of drugs, pharma-
ceutical companies routinely cite the high failure rate of
new drugs during the FDA approval process and the steep
costs of research and development. Indeed, some esti-
mates put the price of developing a new drug at nearly
$3 billion when including the cost of failures and drugs
that never reach the marketplace.7 Opponents of this argu-
ment cite the fact that, in cases where a new drug is suc-
cessful, it enjoys approximately two decades of protection
from any competition under strict patent laws. Addition-
ally, some companies, especially in the “orphan” drug
industry, which will be discussed later, receive grants for
research and development. Finally, in extreme cases of
companies like Valeant and Turing, critics point to the
fact that those companies do not appear to invest much if
any financial resources into developing new drugs. Vale-
ant, for example, invests less than 3 percent of revenue
into research and development activities.8
The Wall Street Journal conducted an exhaustive
investigation into the pricing of drugs at Pfizer, which
involved interviewing management regarding pricing for
its new breast cancer medication Ibrance. The results
revealed that Pfizer’s multistep pricing process is not
based on a single algorithm but is derived—and
adjusted—based on a range of external inputs and inter-
nal benchmarks. According to the report, research and
development costs had minimal influence on the ulti-
mate price per dose set by the company. Rather, factors
including demand in the marketplace, competition, the
opinions of medical professionals, and potential pressure
from insurers heavily influenced the resulting pricing
strategy.9  Pfizer explained that it seeks to reduce this
complex analysis into a three-point approach: patients
receive maximum access to the drug; payers, such as
insurers, will accept the price; and Pfizer receives strong
financial returns. In this case, Pfizer spent three years of
market research to determine pricing for what was a
revolutionary medication to treat advanced breast cancer.
The final step of the process was a meeting of Pfizer
economists to determine the financial impact to the com-
pany, the health insurers, and the patients. Finally, the
commercial team decided to set the price at $9,850 per
month. This price was approved by Pfizer and, just as
the medication was set to go to market, a competitor
raised the price of its comparable medication by 9.9 per-
cent, putting the monthly cost of that medication at
US$687 more than Pfizer’s, on the basis of “reflecting
an evolving health-care and competitive environment.”10 
According to The Wall Street Journal, Pfizer was left
thinking, “was $9,850 too low?”11

In-Depth Integrative Case 1.2 The Ethics of Global Drug Pricing 115
determine the cost-effectiveness of new drugs. Pharma-
ceutical companies submit a price for reimbursement,
which must be below the maximum price set by the
agency, and the pharmaceutical companies must file
detailed documents outlining the additional benefits and
value that the new drug provides that existing drugs do
not. QALY, or quality-adjusted life year, is a metric that
is often used to measure the value of the drug.19 Interest-
ingly, Medicare in the U.S. is prohibited from incorporat-
ing such an approach. Many drug companies ultimately
discount their drugs to ensure that they are accepted by
NMA for inclusion in the health-care system, though
companies are able to resubmit rejected drugs if they can
improve the value proposition.20
England’s health-care cost agency, the National Insti-
tute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), is one of
Europe’s strictest regulators. Providing a high value is
critical to any specific drug’s acceptance by NICE; the
agency evaluates the cost versus effectiveness of drugs,
ultimately determining whether the medication provides
enough benefit to warrant coverage. If NICE determines
that the value offered by the new drug is too low com-
pared to the price, drug makers have the opportunity to
try for acceptance again with a revised price point.21  The
level of spending by the National Health Service (NHS)
on individual drugs is also capped, and the pharmaceuti-
cal industry must reimburse the NHS for any additional
spending over that cap. Nearly every drug covered by both
Medicare Part B and the English health-care system was
more expensive in the U.S.22
Though the Canadian health-care system does not
include a centralized government agency responsible for
all drug payments and negotiations, the country has been
able to maintain lower drug costs due to government reg-
ulation.23 First, maximum drug prices, based on the effec-
tiveness and overall value of the pharmaceutical product
as well as the cost of the drug in the U.S. and Europe, are
set by Canada’s Patented Medicine Prices Review Board.
After the price ceiling is set on a particular drug, the phar-
maceutical company producing the product is prohibited
from increasing the price above the comparable U.S. or
drug prices; structural differences in the health-care sys-
tem, the lobbying and political power of pharmaceutical
companies, and the fear of rationing all contribute to the
increased prices in the market.14 Conversely, the state-run
health systems in other developed countries, like Norway,
exert strong negotiating leverage with drug companies. In
these countries, nearly all drug purchasing is completed
by government agencies, shifting the power from pure
market demand to a single government purchaser. In these
systems, it is common for government health-care agen-
cies to set firm caps on pricing, require strong evidence
that breakthrough drugs truly provide higher value than
existing medications, and refuse to pay for higher-priced
drugs that offer only minimal improvements over cheaper
alternatives.15  By contrast, the U.S. marketplace is more
disjointed. Individuals, employers, large and small insur-
ance companies, and even state and federal government
agencies foot the bill for medications, resulting in
decreased bargaining power. Furthermore, Medicare,
which pays for more medications than any other company
or agency in the country, is legally prevented from nego-
tiating pricing.16
Drug manufacturers and developers are quick to note
the huge financial disincentives posed by European public
health-care systems. Lower returns coupled with strong
governmental control arguably result in decreased research
investment and less patient access to life-saving drugs.
Without the large profits achieved through the U.S. pric-
ing model, new drug development would sharply decline.17
Per Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of Amer-
ica (PhRMA) executive vice president Lori Reilly, “The
U.S. has a competitive biopharmaceutical marketplace
that works to control costs while encouraging the develop-
ment of new treatments and cures.”18
Below is a brief summary of drug pricing approaches
in key European countries.
Norway, Canada, and the United Kingdom
Norway created the Norwegian Medicines Agency (NMA)
to determine the appropriateness of specific drugs for
treatment. The agency evaluates patient information to
Table 1 Drug Price Comparison
Drug Dose Size Medicare (U.S.) Norway England Ontario Drug Used for
Lucentis 0.5 mg US $1,936 US $ 894 US $1,159 US $1,254 Macular degeneration
Eylea 2 mg 1,930 919 1,274 1,129 Macular degeneration
Rituxan/MabThera 500 mg 3,679 1,527 1,364 1,820 Rheumatoid arthritis
Neulasta 6 mg 3,620 1,018 1,072 n/a White blood cell deficiency
Ayastin 100 mg 685 399 379 398 Cancer
Prolia 60 mg 893 260 286 285 Osteoporosis
Alimta 100 mg 604 313 250 342 Lung cancer
Velcade 3.5 mg 1,610 1,332 1,191 n/a Cancer
Herceptin 100 mg 858 483 424 493 Breast cancer
Eligard 7.5 mg 217 137 n/a 247 Prostate cancer
Source: Jeanne Whalen, “Why the U.S. Pays More Than Other Countries for Drugs,” The Wall Street Journal, December 1, 2015.

116 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
significant consumer pressure on the drug manufacturer.
When a low reference price is set, consumers become
more willing to switch the specific drug that they are tak-
ing to avoid any additional, uncovered cost. Drug compa-
nies, with the desire to keep consumers, respond by
lowering their price to as close to the reference price as
possible.31 Germany, Italy, and Spain vary slightly in how
reference prices are actually set. In Germany and Spain,
averages are used to calculate the proper reference price,
while in Italy, the lowest price in each drug category
effectively acts as the reference price.
Price controls, whether through government agencies
or insurers, are often blamed for slowing drug research
and development. While this may be rooted in some truth,
the reference price strategy can still result in financial
incentive for innovation. When a new, breakthrough drug
is developed, reference pricing allows for that drug to be
placed into a category by itself, eliminating the price
competition seen in categories of drugs established with
multiple competitors. The new drug is still able to reap
the financial benefits of being a first-to-market innovator,
likely for many years.32 Additionally, the reference pricing
strategy can encourage innovations within long-estab-
lished drug categories. When an existing drug within a
crowed, competitive drug category is improved and its
cost to manufacture is reduced, the drug manufacturer can
likewise lower its price point in an attempt to steal market
share. This results in savings to the end consumer.
As stated already, it is difficult to argue against a system
that has prices a fraction of those in the U.S., but it is worth
mentioning that this system is still difficult to implement
in cases where there are no comparable drugs. Further-
more, companies could shave margins on drugs that have
comparable alternatives but attempt to make up those mar-
gins in areas where they provide novel medications. Finally,
as seen with Pfizer’s pricing example, pharmaceutical com-
panies routinely look to competitors for guidance on pric-
ing. Implementing a reference-pricing system could
incentivize companies to set higher prices knowing that the
government will be imposing a bottom price or average
price and encourage a type of price-fixing.
Specialty and “Orphan” Drugs
Specialty drugs—which are generally understood to be
drugs that are structurally complex and often require spe-
cial handling or delivery mechanisms—are typically
priced much higher than traditional drugs. While some of
these drugs have been groundbreaking in the treatment of
cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and other
chronic conditions, the cost of treating a patient with spe-
cialty drugs can exceed tens of thousands of dollars a
year. Over the past decade, the industry has seen signifi-
cant increases to the pricing of specialty drugs. Figure 1
shows the growth in these costs.
European price. Additionally, the annual rate of price
increase is capped at Canada’s rate of inflation.24 Because
Canada has a nationalized system with heavy subsidies for
low- and fixed-income citizens, the Canadian government
also must determine whether or not any specific drug will
be available to seniors and those on government assistance.
The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in
Health ultimately makes this decision. These regulations
appear to effectively reduce costs, especially when com-
pared to the U.S. For example, of 30 pharmaceutical drugs
covered by both Ontario’s Ministry of Health and Long-
Term Care and the U.S.’s Medicare Part B, only 7 percent
of the drugs were more expensive in Canada.25
Obviously, the significant difference in health-care sys-
tems and prescription medication practices makes it
extremely difficult to debate whether the U.S. approach
or the Norway-England-Canada approach is better. Of
more practical relevance, it would be extremely difficult
for the U.S. to adopt the approach used in these three
countries. Indeed, the U.S. has (so far) rejected a univer-
sal, government-paid health-care system.26 The arguments
for and against that type of system are well-documented
and will not be addressed here, but it is worth mentioning
that there are valid reasons for opposing it. One is that
adopting a universal system could result in the govern-
ment being unwilling to pay for certain medications,
something that is quite controversial in the U.S., where
freedom and choice are highly valued.27 This reality com-
plicates the process for encouraging development of spe-
cialty and orphan drugs that by definition treat a very
small portion of the population. In these cases, there is
usually a lack of effective alternatives or generic medica-
tions and it is only with strong economic incentives that
pharmaceutical companies are willing to take the risk of
development new products. As such, a public health-care
system does not provide a solution to high drug prices in
cases where there are little to no alternative treatments.28
Germany, Spain, and Italy
Another approach to drug pricing, which has features of
both a private, market-based system, like that of the
United States, and a public system, like that of Norway,
can be found in Germany, Spain, and Italy. A New York
Times analysis described how these countries approach
the pricing challenge.
In Germany, Spain, and Italy, pharmaceutical drugs are
categorized into groupings with other similar drugs.29 Insur-
ers, whether public or private, then set a single specific
price that they will pay for any drug that is grouped within
a specific category. This price is referred to as the
“reference price.” If any individual drug within a category
is priced higher than the set reference price for that cat-
egory, the consumer must pay the excess cost if he or she
wants the more expensive drug.30 This approach results in

In-Depth Integrative Case 1.2 The Ethics of Global Drug Pricing 117
Depending on the effectiveness, demand, and disease
being treated, some specialty drugs cost upwards of
three-quarters of a million U.S. dollars annually. In fact,
within the last few years, a third of all spending on pre-
scription drugs in the U.S. has been dedicated to spe-
cialty drugs. This has resulted in a surge in the
development of new specialty drugs; since 2010, the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been approv-
ing more specialty drugs than traditional drugs. For
example, in 2014, specialty drugs accounted for 54 per-
cent of all FDA approvals.33
Another classification of drugs—called “orphan
drugs”—are pharmaceutical products aimed at rare dis-
eases or disorders. In the market-based U.S. system,
orphan drugs can be financially lucrative for drug devel-
opers, especially since the passage of the Orphan Drug
Act of 1983. Since the passage of the law, over 400 new
orphan drugs have received FDA approval, resulting in
treatments for nearly 400 rare diseases. In the U.S., orphan
drugs often cost 20 times that of drugs used to treat tra-
ditional disease. Additionally, the market for orphan drugs
continues to grow. More than 30 million U.S. citizens,
representing almost 10 percent of the entire population,
are estimated to be inflicted with a rare disease. While
demand for traditional prescription drugs is only expected
to increase 4 percent annually in Japan, the U.S., and
Europe through 2020, total sales for orphan drugs will
increase by 11 percent year-over-year. By 2020, nearly a
fifth of all nongeneric drugs sold globally will be orphan
drugs.34
As discussed previously, the U.S. spending on pre-
scription medication is substantially higher than in most
other countries. One argument justifying these high prices
is that the high prices for medications in the U.S. and
some other developed countries make it possible for the
same companies to offer medications needed in develop-
ing countries at a significant discount.
Access to Medicine and Pricing in
Developing Countries
Prescription drugs are the primary method of medical
treatment in most developing countries and largely domi-
nate total health-care spending in these economies. As a
result, drug affordability in emerging countries is critical
to ensuring medical treatment for those who are in need.
Despite aid from the international community, developing
countries still lack access to life-saving medications. Less
than 20 percent of all drug importing, and only 6 percent
of all drug exporting, occurs in emerging nations. Further-
more, a full third of people in these countries are without
consistent access to prescription drugs.35
One grouping of major global initiatives that are help-
ing to make medication more available to the developing
countries is the Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) pro-
grams. NTDs are defined as common, easily transmitted
diseases that are most often found in the approximately
150 developing nations located in tropical regions. The
economic impact of these diseases is estimated to be in
the US$ billions annually, directly and indirectly affecting
more than a fifth of the world’s population. Often, factors
such as unsanitary water and livestock contribute to the
spread of NTDs.36  Specific programs, such as the one
established by the Centers for Disease Control and Pre-
vention (CDC), aim to combat NTDs directly. This
includes attempting to completely eliminate diseases
through Mass Drug Administration (MDA) programs, as
well as working together with pharmaceutical companies
and local NGOs. With a lack of formal doctors and nurses
in many of these areas, localized community leaders and
volunteers, such as teachers, function as drug administra-
tors. These volunteers have the training required to effec-
tively and properly provide drugs to the community
members. Pharmaceutical companies provide support
through large drug donations.37,38 The U.S. Agency for
Source: Anna Gorman, “California Voters Will Have Their Say on Drug Prices,”  Kaiser Health News.
January 29, 2015,  http://khn.org/news/california-voters-will-have-their-say-on-drug-prices/.
$0
$60,000
$50,000
$40,000
$30,000
$20,000
$10,000
$18,240
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
$25,857
$28,118
$30,127
$33,032
$36,630
$43,697
$48,512
$53,384
A
n
n
u
al
R
et
ai
l P
ri
ce
o
f
T
h
er
ap
y
p
er
D
ru
g
Figure 1 Growth in Average Annual Cost of Specialty Drug Regime

118 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
and, over time, blindness. MDP approves more than 140
million treatments for onchocerciasis annually.43  Another
company, Novartis, developed a highly effective malaria
treatment called Coartem that was made available in a
lemon-flavored disbursable format, making it easier for
children to take. It has become one of the largest access-
to-medicine programs in the health-care industry, mea-
sured by the number of patients reached annually.44 Since
2001, working with a range of international organizations
such as the World Health Organization and the Gates
Foundation, Novartis has provided more than 600 million
treatments for adults and children, to more than 60
malaria-endemic countries, contributing to a dramatic
reduction of the malaria burden in Africa.45 It is estimated
that 3.3 million lives have been saved as a result.46  Inter-
estingly, Novartis chose to sell the drug on a cost-recovery
(not-for-profit) basis rather than give away the drug, per-
haps because it believes this approach will make the pro-
gram more sustainable over the long term. Novartis was
the first recipient of an NTD priority review voucher
described above.
The Future of Drug Pricing around the World
The question of how to price pharmaceutical drugs is dif-
ficult and ethically complex. As an industry directly
related to the health and welfare of humankind, political
and ideological decisions regarding health-care provision
and delivery can be deeply personal for many. In addition,
income disparities both within countries and across the
developing world are on the rise, and these differences
pose difficult questions about fairness, equity, and moral
obligations.
It seems clear that drug pricing will remain a conten-
tious and debated issue. From the perspective of global-
ization, it is interesting to consider whether or not price
differentials for drugs will persist, or, as is the case in
many other areas, prices will converge due to growing
wealth in developing and emerging markets, regulatory
coordination across jurisdictions, increasing market pres-
sures, or some combination of these factors.
Questions for Review
1. What is the proper balance for pharmaceutical com-
panies between delivering the fiduciary obligation
of earning a profit for owners and providing life-
saving or life-extending drugs to customers? How
much profit is too much profit and who determines
the amount? How does that balance get achieved?
2. Should the United States consider other methods for
controlling drug pricing, such as those used in
some European countries? Are there other ways the
United States might use market forces or incentives
from government programs to control drug prices?
Given that one of the most prevalent and persuasive
International Development (USAID) is a key partner with
organizations like the CDC and the World Health Orga-
nization (WHO). In addition, USAID, CDC, and WHO
also collaborate with other organizations, including foun-
dations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation,
as well as individual pharmaceutical companies that
donate medications that can combat these diseases.
In the United States, concern about NTDs and the lack
of incentives for pharmaceutical companies to develop
drugs for those diseases caught the attention of three aca-
demics from Duke University. In their 2006 paper,
researchers David Ridley, Henry Grabowski, and Jeffery
Moe proposed a voucher system based on the Orphan
Drug program to reward companies for investing in the
development of drugs targeted at treating NTDs.39  Under
this system, the incentive provided to pharmaceutical
companies developing NTD treatments would be the
expedited FDA review of a subsequent drug of the com-
pany’s choice, potentially generating millions of dollars
of added revenue due to the fact that the chosen drug
would gain market access earlier than would otherwise be
the case. The researchers also suggested providing some
flexibility in redeeming this reward, including allowing
the benefit to be sold to another company. In the U.S., the
voucher system idea quickly transformed from concept
into law; U.S. Senator Sam Brownback adapted and
included the program in the Food and Drug Administra-
tion Amendments Act (FDAAA) of 2007.40 
In addition to the above initiatives, pharmaceutical
companies are increasingly evaluated and assessed based
on their ability and willingness to make drugs available
to poor countries. The Access to Medicine Foundation, an
independent nongovernmental organization, publishes the
“Access to Medicine Index,” which ranks pharmaceutical
companies by their access-related policies and practices.
The index is based on an analysis of 95 indicators, in
relation to 106 countries and 47 diseases.41 Each company
is ranked separately according to its commitment to its
performance in seven categories: (1) General Access to
Medicine Management; (2) Public Policy and Marketing
Influence; (3) Research and Development; (4) Pricing,
Manufacturing, and Distribution; (5) Patents and Licens-
ing; (6) Capability Advancement; and (7) Donations and
Philanthropy. Figure 2 shows the overall ranking for the
top 20 pharmaceutical companies globally.
In addition, individual companies have taken it upon
themselves to provide free or low-cost access to their own
production and distribution channels or with partners. For
example, the pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a
drug—Mectizan—to fight onchocerciasis, also known as
river blindness, in 1987 and established the Mectizan
Donation Program (MDP) to oversee the initia-
tive.42 Onchocerciasis is found primarily in Latin America
and Africa. It is transmitted through the bites of black
flies and can cause disfiguring dermatitis, eye lesions,

In-Depth Integrative Case 1.2 The Ethics of Global Drug Pricing 119
arguments for relatively high drug prices is the high
cost associated with research and development and
regulatory compliance, is there a way to combat
those costs?
3. What are your views on the role of patents in pre-
scription medication? What is the proper balance of
patent protection for costly research and develop-
ment versus lack of competition?
4. What should be done on the issue of orphan drugs
to combat high costs without viable alternatives?
Should there be cost restrictions? Should there be
patent restrictions?
5. What should be done in cases like Turing and Vale-
ant Pharmaceuticals, where decades-old medications
that do not have competitors are purchased and
prices are raised exponentially? If you think restric-
tions should be imposed, what is the justification
for treating that case differently than the case where
a drug, with patent protection, comes to market and
is priced for hundreds or thousands of dollars?
6. How can the United States and other developed
countries stimulate greater research and develop-
ment of treatments for NTDs and offer those drugs
at prices that are affordable?
Source: This case was prepared by Matthew Vassil of Villanova Uni-
versity under the supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh as the basis
for class discussion. Additional research assistance was provided by
Ben Littell. It is not intended to illustrate either effective or ineffective
managerial capability or administrative responsibility.
1 1 GlaxoSmithKline plc=
4 7 Novartis AG▲
5 5 Gilead Sciences Inc.=
6 8 Merck KGaA▲
11 15 Eisai Co. Ltd.▲
14 17 Boehringer Ingelheirn GmbH▲
15 16 AstraZeneca plc▲
18 20 Astellas Pharma Inc.▲
2 6 Novo Nordisk A/S▲
3 2 Johnson & Johnson▼
7 4 Merck & Co. Inc.▼
8 3 Sanofi▼
10 9 Bayer AG▼
12 10 Roche Holding AG▼
13 12 Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.▼
16 11 Pfizer Inc.▼
17 14 Eli Lilly & Co.▼
20 18 Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.▼
19 19 Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd.=
3.29
2.84
2.81
2.77
2.47
2.08
1.94
1.56
3.01
2.84
2.64
2.57
2.51
2.30
2.23
1.93
1.73
1.45
0 1 2 3 4 5
1.50
2.569 n/a AbbVie Inc.
General Access to Medicine Management
Position
Access to Medicine
Index 2012
Position
Access to Medicine
Index 2014
Public Policy & Market Influence
Research & Development
Pricing, Manufacturing & Distribution
Patents & Licensing
Capability Advancement in Product Development & Distribution
Product Donations & Philanthropic Activities
A score of zero means lowest and five signifies highest indicator score
among the company set.
Figure 2 The Access to Medicine Index 2014—Overall Ranking

120 Part 1 Environmental Foundation
1. Andrew  Pollock, “Drug Goes from $13.50 a Tablet
to $750, Overnight,”  New York Times, September
21, 2015, p. B1.
2. Andrew  Pollock and Sabrina Tavernise, “Valeant’s
Drug Price Strategy Enriches It, but Infuriates Patients
and Lawmakers,”  New York Times, October 5, 2015,
p. A1.
3. Carolyn Y. Johnson, “How an Obscure Drug’s
4,000% Price Increase Might Finally Spur Action
on Soaring Health-Care Costs,”  Washington Post,
September 21, 2015.
4. Joseph Walker, “Patients Struggle with High Drug
Prices,” The Wall Street Journal,  December 31,
2015.
5. Andrew Pollock, “Drug Prices Soar, Prompting
Calls for Justification,”  New York Times, July 23,
2015.
6. Jessica Firger, “Prescription Drugs on the Rise:
Estimates Suggest 60 Percent of Americans Take at
Least One Medication,”  Newsweek, November 3,
2015.
7. Joseph A. DiMasi and Henry G. Grabowski, “The
Cost of Biopharmaceutical R&D: Is Biotech Differ-
ent?,” Managerial and Decision Economics  28,  no.
4–5 (2011), pp. 469–479.
8. Pollock and Tavernise, “Valeant’s Drug Price Strategy
Enriches It, but Infuriates Patients and Lawmakers.”
9. Jonathan D. Rockoff, “How Pfizer Set the Cost of
Its New Drug at $9,850 a Month,”  The Wall Street
Journal, December 9, 2015.
10. Ibid.
11. Ibid.
12. Jeanne Whalen, “Why the U.S. Pays More Than
Other Countries for Drugs,”  The Wall Street
Journal, December 1, 2015.
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid.
24. Ibid.
25. Ibid.
26. Ibid.
27. Ibid.
28. Ibid.
29. Andrew Frakt, “To Reduce the Costs of Drugs,
Look to Europe,”  New York Times, October 19,
2015.
30. Ibid.
31. Ibid.
32. Ibid.
33. America’s Health Insurance Plans Center for Policy
and Research, “Issue Brief: Specialty Drugs—Issues
and Challenges,” July 2015.
34. EvaluatePharma,  Orphan Drug Report 2014, October
2014,  www.evaluategroup.com/public/Reports/
EvaluatePharma-Orphan-Drug-Report-2014.aspx.
35. “Trade, Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, and Health—
Access to Medicines,”  World Health Organization,
http://www.who.int/trade/en/.
36. “Neglected Tropical Diseases,” World Health Organi-
zation, www.who.int/neglected_diseases/diseases/en/.
37. Neglected Tropical Diseases,” Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, November 22, 2013,  www.
cdc.gov/globalhealth/ntd/global_program.html.
38. Neglected Tropical Diseases Program, USAID,
https://www.neglecteddiseases.gov/about/what-we-do.
39. Alexander  Gaffney and Michael Mezher, “Regulatory
Explainer: Everything You Need to Know About
FDA’s Priority Review Vouchers,” July 2, 2015,
www.raps.org/Regulatory-Focus/News/2015/
07/02/21722/Regulatory-Explainer-Everything-You-
Need-to-Know-About-FDA%E2%80%99s-Priority-
Review-Vouchers/#sthash.1NDz9gW3.dpuf.
40. Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of
2007, Pub. L. No. 110-85, 121 Stat. 823.
41. Access to Medicine Foundation,  Access to
Medicine Index 2014  (November 2014), www.
accesstomedicineindex.org/sites/2015.atmindex.
org/files/2014_accesstomedicineindex_fullreport_
clickablepdf .
42. “About,”  Mectizan Donation Program,  www.
mectizan.org/about  (last visited July 12, 2016).
43. Ibid.
44. “The Novartis Malaria Initiative,” Novartis,
www.malaria.novartis.com/images/Brochure-
Malaria-Initiative   (last visited July 12, 2016).
45. Ibid.
46. Ibid.
ENDNOTES

PART TWO
THE ROLE
OF CULTURE

122
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C
H
A
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E
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Chapter 4
THE MEANINGS AND
DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE
The World of International
Management
Culture Clashes in Cross-Border
Mergers and Acquisitions
I n one of the largest cross-border deals ever proposed, Belgian-Brazilian beverage giant ABInBev offered
US$104.2  billion to acquire British-owned SABMiller. Both
companies have multiple investments and brands in every major
beer market in the world. The merger brings ABInBev’s brands
of Budweiser, Busch, Corona, and Stella Artois together with
SABMiller’s brands of Miller, Foster, Grolsch, Peroni, Castle, and
Carlton, resulting in the largest beverage company on the globe.
The combined company will account for 30 percent of beer sales
worldwide and 60 percent of sales in the U.S. market. In late
2015, SABMiller’s shareholders agreed to the terms of the deal.1
Mergers and acquisitions are among the most challenging
strategic moves by companies seeking to grow their markets
and reap hoped-for efficiencies. Many cross-border mergers
and acquisitions have failed or experienced extreme difficulties
in the face of cultural differences that manifest in communica-
tion, work policies, compensation systems, and other aspects
of strategy and operations. These cultural differences can be
aggravated by geographic, institutional, and psychological
distance. With operations spanning the globe, and leadership
teams in both Latin America and Europe, the combined
ABInBev and SABMiller company will need to address the
interests of its culturally diverse constituencies.
Although both SABMiller and ABInBev have recent, extensive
experience with cross-border mergers and acquisitions, neither
company has been involved in a deal this large. How can this
integrated company fully realize the benefits of combining peo-
ple, production, and brands from diverse cultures? Will ABInBev
be able to achieve its aggressive sales goal of US$100 billion
annually by 2020? Looking at some past cross-border mergers,
both successful and failed, may provide some insight.
DuPont in Denmark
When DuPont, the U.S.-based giant chemicals company, set out
to acquire Danisco, a Danish producer of food ingredients,
shareholders in Denmark initially voiced skepticism and disapproval.
To better understand the concerns of the Danish investment
community, DuPont sent executives to Copenhagen.2  Gaining
A major challenge of doing business internationally is to
respond and adapt effectively to different cultures. Such adap-
tation requires an understanding of cultural diversity, percep-
tions, stereotypes, and values. In recent years, a great deal of
research has been conducted on cultural dimensions and atti-
tudes, and the findings have proved useful in providing inte-
grative profiles of international cultures. However, a word of
caution must be given when discussing these country profiles.
It must be remembered that stereotypes and overgeneraliza-
tions should be avoided; there are always individual differ-
ences and even subcultures within every country.
This chapter examines the meaning of culture as it
applies to international management, reviews some of the
value differences and similarities of various national groups,
studies important dimensions of culture and their impact on
behavior, and examines country clusters. The specific objec-
tives of this chapter are
1. DEFINE the term culture, and discuss some of the compar-
ative ways of differentiating cultures.
2. DESCRIBE the concept of cultural values, and relate some
of the international differences, similarities, and changes
occurring in terms of both work and managerial values.
3. IDENTIFY the major dimensions of culture relevant to
work settings, and discuss their effects on behavior in an
international environment.
4. DISCUSS the value of country cluster analysis and
relational orientations in developing effective international
management practices.

123
that would dictate a unified approach to planning, information
exchange, communication, and decision making. Executives
believed that a unified company culture—part American, part
German—would lead to a better working relationship between
employees and result in improved fiscal results for the com-
pany. After just a few months, however, continued cultural dif-
ficulty led executives to conclude that imposing a single
culture on its diverse workforce was a short-sighted strategy.
Engineers between the two companies continued to disagree
over quality and design, and personality conflicts persisted.
Americans found Germans to have an “attitude,” while Ger-
mans found Americans to be “chaotic.”8
In response to these failures, Daimler-Chrysler took a more
drastic approach to altering its operations. Rather than
attempting to impose the Daimler culture on Chrysler employ-
ees, individual business groups were permitted to adopt
whichever culture worked best for them. Essentially, two cul-
tures were allowed to persist at the merged company—those
of American Chrysler and of German Daimler. Though this
strategy worked well for groups that were located solely in the
United States or Germany, business divisions that spanned
both countries continued to face challenges. Communication
was often misinterpreted, and the approach to staffing was
questioned by executives on both sides.9
After a decade of struggle, the merger was ultimately
reversed. Daimler sold nearly its entire stake in Chrysler to an
American private equity group for a fraction of its original invest-
ment, and Chrylser entered bankruptcy proceedings just two
years later. Roland Klein, former manager of corporate commu-
nications at the merged Daimler-Chrysler, remarked that “Maybe
we should have had a cultural specialist to counsel us. But we
wanted to achieve the integration without outside help.”10
ABInBev’s Past Experiences
In many ways, ABInBev’s own history may provide the best
example of a previously successful cross-border merger. In 2008,
Belgian-Brazilian-based InBev acquired U.S.-based Anheuser
Busch, creating the world’s largest brewing company. InBev first
bid $65 per share for Anheuser Bush, which was initially
rejected. The final price agreed to was $70 per share. With oper-
ations on every continent, the newly combined company had to
quickly adapt to diverse national and organizational culture back-
grounds. InBev’s organizational culture, heavily influenced by
AmBev, was described as “a work atmosphere reminiscent of an
athletic locker room . . . a culture that includes ferocious cost
an  understanding of the cultural and business perspectives of
those shareholders through face-to-face, in-person meetings,
DuPont executives were able to determine that their original offer
was seen as offensively low. In response, DuPont adjusted its
offer, resulting in a 92 percent approval rate from Danisco’s
shareholders. Dupont’s CEO claims, “These face-to-face conver-
sations were critical for the actions we took next, and, ultimately,
for the successful outcome of the deal.”3
After the deal was complete, DuPont made culture a strong
focus of itsintegration efforts by first hosting a “Welcome Week”
with presentations to all employees about the new combined
firm, adjusted to local communication styles. After this week-
long celebration, designed to encourage excitement and positive
thinking, the company gauged successes and failures using reg-
ular pulse surveys. These surveys “created a heat map of poten-
tial geographic locations where there might be confusion or
miscommunication.”4  Anticipating and measuring potential
places of difficulty allowed managers to address issues as
quickly and transparently as possible, easing the integration pro-
cess. DuPont’s CEO reflected on the successful acquisition of
Danisco, saying, “If we didn’t execute and integrate well, and if
we didn’t get synergies quickly, it wouldn’t be a victory.”5
DuPont’s careful, level-headed due diligence, strong com-
munication, and appreciation for Danisco’s corporate and
national cultures ultimately helped the firm evaluate the poten-
tial success of a combined business venture and avoided deal-
ending cultural conflicts. Forming the right deal and designing
an integration process with the goal of maximizing the value
of the deal provided the merging companies with the tools
necessary to optimize their combined value and avoid the pit-
falls of cultural miscommunications.6
The Daimler-Chrysler Debacle
Looking at failed cross-border mergers can lend some valuable
insight as well. One classic case is that of Daimler-Chrysler,
two companies that came together in a US$36 billion acquisi-
tion that faced severe challenges from the start. Although it
was hailed as a historic “merger of equals,” enthusiasm dis-
solved in the face of cultural and personality clashes.7  From
the onset, German executives were uncomfortable with the
lack of protocol and loose structure at Chrysler. Conversely,
the American managers felt that their German bosses were too
formal and lacked any flexibility.
In its first attempt to resolve these issues, top leaders at
the company quickly worked to establish firm-wide processes

124 Part 2 The Role of Culture
Our opening discussion in “The World of International Management” shows how culture
can have a great impact on mergers. For some companies, like DuPont and ABInBev,
early recognition of differences led to more successful company integration. National
cultural characteristics can strengthen, empower, and enrich management effectiveness
and success. MNCs that are aware of the potential positives and negatives of different
cultural characteristics will be better equipped to manage under both smooth and trying
times and environments.
■ The Nature of Culture
The word culture comes from the Latin cultura, which is related to cult or worship. In
its broadest sense, the term refers to the result of human interaction.16  For the purposes
of the study of international management, culture is acquired knowledge that people use
to interpret experience and generate social behavior.17  This knowledge forms values,
creates attitudes, and influences behavior. Most scholars of culture would agree on the
following characteristics of culture:
1. Learned. Culture is not inherited or biologically based; it is acquired by
learning and experience.
2. Shared. People as members of a group, organization, or society share culture;
it is not specific to single individuals.
3. Transgenerational. Culture is cumulative, passed down from one generation to
the next.
4. Symbolic. Culture is based on the human capacity to symbolize or use one
thing to represent another.
5. Patterned. Culture has structure and is integrated; a change in one part will
bring changes in another.
6. Adaptive. Culture is based on the human capacity to change or adapt, as
opposed to the more genetically driven adaptive process of animals.18
culture
Acquired knowledge that
people use to interpret
experience and generate
social behavior. This
knowledge forms values,
creates attitudes, and
influences behavior.
Going Forward
Companies from the same cultural clusters inherently understand
one another’s values, expectations of leadership, and communi-
cation styles better than people from different cultural clusters
would. With diligent planning and education of their workforce,
two firms from different organizational and national cultural back-
grounds, such as SABMiller and ABInBev, can still find success
through mergers or acquisitions. Although companies from differ-
ent geographic regions would not have an “inherent understand-
ing,” it is possible to replicate it through employee training and
strong leadership, as past mergers at DuPont and ABInBev dem-
onstrated. Managers and executives at a newly merged company
should educate its employees on the cultural differences of the
two joining firms, putting the combined company in a position to
leverage the merger as an opportunity to create a new corporate
culture that emphasizes elements and values common to both
companies’ national cultures while preserving, where necessary,
attributes of the distinct cultures of each.
Despite diversity among its British, Belgian, Brazilian, and
American roots, cultural commonalities and understanding may
help to propel the SABMiller and ABInBev merger forward. The
companies certainly face challenges ahead, but, as demon-
strated by past successes, proper management and careful
planning can maximize their chances for long-term success. 
cutting and lucrative incentive-based compensation programs.”11
In contrast to this, Anheuser-Busch was known as a family-
friendly company founded in St. Louis in the 1800s with strong
emphasis on community involvement. Anheuser-Busch “won
numerous awards for its philanthropy, diversity, community
involvement, and employer of choice. The company was known
for luxurious executive offices and lots of perks, with six planes
and two helicopters to transport its employees.”12
It was clear to leadership that these two distinct cultures—
one very competitive and low cost, the other inclusive with many
expensive corporate reward systems—would create conflicts in
regards to communication, informal relationships between
employees, employee satisfaction, and mentorship.13  In response,
ABInBev formulated an integration plan that, among other
actions, led to the creation of a new board of directors for the
combined company, which included the current directors of the
InBev board, the Anheuser-Busch president and CEO, as well as
one other current or former director of the Anheuser-Busch
board. The management team consisted of executives from both
companies’ current leadership teams.14 Ultimately, the ABInBev
merger was a financial success, with EBITDA rising from 23 per-
cent to 38 percent in the three years following the deal. Despite
initial cultural clashes, this merger succeeded due to the recogni-
tion and education of these differences and the international
management experience of the company’s leaders.15

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 125
Because different cultures exist in the world, an understanding of the impact of
culture on behavior is critical to the study of international management.19 If international
managers do not know something about the cultures of the countries they deal with, the
results can be quite disastrous. For example, a partner in one of New York’s leading
private banking firms tells the following story:
I traveled nine thousand miles to meet a client and arrived with my foot in my mouth. Deter-
mined to do things right, I’d memorized the names of the key men I was to see in Singapore.
No easy job, inasmuch as the names all came in threes. So, of course, I couldn’t resist showing
off that I’d done my homework. I began by addressing top man Lo Win Hao with plenty of
well-placed Mr. Hao’s—sprinkled the rest of my remarks with a Mr. Chee this and a Mr. Woon
that. Great show. Until a note was passed to me from one man I’d met before, in New York.
Bad news. “Too friendly too soon, Mr. Long,” it said. Where diffidence is next to godliness,
there I was, calling a room of VIPs, in effect, Mr. Ed and Mr. Charlie. I’d remembered every-
body’s name—but forgot that in Chinese the surname comes first and the given name last.20
■ Cultural Diversity
There are many ways of examining cultural differences and their impact on international
management. Culture can affect technology transfer, managerial attitudes, managerial ideol-
ogy, and even business-government relations. Perhaps most important, culture affects how
people think and behave. Table 4–1, for example, compares the most important cultural
values of the United States, Japan, and Arab countries. A close look at this table shows a
great deal of difference among these three cultures. Culture affects a host of business-related
activities, even including the common handshake. Here are some contrasting examples:
Culture Type of Handshake
United States Firm
Asian Gentle (shaking hands is unfamiliar and uncomfortable for some;
the exception is the Korean, who usually has a firm handshake)
British Soft
French Light and quick (not offered to superiors); repeated on arrival and departure
German Brusque and firm; repeated on arrival and departure
Latin American Moderate grasp; repeated frequently
Middle Eastern Gentle; repeated frequently
South Africa Light/soft; long and involved
Source: Lillian H. Chaney and Jeanette S. Martin, Intercultural Business Communication  (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995),
p. 115.
Table 4–1
Priorities of Cultural Values: United States, Japan,
and Arab Countries
United States Japan Arab Countries
1. Freedom 1. Belonging 1. Family security
2. Independence 2. Group harmony 2. Family harmony
3. Self-reliance 3. Collectiveness 3. Parental guidance
4. Equality 4. Age/seniority 4. Age
5. Individualism 5. Group consensus 5. Authority
6. Competition 6. Cooperation 6. Compromise
7. Efficiency 7. Quality 7. Devotion
8. Time 8. Patience 8. Patience
9. Directness 9. Indirectness 9. Indirectness
10. Openness 10. Go-between 10. Hospitality
Note: “1” represents the most important cultural value, “10” the least.
Source: Adapted from information found in F. Elashmawi and Philip R. Harris, Multicultural Management  (Houston: Gulf
Publishing, 1993), p. 63.

126 Part 2 The Role of Culture
In overall terms, the cultural impact on international management is reflected by
basic beliefs and behaviors. Here are some specific examples where the culture of a
society can directly affect management approaches:
∙ Centralized vs. decentralized decision making. In some societies, top manag-
ers make all important organizational decisions. In others, these decisions are
diffused throughout the enterprise, and middle- and lower-level managers
actively participate in, and make, key decisions.
∙ Safety vs. risk. In some societies, organizational decision makers are
risk-averse and have great difficulty with conditions of uncertainty. In
others, risk taking is encouraged and decision making under uncertainty
is common.
∙ Individual vs. group rewards. In some countries, personnel who do outstand-
ing work are given individual rewards in the form of bonuses and commis-
sions. In others, cultural norms require group rewards, and individual rewards
are frowned on.
∙ Informal vs. formal procedures. In some societies, much is accomplished
through informal means. In others, formal procedures are set forth and
followed rigidly.
∙ High vs. low organizational loyalty. In some societies, people identify very
strongly with their organization or employer. In others, people identify with
their occupational group, such as engineer or mechanic.
∙ Cooperation vs. competition. Some societies encourage cooperation between
their people. Others encourage competition between their people.
∙ Short-term vs. long-term horizons. Some cultures focus most heavily on
short-term horizons, such as short-range goals of profit and efficiency.
Others are more interested in long-range goals, such as market share and
technological development.
∙ Stability vs. innovation. The culture of some countries encourages stability
and resistance to change. The culture of others puts high value on innovation
and change.
These cultural differences influence the way that international management should
be conducted. 
Another way of depicting cultural diversity is through visually separating its com-
ponents. Figure 4–1 provides an example by using concentric circles. The outer ring
consists of the explicit artifacts and products of the culture. This level is observable and
consists of such things as language, food, buildings, and art. The middle ring contains
the norms and values of the society. These can be both formal and informal, and they
are designed to help people understand how they should behave. The inner circle contains
the implicit, basic assumptions that govern behavior. By understanding these assump-
tions, members of a culture are able to organize themselves in a way that helps them
increase the effectiveness of their problem-solving processes and interact well with each
other. In explaining the nature of the inner circle, Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner
have noted that
[t]he best way to test if something is a basic assumption is when the [situation] provokes
confusion or irritation. You might, for example, observe that some Japanese bow deeper
than others. . . . If you ask why they do it the answer might be that they don’t know but
that the other person does it too (norm) or that they want to show respect for authority
(value). A typical Dutch question that might follow is: “Why do you respect authority?”
The most likely Japanese reaction would be either puzzlement or a smile (which might be
hiding their irritation). When you question basic assumptions you are asking questions that
have never been asked before. It might lead others to deeper insights, but it also might
provoke annoyance. Try in the USA or the Netherlands to raise the question of why people
are equal and you will see what we mean.21

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 127
The explicit artifacts and
products of the society
The norms and values
that guide the society
The implicit, basic
assumptions
that guide people’s
behavior
Figure 4–1
A Model of Culture
Source: Adapted from Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner, Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in
Global Business, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998).
A supplemental way of understanding cultural differences is to compare culture
as a normal distribution, as in Figure 4–2, and then to examine it in terms of stereo-
typing, as in Figure 4–3. Chinese culture and American culture, for example, have
quite different norms and values. So the normal distribution curves for the two cul-
tures have only limited overlap. However, when one looks at the tail-ends of the two
curves, it is possible to identify stereotypical views held by members of one culture
about the other. The stereotypes are often exaggerated and used by members of one
culture in describing the other, thus helping reinforce the differences between the two
while reducing the likelihood of achieving cooperation and communication. This is
one reason why an understanding of national culture is so important in the study of
international management.
French culture U.S. culture
Source: Revised and adapted from various sources, including Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner, Riding the Waves of
Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998), p. 25.
Figure 4–2
Comparing Cultures as
Overlapping Normal
Distributions

128 Part 2 The Role of Culture
■ Values in Culture
A major dimension in the study of culture is values. Values are basic convictions that
people have regarding what is right and wrong, good and bad, and important and unim-
portant. These values are learned from the culture in which the individual is reared, and
they help direct the person’s behavior. Differences in cultural values often result in
varying management practices. 
Values in Transition
Do values change over time? Past research indicates that personal value systems are
relatively stable and do not change rapidly.22 However, changes are taking place in man-
agerial values as a result of both culture and technology. A good example is provided
by examining the effects of the U.S. environment on the cultural values of Japanese
managers working for Japanese firms in the United States. Researchers, focusing attention
on such key organizational values as lifetime employment, formal authority, group
orientation, seniority, and paternalism, found that
1. Lifetime employment is widely accepted in Japanese culture, but the stateside
Japanese managers did not believe that unconditional tenure in one organiza-
tion was of major importance. They did believe, however, that job security
was important.
2. Formal authority, obedience, and conformance to hierarchic position are very
important in Japan, but the stateside managers did not perceive obedience
and conformity to be very important and rejected the idea that one should
not question a superior. However, they did support the concept of formal
authority.
3. Group orientation, cooperation, conformity, and compromise are important
organizational values in Japan. The stateside managers supported these values
but also believed it was important to be an individual, thus maintaining a
balance between a group and a personal orientation.
values
Basic convictions that
people have regarding what
is right and wrong, good
and bad, and important and
unimportant.
French culture
How the Americans see the French:
• arrogant
• flamboyant
• hierarchical
• emotional
How the French see the Americans:
U.S. culture
• naive
• aggressive
• unprincipled
• workaholic
Source: Revised and adapted from various sources, including Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner, Riding the Waves of
Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998), p. 23.
Figure 4–3
Stereotyping from the
Cultural Extremes

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 129
4. In Japan, organizational personnel often are rewarded based on seniority, not
merit. Support for this value was directly influenced by the length of time the
Japanese managers had been in the United States. The longer they had been
there, the lower their support for this value.
5. Paternalism, often measured by a manager’s involvement in both personal and
off-the-job problems of subordinates, is very important in Japan. Stateside
Japanese managers disagreed, and this resistance was positively associated
with the number of years they had been in the United States.23
There is increasing evidence that individualism in Japan is on the rise, indicating
that Japanese values are changing—and not just among managers outside the country.
The country’s long economic slump has convinced many Japanese that they cannot rely
on the large corporations or the government to ensure their future. They have to do it
for themselves. As a result, today a growing number of Japanese are starting to embrace
what is being called the “era of personal responsibility.” Instead of denouncing indi-
vidualism as a threat to society, they are proposing it as a necessary solution to many
of the country’s economic ills. A vice chair of the nation’s largest business lobby summed
up this thinking at the opening of a recent conference on economic change when he said,
“By establishing personal responsibility, we must return dynamism to the economy and
revitalize society.”24  This thinking is supported by past research, which reveals that a
culture with a strong entrepreneurial orientation is important to global competitiveness,
especially in the small business sector of an economy. This current trend may well be
helpful to the Japanese economy in helping it meet foreign competition at home.25
Other countries, such as China, have more recently undergone a transition of val-
ues. As discussed in Chapter 2, China is moving away from a collectivist culture, and it
appears as though even China is not sure what cultural values it will adhere to. Confu-
cianism was worshipped for over 2,000 years, but the powerful messages through Con-
fucius’s teachings were overshadowed in a world where profit became a priority. Now,
Confucianism is slowly gaining popularity once again, emphasizing respect for authority,
concern for others, balance, harmony, and overall order. While this may provide sanctu-
ary for some, it poses problems within the government because it will have to prove its
worthiness to remain in power. As long as China maintains economic momentum, despite
its recent slowdown, hope for a unified culture may be on the horizon.26
■ Cultural Dimensions
Understanding the cultural context of a society, and being able to respond and react
appropriately to cultural differences, is becoming increasingly important as the global
environment becomes more interconnected. Over the past several decades, researchers
have attempted to provide a composite picture of culture by examining its subparts, or
dimensions.
Hofstede
In 1980, Dutch researcher Geert Hofstede identified four original, and later two addi-
tional, dimensions of culture that help explain how and why people from various cultures
behave as they do.27  His initial data were gathered from two questionnaire surveys with
over 116,000 respondents from over 70 different countries around the world—making it
the largest organizationally based study ever conducted. The individuals in these studies
all worked in the local subsidiaries of IBM. As a result, Hofstede’s research has been
sometimes criticized because of its focus on just one company; however, samples for
cross-national comparison need not be representative, as long as they are functionally
equivalent. Because they are so similar in respects other than nationality (their employers,
their kind of work, and—for matched occupations—their level of education), employees
of multinational companies like IBM form attractive sources of information for comparing

130 Part 2 The Role of Culture
national traits. The only thing that can account for systematic and consistent differences
between national groups within such a homogeneous multinational population is nation-
ality itself—the national environment in which people were brought up before they joined
this employer. Comparing IBM subsidiaries therefore shows national culture differences
with unusual clarity.28 Despite being first published nearly 40 years ago, Hofstede’s mas-
sive study continues to be a focal point for additional research, including the most recent
GLOBE project, discussed at the end of this chapter.
The original four dimensions that Hofstede examined were (1) power distance,
(2)  uncertainty avoidance, (3) individualism, and (4) masculinity.29 Further research by
Hofstede led to the recent identification of the fifth and sixth cultural dimensions: (5) time
orientation, identified in 1988, and (6) indulgence versus restraint, identified in 2010.30
Power Distance Power distance is “the extent to which less powerful members of
institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally.”31  Countries
in  which people blindly obey the orders of their superiors have high power distance. In
many societies, lower-level employees tend to follow orders as a matter of procedure. In
societies with high power distance, however, strict obedience is found even at the upper
levels; examples include Mexico, South Korea, and India. For example, a senior Indian
executive with a PhD from a prestigious U.S. university related the following story:
What is most important for me and my department is not what I do or achieve for the
company, but whether the [owner’s] favor is bestowed on me. . . . This I have achieved by
saying “yes” to everything [the owner] says or does. . . . To contradict him is to look for
another job. . . . I left my freedom of thought in Boston.32
The effect of this dimension can be measured in a number of ways. For exam-
ple, organizations in low-power-distance countries generally will be decentralized and
have flatter organization structures. These organizations also will have a smaller pro-
portion of supervisory personnel, and the lower strata of the workforce often will
consist of highly qualified people. By contrast, organizations in high-power-distance
countries will tend to be centralized and have tall organization structures. Organiza-
tions in high-power-distance countries will have a large proportion of supervisory
personnel, and the people at the lower levels of the structure often will have low job
qualifications. This latter structure encourages and promotes inequality between
people at different levels.33
Uncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty avoidance is “the extent to which people feel
threatened by ambiguous situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to
avoid these.”34 Countries populated with people who do not like uncertainty tend to have
a high need for security and a strong belief in experts and their knowledge; examples
include Germany, Japan, and Spain. Cultures with low uncertainty avoidance have people
who are more willing to accept that risks are associated with the unknown and that life
must go on in spite of this. Examples include Denmark and Great Britain.
The effect of this dimension can be measured in a number of ways. Countries with
high-uncertainty-avoidance cultures have a great deal of structuring of organizational
activities, more written rules, less risk taking by managers, lower labor turnover, and
less ambitious employees.
Low-uncertainty-avoidance societies have organization settings with less structur-
ing of activities, fewer written rules, more risk taking by managers, higher labor turnover,
and more ambitious employees. The organization encourages personnel to use their own
initiative and assume responsibility for their actions.
Individualism We discussed individualism and collectivism in Chapter 2 in reference
to political systems. Individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves
and their immediate family only.35 Hofstede measured this cultural difference on a bipolar
continuum with individualism at one end and collectivism at the other. Collectivism is
GLOBE (Global
Leadership and
Organizational Behavior
Effectiveness)
A multicountry study and
evaluation of cultural
attributes and leadership
behaviors among more than
17,000 managers from 951
organizations in 62
countries.
power distance
The extent to which less
powerful members of
institutions and
organizations accept that
power is distributed
unequally.
uncertainty avoidance
The extent to which people
feel threatened by ambiguous
situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that
try to avoid these.
individualism
The political philosophy that
people should be free to
pursue economic and
political endeavors without
constraint (Chapter 2); the
tendency of people to look
after themselves and their
immediate family only
(Chapter 4).
collectivism
The political philosophy that
views the needs or goals of
society as a whole as more
important than individual
desires (Chapter 2); the
tendency of people to belong
to groups or collectives and
to look after each other in
exchange for loyalty
(Chapter 4).

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 131
the tendency of people to belong to groups or collectives and to look after each other in
exchange for loyalty.36
Like the effects of the other cultural dimensions, the effects of individualism
and collectivism can be measured in a number of different ways.37  Hofstede found
that wealthy countries have higher individualism scores and poorer countries higher
collectivism scores (see Table 4–2  for the 74 countries used in Figure 4–4 and sub-
sequent figures). Note that in Figure 4–4, the United States, Canada, Australia, France,
and the United Kingdom, among others, have high individualism and high GNP. Con-
versely, China, Mexico, and a number of South American countries have low indi-
vidualism (high collectivism) and low GNP. Countries with high individualism also
tend to have greater support for the Protestant work ethic, greater individual initiative,
and promotions based on market value. Countries with low individualism tend to have
less support for the Protestant work ethic, less individual initiative, and promotions
based on seniority.
Masculinity Masculinity is defined by Hofstede as “a situation in which the dom-
inant values in society are success, money, and things.”38  Hofstede measured this
masculinity
A cultural characteristic in
which the dominant values
in society are success,
money, and things.
Table 4–2
Countries and Regions Used in Hofstede’s Research
Arabic-speaking Ecuador Panama
countries (Egypt, Estonia Peru
Iraq, Kuwait, Finland Philippines
Lebanon, Libya, France Poland
Saudi Arabia, Germany Portugal
United Arab Great Britain Romania
Emirates) Greece Russia
Argentina Guatemala Salvador
Australia Hong Kong Serbia
Austria (China) Singapore
Bangladesh Hungary Slovakia
Belgium Flemish India Slovenia
(Dutch speaking) Indonesia South Africa
Belgium Walloon Iran Spain
(French speaking) Ireland Suriname
Brazil Israel Sweden
Bulgaria Italy Switzerland French
Canada Quebec Jamaica Switzerland German
Canada total Japan Taiwan
Chile Korea (South) Thailand
China Luxembourg Trinidad
Colombia Malaysia Turkey
Costa Rica Malta United States
Croatia Mexico Uruguay
Czech Republic Morocco Venezuela
Denmark Netherlands Vietnam
East Africa New Zealand West Africa
(Ethiopia, Kenya, Norway (Ghana, Nigeria,
Tanzania, Zambia) Pakistan Sierra Leone)
Source: From G. Hofstede and G. J. Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2nd ed.
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005).

132 Part 2 The Role of Culture
dimension on a continuum ranging from masculinity to femininity. Contrary to some
stereotypes and connotations, femininity is the term used by Hofstede to describe “a
situation in which the dominant values in society are caring for others and the quality
of life.”39
Countries with a high masculinity index, such as the Germanic countries, place
great importance on earnings, recognition, advancement, and challenge. Individuals are
encouraged to be independent decision makers, and achievement is defined in terms of
recognition and wealth. The workplace is often characterized by high job stress, and
many managers believe that their employees dislike work and must be kept under some
degree of control. The school system is geared toward encouraging high performance.
Young men expect to have careers, and those who do not often view themselves as
failures. Historically, fewer women hold higher-level jobs, although this is changing. The
school system is geared toward encouraging high performance.
femininity
A cultural characteristic in
which the dominant values
in society are caring for
others and the quality of life.
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh based on data from The World Bank and from
G. Hofstede and G. J. Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005).
Individualism Score
G
D
P
p
er
C
ap
it
a
in
U
S
$
Germany
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0

Russia ⬥
Peru ⬥
Bangladesh ⬥
Brazil ⬥
Mexico ⬥
Colombia ⬥
Singapore⬥
Australia⬥
USA⬥
Canada⬥
Belgium⬥
France⬥
Italy⬥
Japan⬥
South Korea⬥
Saudi Arabia⬥
Chile⬥
Venezuela⬥ Argentina⬥
India⬥
Nepal⬥
Indonesia⬥
China⬥
Thailand⬥
Spain⬥
United Kingdom

Figure 4–4
GDP per Capita in 2015
versus Individualism

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 133
Countries with a low masculinity index (Hofstede’s femininity dimension), such as
Norway, tend to place great importance on cooperation, a friendly atmosphere, and employ-
ment security. Individuals are encouraged to be group decision makers, and achievement is
defined in terms of layman contacts and the living environment. The workplace tends to be
characterized by low stress, and managers give their employees more credit for being respon-
sible and allow them more freedom. Culturally, this group prefers small-scale enterprises,
and they place greater importance on conservation of the environment. The school system
is designed to teach social adaptation. Some young men and women want careers; others
do not. Many women hold higher-level jobs and do not find it necessary to be assertive.
Time Orientation Originally called Confucian Work Dynamism, time orientation is
defined by Hofstede as “dealing with society’s search for virtue.” Long-term-oriented
societies tend to focus on the future. They have the ability to adapt their traditions when
conditions change, have a tendency to save and invest for the future, and focus on achiev-
ing long-term results. Short-term-oriented cultures focus more on the past and present
than on the future. These societies have a deep respect for tradition, focus on achieving
quick results, and do not tend to save for the future.40 Hofstede’s original time orientation
research only included 23 countries, leading to some criticism. However, in 2010, the
research was expanded to include 93 countries.  Table 4–3  highlights ten differences
between long- and short-term-oriented cultures.
Asian cultures primarily exhibit long-term orientation. Countries with a high long-
term orientation index include China, Japan, and Indonesia (see Figure 4–5). In these
cultures, individuals are persistent, thrifty with their money, and highly adaptable to
unexpected circumstances. Relationships tend to be ordered by status, which can affect
the way that situations are handled. Additionally, people in long-term-oriented cultures
are more likely to believe that there are multiple truths to issues that arise, rather than
just one, absolute answer.
Table 4–3
Ten Differences between Short- and Long-Term-
Oriented Societies
Short-Term Orientation Long-Term Orientation
Most important events in life occurred
in  the past or take place now
Most important events in life will occur
in  the future
Personal steadiness and stability: a good
person is always the same
A good person adapts to the circumstances
There are universal guidelines about
what are good and evil
What are good and evil depend on
the circumstances
Traditions are sacrosanct Traditions are adaptable to changed
circumstances
Family life is guided by imperatives Family life is guided by shared tasks
Supposed to be proud of one’s country Trying to learn from other countries
Service to others is an important goal Thrift and perseverance are important
goals
Social spending and consumption Large savings quote, funds available
for investment
Students attribute success and
failure to luck
Students attribute success to effort and
failure to lack of effort
Slow or no economic growth of
poor countries
Fast economic growth of countries up
until a level of prosperity
Source: From G. Hofstede, “Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context,” Online Readings in Psychology and
Culture, Unit 2 (2011),  http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/orpc/vol2/iss1/8/.

134 Part 2 The Role of Culture
Spain, the USA, and the UK were identified as having a low long-term orientation
index (Hofstede’s short-term orientation). Individuals in short-term-oriented societies
believe in absolutes (good and evil), value stability and leisure time, and spend money
more freely. Traditional approaches are respected, and feedback cycles tend to be short.
Gift giving and greetings are shared and reciprocated.41
Indulgence versus Restraint Based on research related to relative happiness around
the world, Hofstede’s most recent dimension measures the freedom to satisfy one’s nat-
ural needs and desires within a society. Indulgent societies encourage instant gratification
of natural human needs, while restrained cultures regulate and control behavior based on
social norms.42 The research leading to the identification of this sixth dimension included
participants from 93 countries.  Table 4–4  highlights ten differences between indulgent
and restrained cultures.
Countries that show a high indulgence index tend to be located in the Americas
and Western Europe, including the USA, Australia, Mexico, and Chile (see Figure 4–6).
Freely able to satisfy their basic human desires, individuals in these societies tend to live
in the moment. They participate in more sports and activities, express happiness freely,
and view themselves as being in control of their own destiny. Freedom of speech is
considered vital, and smaller police forces are commonplace. People in indulgent cultures
tend to view friendships as important, have less moral discipline, and exhibit a more
extroverted, positive personality.
Countries that show a low indulgence index (Hofstede’s dimension of high
restraint) tend to be located in Asia and Eastern Europe, including Egypt, Russia, India,
and China. In these societies, individuals participate in fewer activities and sports,
express less happiness, and believe that their own destiny is not in their control. Main-
taining order is seen as vital, resulting in larger police forces and less crime. People
tend to value work ethic over friendships, exhibit introverted personalities, and follow
a stricter moral discipline.43
Figure 4–5
Countries with Very High
Long-Term and Short-Term
Orientation Scores
High Short-Term
High Long-Term
Note: Country rankings were completed using Geert Hofstede’s Long-Term Orientation (LTO) scores.  High Short-Term refers to
countries with scores less than 35 and  High Long-Term refers to countries with scores greater than 60.
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh based on data from Geert Hofstede,
“Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context,” Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Unit 2 (2011),
http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/orpc/vol2/iss1/8/.

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 135
Table 4–4
Ten Differences between Indulgent and Restrained Societies
Indulgent Restrained
Higher percentage of people declar-
ing themselves very happy
Fewer very happy people
A perception of personal life control A perception of helplessness: what
happens to me is not my own doing
Freedom of speech seen as important Freedom of speech is not a primary
concern
Higher importance of leisure Lower importance of leisure
More likely to remember positive
emotions
Less likely to remember positive
emotions
In countries with educated popula-
tions, higher birthrates
In countries with educated populations,
lower birthrates
More people actively involved in
sports
Fewer people actively involved in sports
In countries with enough food, higher
percentages of obese people
In countries with enough food, fewer
obese people
In wealthy countries, lenient sexual
norms
In wealthy countries, stricter sexual
norms
Maintaining order in the nation is not
given a high priority
Higher number of police officers per
100,000 population
Source: From Geert Hofstede, “Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context,” Online Readings in Psychology
and Culture, Unit 2 (2011),  http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/orpc/vol2/iss1/8/.
High Indulgence
High Restraint
Note: Country rankings were completed using Geert Hofstede’s Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR) scores.  High Indulgence refers to
countries with scores greater than 50 and  High Restraint refers to countries with scores less than 25.
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh based on data from Geert Hofstede,
“Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context,” Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Unit 2 (2011),
http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/orpc/vol2/iss1/8/.
Figure 4–6
Countries with Very High
Indulgence and Restraint
Scores

136 Part 2 The Role of Culture
Integrating the Dimensions A description of the four original and two additional
dimensions of culture is useful in helping to explain the differences between various
countries, and Hofstede’s research has extended beyond this focus and shown how
countries can be described in terms of pairs of dimensions. In Hofstede’s and later
research, pairings and clusters can provide useful summaries for international
managers. It is always best to have an in-depth understanding of the multicultural
environment, but the general groupings outline common ground that one can use as
a starting point. Figure 4–7, which incorporates power distance and individualism,
provides an example.
Upon first examination of the cluster distribution, the data may appear confus-
ing. However, they are very useful in depicting what countries appear similar in
values and to what extent they differ from other country clusters. The same countries
are not always clustered together in subsequent dimension comparisons. This indicates
Figure 4–7
Power Distance versus
Individualism
In
d
iv
id
u
al
is
m
(I
D
V
)
in
d
iv
id
u
al
is
t
Power Distance (PDI)small large
co
lle
ct
iv
is
t
5
85
75
65
55
45
35
25
15
95
10 30 50 70 90 110
Guatemala
Ecuador
Bang
lades
h
Pakis
tan
Chin
a,
Thail
and
Japa
n
Hong
Kong
Singa
pore
Mala
ysia
Philip
pines
India
Moro
cco
Arab
ctrs
S. Ko
rea
Taiw
an Vietn
am
W A
frica
E Afr
ica
Iran
Indon
esia
Colombia
Portugal
CroatiaGreece
Slovakia
S. Africa
Israel
Malta
Finland
Ireland France
Austria
Canada total
Canada Quebec
Poland
Hungary
Italy
Belgium NI
Belgium Fr
Sweden
Germany
Denmark
Switzerland Ge
Switzerland Fr
Norway
Netherlands
Great Britain
United States
New Zealand
Australia
Estonia, Luxembourg
Czech Rep.
Spain
Russia
Romania
Bulgaria
Slovenia
Serbia
Argentina
Suriname
Jamaica Brazil
Salvador
Chile
Uruguay
Mexico
Peru
Trinidad
Costa Rica
PanamaVenezuela
slante
d
regular Europe and Anglo countries
Asia and Muslim countries
quadrant partition lines
Latin America
Legend
italics
Turke
y



⬥⬥⬥



⬥ ⬥






⬥⬥



⬥ ⬥ ⬥ ⬥

⬥ ⬥




































⬥ ⬥





Source: From G. Hofstede and G. J. Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill,
2005).

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 137
that while some beliefs overlap between cultures, it is where they diverge that makes
groups unique to manage.
In Figure 4–7, the United States, Australia, Canada, Britain, Denmark, and New
Zealand are located in the lower-left-hand quadrant. Americans, for example, have very
high individualism and relatively low power distance. They prefer to do things for them-
selves and are not upset when others have more power than they do. The other countries,
while they may not be a part of the same cluster, share similar values. Conversely, many
of the underdeveloped or newly industrialized countries, such as Colombia, Hong Kong,
Portugal, and Singapore, are characterized by large power distance and low individual-
ism. These nations tend to be collectivist in their approach.
Similarly, Figure 4–8  plots the uncertainty-avoidance index against the power-
distance index. Once again, there are clusters of countries. Many of the Anglo nations
tend to be in the upper-left-hand quadrant, which is characterized by small power distance
Figure 4–8
Power Distance versus
Uncertainty Avoidance
U
n
ce
rt
a
in
ty
A
vo
id
a
n
ce
(
U
A
I)
st
ro
n
g
Power Distance (PDI)small large
w
e
a
k
5
85
95
75
65
55
45
35
25
15
115
105
10 30 50 70 90 110
Guatemala⬥
family
pyramid
market
machine
Chin
a

Thail
and⬥
Japa
n

Hong
Kong

Singa
pore

Mala
ysia

Philip
pines

India⬥
Moro
cco

Bang
lades
h

Arab
ctrs

S. Ko
rea

Taiw
an

Viet
nam

W A
frica

E Af
rica

Iran⬥
Indon
esia

Pakis
tan

Colombia

Portugal⬥
Croatia⬥
Greece⬥
Slovakia

S. Africa

Israel⬥
Malta

Finland

Ireland

France⬥
Austria⬥
Canada total ⬥
Canada Quebec⬥
Poland⬥
Hungary⬥
Italy

Belgium NI⬥
Belgium Fr

Sweden⬥
Germany⬥
Denmark⬥
Switzerland Ge

Switzerland Fr

Ecuador

Norway

Netherlands

Great Britain

United States

New Zealand

Australia⬥
Estonia⬥
Luxembourg

Czech Rep.⬥
Spain⬥
Russia⬥
Romania⬥
Bulgaria⬥
Slovenia

Serbia⬥
Argentina

Suriname

Jamaica ⬥
Brazil⬥
Salvador

Chile

Uruguay⬥
Mexico⬥
Peru

Trinidad

Costa Rica ⬥ Panama⬥
Venezuela⬥
slant
ed
regular Europe and Anglo countries
Asia and Muslim countries
quadrant partition lines
Latin America
Legend
italics

Turke
y
Source: From G. Hofstede and G. J. Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill,
2005).

138 Part 2 The Role of Culture
and weak uncertainty avoidance, while, in contrast, many Latin, Mediterranean, and
Asian nations are characterized by high power distance and strong uncertainty avoidance.
The integration of these cultural factors into two-dimensional plots helps illustrate
the complexity of understanding culture’s effect on behavior. A number of dimensions
are at work, and sometimes they do not all move in the anticipated direction. For exam-
ple, at first glance, a nation with high power distance would appear to be low in indi-
vidualism, and vice versa, and Hofstede found exactly that (see Figure 4–7). However,
low uncertainty avoidance does not always go hand in hand with high masculinity, even
though those who are willing to live with uncertainty will want rewards such as money
and power and accord low value to the quality of work life and caring for others (see
Figure 4–9). Simply put, empirical evidence on the impact of cultural dimensions may
differ from commonly held beliefs or stereotypes. Research-based data are needed to
determine the full impact of differing cultures.
Figure 4–9
Masculinity versus
Uncertainty Avoidance
U
n
ce
rt
a
in
ty
A
vo
id
a
n
ce
(
U
A
I)
st
ro
n
g
Masculinity (MAS)feminine masculine
w
e
a
k
5
85
95
75
65
55
45
35
25
15
115
105
5 25 54 65 85
Guatemala ⬥
Chin
a

Thail
and

Japa
n ⬥
Hong
Kong

Singa
pore

Mala
ysia

Philip
pines

India⬥
Moro
cco
Bang
lades
h

Arab
ctrs,

S. Ko
rea

Taiw
an ⬥
Viet
nam

W A
frica
⬥E
Afri
ca ⬥
Iran⬥
Indon
esia⬥
Pakis
tan

Colombia⬥
Portugal⬥
Croatia

Greece

Slovakia (110) ⬥
S. Africa⬥
Israel

Malta

Finland ⬥
Ireland⬥
France⬥
Austria⬥
Canada total

Canada Quebec

Poland⬥
Hungary⬥
Italy

Belgium NI ⬥
Belgium Fr

Sweden⬥
Germany⬥
Denmark⬥
Switzerland Ge⬥
Switzerland Fr⬥
Ecuador⬥
Norway⬥
Netherlands⬥
Great Britain

United States⬥
New Zealand

Australia⬥
Estonia

Luxembourg,
Czech Rep.⬥
Spain

Russia ⬥
Romania ⬥
Bulgaria

Slovenia

Serbia⬥
Argentina

Suriname ⬥
Jamaica⬥
Brazil⬥
Salvador⬥
Chile

Uruguay⬥
Mexico⬥
Peru ⬥
Trinidad⬥
Costa Rica ⬥
Panama

Venezuela⬥
slant
ed
regular Europe and Anglo countries
Asia and Muslim countries
quadrant partition lines
Latin America
Legend
italics

Turke
y
Source: From G. Hofstede and G. J. Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill,
2005).

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 139
The Hofstede cultural dimensions and country clusters are widely recognized and
accepted in the study of international management. His work has served as a springboard
to numerous recent cultural studies and research projects.
Trompenaars
In 1994, another Dutch researcher, Fons Trompenaars, expanded on the research of
Hofstede and published the results of his own ten-year study on cultural dimensions.44
He administered research questionnaires to over 15,000 managers from 28 countries and
received usable responses from at least 500 in each nation; the 23 countries in his
research are presented in Table 4–5. Building heavily on value orientations and the rela-
tional orientations of well-known sociologist Talcott Parsons,45 Trompenaars derived five
relationship orientations that address the ways in which people deal with each other;
these can be considered to be cultural dimensions that are analogous to Hofstede’s dimen-
sions. Trompenaars also looked at attitudes toward both time and the environment, and
the result of his research is a wealth of information helping explain how cultures differ
and offering practical ways in which MNCs can do business in various countries. The
following discussion examines each of the five relationship orientations as well as
attitudes toward time and the environment.46
Universalism vs. Particularism Universalism is the belief that ideas and practices can
be applied everywhere without modification. Particularism is the belief that circum-
stances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied. In cultures with high univer-
salism, the focus is more on formal rules than on relationships, business contracts are
adhered to very closely, and people believe that “a deal is a deal.” In cultures with high
universalism
The belief that ideas and
practices can be applied
everywhere in the world
without modification.
particularism
The belief that
circumstances dictate how
ideas and practices should
be applied and that
something cannot be done
the same everywhere.
Table 4–5
Trompenaars’s Country Abbreviations
Abbreviation Country
ARG Argentina
AUS Austria
BEL Belgium
BRZ Brazil
CHI China
CIS Former Soviet Union
CZH Former Czechoslovakia
FRA France
GER Germany (excluding former East Germany)
HK Hong Kong
IDO Indonesia
ITA Italy
JPN Japan
MEX Mexico
NL Netherlands
SIN Singapore
SPA Spain
SWE Sweden
SWI Switzerland
THA Thailand
UK United Kingdom
USA United States
VEN Venezuela

140 Part 2 The Role of Culture
particularism, the focus is more on relationships and trust than on formal rules. In a
particularist culture, legal contracts often are modified, and as people get to know each
other better, they often change the way in which deals are executed. In his early research,
Trompenaars found that in countries such as the United States, Australia, Germany,
Sweden, and the United Kingdom, there was high universalism, while countries such as
Venezuela, the former Soviet Union, Indonesia, and China were high on particularism.
Figure 4–10  shows the continuum.
In follow-up research, Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner presented the respon-
dents with a dilemma and asked them to make a decision. Here is one of these dilemmas
along with the national scores of the respondents:47
You are riding in a car driven by a close friend. He hits a pedestrian. You know he was
going at least 35 miles per hour in an area of the city where the maximum allowed speed
is 20 miles per hour. There are no witnesses. His lawyer says that if you testify under oath
that he was driving 20 miles per hour it may save him from serious consequences. What
right has your friend to expect you to protect him?
a. My friend has a definite right as a friend to expect me to testify to the lower figure.
b. He has some right as a friend to expect me to testify to the lower figure.
c. He has no right as a friend to expect me to testify to the lower figure.
With a high score indicating strong universalism (choice c) and a low score indicat-
ing strong particularism (choice a), here is how the different nations scored:
Figure 4–10
Trompenaars’s
Relationship Orientations
on Cultural Dimensions
Individualism vs. Communitarianism
Individualism
Sin
Communitarianism
ThaJpnIdoFraChiGerHK ItaVenBelSwiBrzSpa
NL
Swe
Aus
UKArg
CIS
Mex
CzhUSA
Achievement vs. Ascription
Achievement Ascription
Aus USA Ger Arg Tha Bel Fra Ita
Brz
NL
HK
Spa Jpn Czh Sin CIS Chi Ido VenSwi
UK
Swe
Mex
Specific vs. Di�use
Specific Di�use
Aus UK USA
Swi
Fra NL Bel Brz Czh Ido Spa Chi VenHK
Sin
Swe
CIS
Tha
Arg
Jpn
Mex
Ita
Ger
Neutral vs. Emotional
Neutral Emotional
Jpn UK Sin Aus Ido HK Tha Bel
Ger
Swe
Arg
USA
Czh
Fra
Spa Ita
Ven
CIS Brz Chi Swi NL Mex
Universalism
Universalism vs. Particularism
Particularism
USA Aus Ger
Swi
Swe UK NL Czh Ita Bel Brz Fra Jap
Sin
Arg Mex Tha HK Chi Ido CIS Ven
Source: Adapted from information found in Fons Trompenaars, Riding the Waves of Culture  (New York: Irwin, 1994); Charles
Hampden-Turner and Fons Trompenaars, “A World Turned Upside Down: Doing Business in Asia,” in  Managing Across Cultures:
Issues and Perspectives, ed. Pat Joynt and Malcolm Warner (London: International Thomson Business Press, 1996), pp. 275–305.

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 141
Universalism (no right)
Canada 96
United States 95
Germany 90
United Kingdom 90
Netherlands 88
France 68
Japan 67
Singapore 67
Thailand 63
Hong Kong 56
Particularism (some or definite right)
China 48
South Korea 26
As noted earlier, respondents from universalist cultures (e.g., North America and
Western Europe) felt that the rules applied regardless of the situation, while respondents
from particularist cultures were much more willing to bend the rules and help their friend.
Based on these types of findings, Trompenaars recommends that when individuals
from particularist cultures do business in a universalistic culture, they should be prepared
for rational, professional arguments and a “let’s get down to business” attitude. Con-
versely, when individuals from universalist cultures do business in a particularist environ-
ment, they should be prepared for personal meandering or irrelevancies that seem to go
nowhere and should not regard personal, get-to-know-you attitudes as mere small talk.
Individualism vs. Communitarianism Individualism and communitarianism are key
dimensions in Hofstede’s earlier research. Although Trompenaars derived these two
relationships differently than Hofstede does, they still have the same basic meaning,
although in his more recent work Trompenaars has used the word communitarianism
rather than collectivism. For him, individualism refers to people regarding themselves as
individuals, while communitarianism refers to people regarding themselves as part of a
group, similar to the political groupings discussed in Chapter 2. As shown in Figure 4–10,
the United States, former Czechoslovakia, Argentina, the former Soviet Union (CIS), and
Mexico have high individualism.
In his most recent research, Trompenaars posed the following situation. If you were
to be promoted, which of the two following issues would you emphasize most: (a) the
new group of people with whom you will be working or (b) the greater responsibility of
the work you are undertaking and the higher income you will be earning? The following
reports the scores associated with the individualism of option b—greater responsibility
and more money.48
communitarianism
Refers to people regarding
themselves as part of a
group.
Individualism (emphasis on larger responsibili-
ties and more income)
Canada 77
Thailand 71
United Kingdom 69
United States 67
Netherlands 64
France 61
Japan 61
China 54
Singapore 50
Hong Kong 47
Communitarianism (emphasis on the new group
of people)
Malaysia 38
Korea 32

142 Part 2 The Role of Culture
These findings are somewhat different from those presented in Figure 4–10  and
show that cultural changes may be occurring more rapidly than many people realize. For
example, findings show Thailand very high on individualism (possibly indicating an
increasing entrepreneurial spirit/cultural value), whereas the Thais were found to be low
on individualism a few years before, as shown in Figure 4–10. At the same time, it is
important to remember that there are major differences between people in high-
individualism societies and those in high-communitarianism societies. The former stress
personal and individual matters; the latter value group-related issues. Negotiations in
cultures with high individualism typically are made on the spot by a representative, peo-
ple ideally achieve things alone, and they assume a great deal of personal responsibility.
In cultures with high communitarianism, decisions typically are referred to committees,
people ideally achieve things in groups, and they jointly assume responsibility.
Trompenaars recommends that when people from cultures with high individualism
deal with those from communitarianistic cultures, they should have patience for the time
taken to consent and to consult, and they should aim to build lasting relationships. When
people from cultures with high communitarianism deal with those from individualistic
cultures, they should be prepared to make quick decisions and commit their organization
to these decisions. Also, communitarianists dealing with individualists should realize that
the reason they are dealing with only one negotiator (as opposed to a group) is that this
person is respected by his or her organization and has its authority and esteem.
Neutral vs. Emotional A neutral culture is one in which emotions are held in check.
As seen in Figure 4–10, both Japan and the United Kingdom are high-neutral cultures.
People in these countries try not to show their feelings; they act stoically and maintain
their composure. An emotional culture is one in which emotions are openly and natu-
rally expressed. People in emotional cultures often smile a great deal, talk loudly when
they are excited, and greet each other with a great deal of enthusiasm. Mexico, the
Netherlands, and Switzerland are examples of high emotional cultures.
Trompenaars recommends that when individuals from emotional cultures do busi-
ness in neutral cultures, they should put as much as they can on paper and submit it to
the other side. They should realize that lack of emotion does not mean a lack of inter-
est or boredom, but rather that people from neutral cultures do not like to show their
hand. Conversely, when those from neutral cultures do business in emotional cultures,
they should not be put off stride when the other side creates scenes or grows animated
and boisterous, and they should try to respond warmly to the emotional affections of
the other group.
Specific vs. Diffuse A specific culture is one in which individuals have a large pub-
lic space they readily let others enter and share and a small private space they guard
closely and share with only close friends and associates. A diffuse culture is one in
which public space and private space are similar in size and individuals guard their
public space carefully because entry into public space affords entry into private space as
well. As shown in Figure 4–10, Austria, the United Kingdom, the United States, and
Switzerland all are specific cultures, while Venezuela, China, and Spain are diffuse
cultures. In specific cultures, people often are invited into a person’s open, public space;
individuals in these cultures often are open and extroverted; and there is a strong separa-
tion of work and private life. In diffuse cultures, people are not quickly invited into a
person’s open, public space because once they are in, there is easy entry into the private
space as well. Individuals in these cultures often appear to be indirect and introverted,
and work and private life often are closely linked.
An example of these specific and diffuse cultural dimensions is provided by the
United States and Germany. A U.S. professor, such as Robert Smith, PhD, generally
would be called “Doctor Smith” by students when at his U.S. university. When shop-
ping, however, he might be referred to by the store clerk as “Bob,” and when golfing,
Bob might just be one of the guys, even to a golf partner who happens to be a
neutral culture
A culture in which emotions
are held in check.
emotional culture
A culture in which emotions
are expressed openly and
naturally.
specific culture
A culture in which
individuals have a large
public space they readily
share with others and a
small private space they
guard closely and share
with only close friends and
associates.
diffuse culture
A culture in which public
space and private space are
similar in size and
individuals guard their
public space carefully
because entry into public
space affords entry into
private space as well.

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 143
graduate student in his department. The reason for these changes in status is that, with
the specific U.S. cultural values, people have large public spaces and often conduct
themselves differently depending on their public role. In high-diffuse cultures, on the
other hand, a person’s public life and private life often are similar. Therefore, in
Germany, Herr Professor Doktor Schmidt would be referred to that way at the uni-
versity, local market, and bowling alley—and even his wife might address him for-
mally in public. A great deal of formality is maintained, often giving the impression
that Germans are stuffy or aloof.
Trompenaars recommends that when those from specific cultures do business in
diffuse cultures, they should respect a person’s title, age, and background connections,
and they should not get impatient when people are being indirect or circuitous. Con-
versely, when individuals from diffuse cultures do business in specific cultures, they
should try to get to the point and be efficient, learn to structure meetings with the judi-
cious use of agendas, and not use their titles or acknowledge achievements or skills that
are irrelevant to the issues being discussed.
Achievement vs. Ascription An achievement culture is one in which people are
accorded status based on how well they perform their functions. An ascription culture
is one in which status is attributed based on who or what a person is. Achievement
cultures give high status to high achievers, such as the company’s number-one salesper-
son or the medical researcher who has found a cure for a rare form of bone cancer.
Ascription cultures accord status based on age, gender, or social connections. For ex-
ample, in an ascription culture, a person who has been with the company for 40 years
may be listened to carefully because of the respect that others have for the individual’s
age and longevity with the firm, and an individual who has friends in high places may
be afforded status because of whom she knows. As shown in Figure 4–10, Austria, the
United States, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom are achievement cultures, while
Venezuela, Indonesia, and China are ascription cultures.
Trompenaars recommends that when individuals from achievement cultures do
business in ascription cultures, they should make sure that their group has older, senior,
and formal position holders who can impress the other side, and they should respect the
status and influence of their counterparts in the other group. Conversely, he recommends
that when individuals from ascription cultures do business in achievement cultures, they
should make sure that their group has sufficient data, technical advisers, and knowledge-
able people to convince the other group that they are proficient, and they should respect
the knowledge and information of their counterparts on the other team.
Time Aside from the five relationship orientations, another major cultural difference
is the way in which people deal with the concept of time. Trompenaars has identified
two different approaches: sequential and synchronous. In cultures where sequential ap-
proaches are prevalent, people tend to do only one activity at a time, keep appointments
strictly, and show a strong preference for following plans as they are laid out and not
deviating from them. In cultures where synchronous approaches are common, people
tend to do more than one activity at a time, appointments are approximate and may be
changed at a moment’s notice, and schedules generally are subordinate to relationships.
People in synchronous-time cultures often will stop what they are doing to meet and
greet individuals coming into their office.
A good contrast is provided by the United States, Mexico, and France. In the United
States, people tend to be guided by sequential-time orientation and thus set a schedule
and stick to it. Mexicans operate under more of a synchronous-time orientation and thus
tend to be much more flexible, often building slack into their schedules to allow for
interruptions. The French are similar to the Mexicans and, when making plans, often
determine the objectives they want to accomplish but leave open the timing and other
factors that are beyond their control; this way, they can adjust and modify their approach
as they go along. As Trompenaars noted, “For the French and Mexicans, what was
achievement culture
A culture in which people
are accorded status based
on how well they perform
their functions.
ascription culture
A culture in which status is
attributed based on who or
what a person is.

144 Part 2 The Role of Culture
important was that they get to the end, not the particular path or sequence by which that
end was reached.”49
Another interesting time-related contrast is the degree to which cultures are past- or
present-oriented as opposed to future-oriented. In countries such as the United States,
Italy, and Germany, the future is more important than the past or the present. In countries
such as Venezuela, Indonesia, and Spain, the present is most important. In France and
Belgium, all three time periods are of approximately equal importance. Because different
emphases are given to different time periods, adjusting to these cultural differences can
create challenges.
Trompenaars recommends that when doing business with future-oriented cultures,
effective international managers should emphasize the opportunities and limitless scope
that any agreement can have, agree to specific deadlines for getting things done, and be
aware of the core competence or continuity that the other party intends to carry with it
into the future. When doing business with past- or present-oriented cultures, he recom-
mends that managers emphasize the history and tradition of the culture, find out whether
internal relationships will sanction the types of changes that need to be made, and agree
to future meetings in principle but fix no deadlines for completions.
The Environment Trompenaars also examined the ways in which people deal with
their environment. Specific attention should be given to whether they believe in control-
ling outcomes (inner-directed) or letting things take their own course (outer-directed).
One of the things he asked managers to do was choose between the following statements:
1. What happens to me is my own doing.
2. Sometimes I feel that I do not have enough control over the directions my life
is taking.
Managers who believe in controlling their own environment would opt for the first
choice; those who believe that they are controlled by their environment and cannot do
much about it would opt for the second.
Here is an example by country of the sample respondents who believe that what
happens to them is their own doing:50
United States 89%
Switzerland 84%
Australia 81%
Belgium 76%
Indonesia 73%
Hong Kong 69%
Greece 63%
Singapore 58%
Japan 56%
China 35%
In the United States, managers feel strongly that they are masters of their own fate.
This helps account for their dominant attitude (sometimes bordering on aggressiveness)
toward the environment and discomfort when things seem to get out of control. Many
Asian cultures do not share these views. They believe that things move in waves or
natural shifts and one must “go with the flow,” so a flexible attitude, characterized by a
willingness to compromise and maintain harmony with nature, is important.
Trompenaars recommends that when dealing with those from cultures that believe
in dominating the environment, it is important to play hardball, test the resilience of the
opponent, win some objectives, and always lose from time to time. For example, repre-
sentatives of the U.S. government have repeatedly urged Japanese automobile companies
to purchase more component parts from U.S. suppliers to partially offset the large volume

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 145
of U.S. imports of finished autos from Japan. Instead of enacting trade barriers, the United
States was asking for a quid pro quo. When dealing with those from cultures that believe
in letting things take their natural course, it is important to be persistent and polite, maintain
good relationships with the other party, and try to win together and lose apart.
■ Integrating Culture and Management:
The GLOBE Project
Most recently, the GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effective-
ness) research program reflects an additional approach to measuring cultural differences.
Conceived in 1991, the GLOBE project is an ongoing research project, currently consist-
ing of three major interrelated phases. GLOBE extends and integrates the previous anal-
yses of cultural attributes and variables published by Hofstede and Trompenaars. The
three completed GLOBE phases explore the various elements of the dynamic relationship
between the culture and organizational behavior.51
At the heart of phases one and two, first published in 2004 and 2007, is the study
and evaluation of nine different cultural attributes using middle managers from 951
organizations in 62 countries.52,53 A team of 170 scholars worked together to survey over
17,000 managers in three industries: financial services, food processing, and telecom-
munications. When developing the measures and conducting the analysis, they also used
archival measures of country economic prosperity and of the physical and psychological
well-being of the cultures studied. Countries were selected so that every major geo-
graphic location in the world was represented. Additional countries, including those with
unique types of political and economic systems, were selected to create a complete and
comprehensive database upon which to build the analysis.54 This research has been con-
sidered among the most sophisticated in the field to date, and a collaboration of the work
of Hofstede and GLOBE researchers could provide an influential outlook on the major
factors characterizing global cultures.55
While phases one and two focus on middle management, phase three, first published
in 2012, examines the interactions of culture and leadership in upper-level management
positions. More than 1,000 CEOs, and more than 5,000 of their direct reports, were sur-
veyed by 40 researchers across 24 countries. To provide compatibility across all phases
of the GLOBE project, 17 of the 24 countries surveyed in phase three were also included
in the initial study performed for phases one and two.56  A further explanation of phase
three, which deals primarily with leadership, occurs in Chapter 13. Table 4–6 also provides
an overview of the purposes and results of the different phases.
Table 4–6
GLOBE Cultural Variable Results
Variable Highest Ranking Medium Ranking Lowest Ranking
Assertiveness Spain, U.S. Egypt, Ireland Sweden, New Zealand
Future orientation Denmark, Canada Slovenia, Egypt Russia, Argentina
Gender differentiation South Korea, Egypt Italy, Brazil Sweden, Denmark
Uncertainty avoidance Austria, Denmark Israel, U.S. Russia, Hungary
Power distance Russia, Spain England, France Denmark, Netherlands
Collectivism/societal Denmark, Singapore Hong Kong, U.S. Greece, Hungary
In-group collectivism Egypt, China England, France Denmark, Netherlands
Performance orientation U.S., Taiwan Sweden, Israel Russia, Argentina
Humane orientation Indonesia, Egypt Hong Kong, Sweden Germany, Spain
Source: From Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, Mary Sully de Luque, and Robert J. House, “In the Eye of the Beholder: Cross Cultural Lessons in Leadership from
Project GLOBE,” Academy of Management Perspectives  20, no. 1 (2006), p. 76.

146 Part 2 The Role of Culture
The GLOBE study is interesting because its nine constructs were defined, concep-
tualized, and operationalized by a multicultural team of over 100 researchers. In addition,
the data in each country were collected by investigators who were either natives of the
cultures studied or had extensive knowledge and experience in those cultures.
Culture and Management
GLOBE researchers adhere to the belief that certain attributes that distinguish one culture
from others can be used to predict the most suitable, effective, and acceptable organiza-
tional and leader practices within that culture. In addition, they contend that societal
culture has a direct impact on organizational culture and that leader acceptance stems
from tying leader attributes and behaviors to subordinate norms.57
The GLOBE project set out to answer many fundamental questions about cultural
variables shaping leadership and organizational processes. The meta-goal of GLOBE was
to develop an empirically based theory to describe, understand, and predict the impact
of specific cultural variables on leadership and organizational processes and the effective-
ness of these processes. Overall, GLOBE hopes to provide a global standard guideline
that allows managers to focus on local specialization. Specific objectives include answer-
ing these fundamental questions:58
• Are there leader behaviors, attributes, and organizational practices that are
universally accepted and effective across cultures?
• Are there leader behaviors, attributes, and organizational practices that are
accepted and effective in only some cultures?
• How do attributes of societal and organizational cultures affect the kinds of
leader behaviors and organizational practices that are accepted and effective?
• What is the effect of violating cultural norms that are relevant to leadership
and organizational practices?
• What is the relative standing of each of the cultures studied on each of the
nine core dimensions of culture?
• Can the universal and culture-specific aspects of leader behaviors, attributes,
and organizational practices be explained in terms of an underlying theory
that accounts for systematic differences across cultures?
GLOBE’s Cultural Dimensions
Phase one of the GLOBE project identified the nine cultural dimensions:59
1. Uncertainty avoidance is defined as the extent to which members of an organi-
zation or society strive to avoid uncertainty by reliance on social norms, rituals,
and bureaucratic practices to alleviate the unpredictability of future events.
2. Power distance is defined as the degree to which members of an organization
or society expect and agree that power should be unequally shared.
3. Collectivism I: Societal collectivism refers to the degree to which organiza-
tional and societal institutional practices encourage and reward collective dis-
tribution of resources and collective action.
4. Collectivism II: In-group collectivism refers to the degree to which individuals
express pride, loyalty, and cohesiveness in their organizations or families.
5. Gender egalitarianism is defined as the extent to which an organization or a
society minimizes gender role differences and gender discrimination.
6. Assertiveness is defined as the degree to which individuals in organizations or
societies are assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in social relationships.
7. Future orientation is defined as the degree to which individuals in organiza-
tions or societies engage in future-oriented behaviors such as planning, invest-
ing in the future, and delaying gratification.

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 147
8. Performance orientation refers to the extent to which an organization or soci-
ety encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and
excellence.
9. Humane orientation is defined as the degree to which individuals in organiza-
tions or societies encourage and reward individuals for being fair, altruistic,
friendly, generous, caring, and kind to others.
The first six dimensions have their origins in Hofstede’s cultural dimensions
(see Figure 4-11). The collectivism I dimension measures societal emphasis on col-
lectivism; low scores reflect individualistic emphasis and high scores reflect collec-
tivistic emphasis by means of laws, social programs, or institutional practices. The
collectivism II scale measures in-group (family or organization) collectivism such as
pride in and loyalty to family or organization and family or organizational cohesive-
ness. In lieu of Hofstede’s masculinity dimension, the GLOBE researchers developed
the two dimensions they labeled gender egalitarianism and assertiveness. The dimen-
sion of future orientation is similar to Hofstede’s time orientation dimension. Future
orientation also has some origin in past research, as does performance orientation and
humane orientation.60 These measures are therefore integrative and combine a number
of insights from previous studies.
A unique contribution of the GLOBE project is the identification of both values,
which represent how people think things should be, and practices, which represent how
things actually are. For example, GLOBE researchers found that China exhibits a high
level of power distance in practice (a score of 5.02) despite the fact that the Chinese
people desire a lower level of power distance (a score of 3.01) in their culture.  Fig-
ure  4-12  shows the differences in values and practices within Brazil. Recently, further
analysis has been conducted with regard to corporate social responsibility (CSR), a topic
discussed in detail in Chapter 3.61
GLOBE Country Analysis
The initial results of the GLOBE analysis are presented in Table 4–7. The GLOBE
analysis corresponds generally with those of Hofstede and Trompenaars, although with
some variations resulting from the variable definitions and methodology. Hofstede cri-
tiqued the GLOBE analysis, pointing out key differences between the research methods;
Figure 4–11
Comparing the Cultural
Dimension Research:
Geert Hofstede and
the GLOBE Project 
Geert Hofstede
Dutch researcher
GLOBE Project
170 researchers
1980 (updated in 1988 & 2010) 2004 (Phase 1 – cultural dimensions)
Hofstede and the GLOBE Project: Comparing the Research
Scholars
Date
Completed
Identified Dimensions
Sample
Collectivism I
Collectivism II
Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance
Gender Egalitarianism
Assertiveness
Future Orientation
Performance Orientation
Humane Orientation
Managers from 951 companies
~17,000 participants
> 60 countries
Individualism
Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance
Masculinity
Time Orientation (1988)
Indulgence (2010)
IBM employees
~116,000 participants
> 70 countries
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh based on data from G. Hofstede and G. J.
Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005), and the GLOBE project
research.

148 Part 2 The Role of Culture
Figure 4–12
Comparing Values and
Practices in Brazil
Assertiveness
Institutional Collectivism
In-Group CollectivismPower Distance
Performance Orientation Future Orientation
Gender EgalitarianismHumane Orientation
Uncertainty Avoidance
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
PracticeValues
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh based on data from the GLOBE project research.
Hofstede was the sole researcher and writer of his findings, while GLOBE consisted of
a team of perspectives; Hofstede focused on one institution and surveyed employees,
while GLOBE interviewed managers across many corporations; and so on. The disparity
of the terminology between these two, coupled with the complex research, makes it
challenging to compare and fully reconcile these two approches.62  Other assessments
have pointed out that Hofstede may have provided an introduction into the psychology
of culture, but further research is necessary in this changing world. The GLOBE analy-
sis is sometimes seen as complicated, but so are cultures and perceptions. An in-depth
understanding of all facets of culture is difficult, if not impossible, to attain, but GLOBE
provides a current comprehensive overview of general stereotypes that can be further
analyzed for greater insight.63,64
We will explore additional implications of the GLOBE findings as they relate to
cross-cultural perspectives in Chapter 5  and managerial leadership in Chapter 13.
The World of International Management—Revisited
This chapter’s opening discussion of the successes and failures of cross-border mergers
by DuPont, ABInBev, and Chrysler illustrates the importance of culture and how cultural
differences may contribute to global management challenges. Cultural distance can influ-
ence both positively and negatively how decisions are made, reported, and resolved.
Having read this chapter, you should understand the impact culture has on the actions
of MNCs, including general management practices and relations with employees and
customers, and on maintaining overall reputation.
Recall the chapter opening discussion about the merger of ABInBev and SABMiller
and then draw on your understanding of Hofstede’s and Trompenaars’s cultural dimen-
sions to answer the following questions: (1) What dimensions contribute to the differences

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 149
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150 Part 2 The Role of Culture
between how Brazilian and United Kingdom workers address management problems,
including operational or product flaws? (2) What are some ways that Brazilian culture
may affect operational excellence in a positive way? How might it hurt quality? (3) How
could managers from Brazil or other similar cultures adopt practices from European
cultures when investing in those regions?
1. Culture is acquired knowledge that people use to
interpret experience and generate social behavior.
Culture also has the characteristics of being learned,
shared, transgenerational, symbolic, patterned, and
adaptive. There are many dimensions of cultural
diversity, including centralized vs. decentralized
decision making, safety vs. risk, individual vs.
group rewards, informal vs. formal procedures,
high vs. low organizational loyalty, cooperation vs.
competition, short-term vs. long-term horizons, and
stability vs. innovation.
2. Values are basic convictions that people have
regarding what is right and wrong, good and bad,
and important and unimportant. Research shows
that there are both differences and similarities
between the work values and managerial values of
different cultural groups. Work values often reflect
culture and industrialization, and managerial values
are highly related to success. Research shows that
values tend to change over time and often reflect
age and experience.
3. Hofstede has identified and researched four major
dimensions of culture: power distance, uncertainty
avoidance, individualism, and masculinity. Recently,
he has added a fifth dimension, time orientation,
and more recently yet, a sixth dimension, indul-
gence vs. restraint: Each will affect a country’s
political and social system. The integration of these
factors into two-dimensional figures can illustrate
the complexity of culture’s effect on behavior.
4. In recent years, researchers have attempted to clus-
ter countries into similar cultural groupings to study
similarities and differences. Through analyzing the
relationship between two dimensions, as Hofstede
illustrated, two-dimensional maps can be created to
show how countries differ and where they overlap.
5. Research by Trompenaars has examined five rela-
tionship orientations: universalism vs. particularism,
individualism vs. communitarianism, affective vs.
neutral, specific vs. diffuse, and achievement vs.
ascription. Trompenaars also looked at attitudes
toward time and toward the environment. The result
is a wealth of information helping to explain how
cultures differ as well as practical ways in which
MNCs can do business effectively in these environ-
ments. In particular, his findings update those of
Hofstede while helping support the previous work
by Hofstede on clustering countries.
6. Recent research undertaken by the GLOBE project
has attempted to extend and integrate cultural attri-
butes and variables as they relate to managerial lead-
ership and practice. The GLOBE project identified
nine cultural dimensions through the study of middle
managers from over 900 different countries. These
analyses confirm much of the Hofstede and Trompe-
naars research, with greater emphasis on differences in
managerial leadership styles. Unique to the GLOBE
project is the identification of both values, which
represent how people think things should be, and
practices, which represent how things actually are.
SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS
KEY TERMS
achievement culture, 143
ascription culture, 143
collectivism, 130
communitarianism, 141
culture, 124
diffuse culture, 142
emotional culture, 142
femininity, 132
GLOBE, 130
individualism, 130
masculinity, 131
neutral culture, 142
particularism, 139
power distance, 130
specific culture, 142
uncertainty avoidance, 130
universalism, 139
values, 128

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 151
REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. What is meant by the term culture? In what way
can measuring attitudes about the following help
differentiate between cultures: centralized or decen-
tralized decision making, safety or risk, individual
or group rewards, high or low organizational loy-
alty, cooperation or competition? Use these atti-
tudes to compare the United States, Germany, and
Japan. Based on your comparisons, what conclu-
sions can you draw regarding the impact of culture
on behavior?
2. What is meant by the term value? Are cultural val-
ues the same worldwide, or are there marked differ-
ences? Are these values changing over time, or are
they fairly constant? How does your answer relate
to the role of values in a culture?
3. What are the four major dimensions of culture stud-
ied by Geert Hofstede? Identify and describe each.
What is the cultural profile of the United States? Of
Asian countries? Of Latin American countries? Of
Latin European countries? Based on your compari-
sons of these four profiles, what conclusions can
you draw regarding cultural challenges facing
individuals in one group when they interact with
individuals in one of the other groups? Why do you
think Hofstede added the fifth dimension of time
orientation and the sixth dimension related to indul-
gence versus restraint?
4. As people engage in more international travel and
become more familiar with other countries, will
cultural differences decline as a roadblock to inter-
national understanding, or will they continue to be
a major barrier? Defend your answer.
5. What are the characteristics of each of the following
pairs of cultural characteristics derived from Trompe-
naars’s research: universalism vs. particularism, neu-
tral vs. emotional, specific vs. diffuse, achievement
vs. ascription? Compare and contrast each pair.
6. How did project GLOBE build on and extend
Hofstede’s analysis? What unique contributions are
associated with project GLOBE?
7. In what way is time a cultural factor? In what way
is the need to control the environment a cultural
factor? Give an example for each.
The Renault-Nissan alliance, established in March 1999,
is the first industrial and commercial partnership of its
kind involving a French company and a Japanese com-
pany. The Alliance invested more than 1 billion rand in
upgrading Nissan’s manufacturing plant in Rosslyn, out-
side Pretoria, to increase output and produce the Nissan
NP200 pickup and the Renault Sandero for the South
African market. Visit the Renault-Nissan website at
http://www.renault.com to see where factories reside for
each car group. Compare and contrast the similarities
and differences in these markets. Then answer these
three questions: (1) How do you think cultural differ-
ences affect the way the firm operates in South Africa
versus France versus Japan? (2) In what way is culture
a factor in auto sales? (3) Is it possible for a car com-
pany to transcend national culture and produce a global
automobile that is accepted by people in every culture?
Why or why not?
INTERNET EXERCISE: RENAULT-NISSAN IN SOUTH AFRICA
1. Chad Bray, “Anheuser-Busch InBev Completes
Agreement for SABMiller,”  New York Times,
November 12, 2015, p. B1.
2. Ellen  Kullman, “DuPont’s CEO on Executing a
Complex Cross-Border Acquisition,”  Harvard Busi-
ness Review, July–August 2012,  https://hbr.
org/2012/07/duponts-ceo-on-executing-a-complex-
cross-border-acquisition.
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid.
6. Ibid.
7. Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz,  Taken for a Ride:
How Daimler-Benz Drove off with Chrysler  (New
York: Wiley, 2000).
8. Dorothee Ostle, “The Culture Clash at DaimlerChrysler
Was Worse Than Expected,”  Automotive News
Europe, November 22, 1999,  http://europe.
autonews.com/article/19991122/ANE/911220842/
the-culture-clash-at-daimlerchrysler-was-worse- than-
expected.
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid.
ENDNOTES

152 Part 2 The Role of Culture
11. Andrew  Inkpen, “InBev and Anheuser-Busch,”
Thunderbird School of Global Management (2010),
pp. 8–9,  https://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cbmp/product/
TB0251-PDF-ENG.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Anheuser-Busch InBev, “Anheuser-Busch InBev
2013 Annual Report,” press release (2013),  http://
www.ab-inbev.com/content/dam/universaltemplate/
ab-inbev/investors/sabmiller/reports/annual-reports/
annual-report-2013 .
15. James Allen, “The Beliefs That Built a Global
Brewer,”  Harvard Business Review, April 27,
2012,  https://hbr.org/2012/04/the-beliefs-that-
built-a-globa.
16. Pat Joynt and Malcolm Warner, “Introduction:
Cross-Cultural Perspectives,” in Managing Across
Cultures: Issues and Perspectives, ed. Pat Joynt and
Malcolm Warner (London: International Thomson
Business Press, 1996), p. 3.
17. For additional insights, see Gerry Darlington,
“Culture—A Theoretical Review,” in Managing
Across Cultures, ed. Joynt and Warner, pp. 33–55.
18. Fred Luthans, Organizational Behavior, 7th ed.
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995), pp. 534–535.
19. Gary Bonvillian and William A. Nowlin, “Cultural
Awareness: An Essential Element of Doing
Business Abroad,” Business Horizons, November–
December 1994, pp. 44–54.
20. Roger E. Axtell, ed., Do’s and Taboos around the
World, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1990), p. 3.
21. Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner,
Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diver-
sity in Global Business, 2nd ed. (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1998), p. 23.
22. George W. England, “Managers and Their Value Sys-
tems: A Five-Country Comparative Study,” Columbia
Journal of World Business, Summer 1978, p. 39.
23. A. Reichel and D. M. Flynn, “Values in Transition:
An Empirical Study of Japanese Managers in the
U.S.,” Management International Review 23, no. 4
(1984), pp. 69–70.
24. Yumiko Ono and Bill Spindle, “Japan’s Long
Decline Makes One Thing Rise: Individualism,”
The Wall Street Journal, December 29, 2000,
pp. A1, A4.
25. Sang M. Lee and Suzanne J. Peterson, “Culture,
Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Global Competi-
tiveness,” Journal of World Business 35, no. 4
(2000), pp. 411–412.
26. “Confucius Makes a Comeback,” The Economist,
May 17, 2007, www.economist.com/world/asia/
displaystory.cfm?story_id=9202957.
27. Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: Interna-
tional Differences in Work-Related Values (Beverly
Hills, CA: Sage, 1980).
28. Ibid., pp. 251–252.
29. Ibid.
30. Geert Hofstede, “National Culture,”  http://geert-
hofstede.com/national-culture.html.
31. Geert Hofstede and Michael Bond, “The Need for
Synergy among Cross-Cultural Studies,” Journal of
Cross-Cultural Psychology, December 1984, p. 419.
32. A. R. Negandhi and S. B. Prasad, Comparative
Management (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,
1971), p. 128.
33. For additional insights, see Mark F. Peterson et al.,
“Role Conflict, Ambiguity, and Overload: A
21-Nation Study,” Academy of Management
Journal, June 1995, pp. 429–452.
34. Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences.
35. Ibid.
36. Ibid.
37. Also see Chao C. Chen, Xiao-Ping Chen, and James
R. Meindl, “How Can Cooperation Be Fostered?
The Cultural Effects of Individualism-Collectivism,”
Academy of Management Review 23, no. 2 (1998),
pp. 285–304.
38. Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences, pp. 419–420.
39. Ibid., p. 420.
40. Ibid. 
41. Geert Hofstede, “Dimensionalizing Cultures: The
Hofstede Model in Context,” Online Readings in
Psychology and Culture,  Unit 2 (2011), http://
scholarworks.gvsu.edu/orpc/vol2/iss1/8.
42. Hofstede, “National Culture.”
43. Hofstede. “Dimensionalizing Cultures.”
44. Fons Trompenaars, Riding the Waves of Culture:
Understanding Diversity in Global Business
(New York: Irwin, 1994), p. 10.
45. Talcott Parsons, The Social System (New York: Free
Press, 1951).
46. Also see Lisa Hoecklin, Managing Cultural Differ-
ences (Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley,
1995).
47. Charles M. Hampden-Turner and Fons Trompenaars,
“A World Turned Upside Down: Doing Business in
Asia,” in Managing Across Cultures, ed. Joynt and
Warner, p. 279.
48. Ibid., p. 288.
49. Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner,
Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding
Diversity in Global Business, 2nd ed. (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1998), p. 23.

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 153
50. Ibid., p. 140.
51. Peter Dorfman, Mansour Javidan, Paul Hanges, Ali
Dastmalchian, and Robert House, “GLOBE: A
Twenty Year Journey into the Intriguing World of
Culture and Leadership,” Journal of World Business
47 (2012), pp. 504–518.
52. Ibid.
53. Mansour Javidan and Robert House, “Leadership
and Cultures around the World: Findings from
GLOBE: An Introduction to the Special Issue,”
Journal of World Business 37, no. 1 (2002),
pp. 1–2.
54. Robert House, Paul J. Hanges, Mansour Javidan,
Peter W. Dorfman, and Vipin Gupta, Culture, Lead-
ership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62
Societies (London: Sage, 2004).
55. Kwong Leung, “Editor’s Introduction to the
Exchange between Hofstede and GLOBE,” Journal
of International Business Studies 37 (2006), p. 881.
56. Dorfman et al., “GLOBE: A Twenty Year Journey
into the Intriguing World of Culture and
Leadership.”
57. House et al., Culture, Leadership, and Organiza-
tions: The GLOBE Study.
58. Mansour Javidan and Robert House, “Cultural Acu-
men for the Global Manager: Lessons from Project
GLOBE,” Organizational Dynamics 29, no. 4
(2001), pp. 289–305.
59. Robert House, Mansour Javidan, Paul Hanges, and
Peter Dorfman, “Understanding Cultures and
Implicit Leadership Theories across the Globe: An
Introduction to Project GLOBE,” Journal of World
Business 37, no. 1 (2002), pp. 3–10.
60. Ibid.
61. David A. Waldman, Mary Sully de Luque, et al.,
“Cultural and Leadership Predictors of Corporate
Social Responsibility Values of Top Management: A
GLOBE Study of 15 Countries,” Journal of Interna-
tional Business Studies 37 (2006), pp. 823–837.
62. Geert Hofstede, “What Did GLOBE Really Mea-
sure? Researchers’ Minds versus Respondents’
Minds,” Journal of International Business Studies
37 (2006), pp. 882–896.
63. P. Christopher Earley, “Leading Cultural Research
in the Future: A Matter of Paradigms and Taste,”
Journal of International Business Studies 37 (2006),
pp. 922–931.
64. Peter B. Smith, “When Elephants Fight, the Grass
Gets Trampled: The GLOBE and Hofstede Projects,”
Journal of International Business Studies 37 (2006),
pp. 915–921.
65. CIA, “South Aftica,”  The World Factbook (2016),
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-
factbook/geos/sf.html.
66. Ibid.
67. Ibid.
68. Rene  Vollgraaf, “Moody’s Says South African Debt
Could Surpass 50% of GDP,”  Bloomberg Business,
February 4, 2016,  www.bloomberg.com/news/
articles/2016-02-04/moody-s-says-south-africa-debt-
could-swell-to-over-50-of-gdp.
69. “Fool’s Gold—Black Economic Empowerment Has
Not Worked Well. Nor Will It End Soon,”  The
Economist, April 27, 2013,  www.economist.
com/news/briefing/21576655-black-economic-
empowerment-has-not-worked-well-nor-will-it-
end-soon-fools-gold.
70. “As South African Economy Falters, Fast-Food
Giant, Famous Brands, Seeks Fresh Pastures in
Nigeria,” International Business Times, September 16,
2013,  www.ibtimes.com/south-african-economy-
falters-fast-food-giant-famous-brands-seeks-fresh-
pastures-1406294.

154
South Africa, as its name suggests, is located on the
southern tip of the African continent. The Atlantic Ocean
borders the country on the west and the Indian Ocean
borders on the east. South Africa’s neighboring countries
include Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, and
Lesotho. Slightly smaller than twice the size of Texas in
area, the country’s natural resources are plentiful and
include gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manga-
nese, nickel, phosphates, tin, rare earth elements, uranium,
gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, and
natural gas.65
South Africa’s population is estimated at over 53 mil-
lion people and has a modest projected growth rate of
1.33 percent. South Africa has one of the most diverse
populations in the world, consisting of approximately
80 percent black African, 8.5 percent white, 9 percent mixed
race, and around 2 percent Indian. Several languages are
spoken in the country. The country’s main religions
include Protestantism, Catholicism, Islam, and numerous
indigenous religions. Approximately 90 percent of the
population is 54 years old or younger, with a median age
of 26.5 years old. Approximately 95 percent of the coun-
try is deemed literate.66
South Africa’s GDP was estimated at US$350.1 billion
in 2014 and per capita income was estimated at
US$13,100.67  After a relatively solid period of strong
growth, annual GDP growth has been slowing. In 2014,
the economy grew by just 1.4 percent. South Africa ranks
73rd out of 185 nations in “Ease of Doing Business,”
which is down four spots from its previous ranking. As
the country’s GDP growth slows, the country’s debt con-
tinues to grow. Moody’s Investor Services predict that the
government debt could exceed 50 percent of the country’s
GDP in the very near future.68
Unfortunately, the legacy of apartheid continues to exert
profound impacts on the country and its socioeconomic
environment. Apartheid was a system of legal racial segre-
gation that was enforced for approximately 50  years. In
response to the end of apartheid, South Africa installed a
program known as Black Economic Empowerment (BEE)
that seeks to redress the inequalities from the apartheid
system and give those previously disadvantaged groups
(essentially all groups besides the white South Africans)
economic opportunities. Specifically, the program includes
skill, ownership, management, and socioeconomic develop-
ment and, in some cases, preferential procurement. Critics
of this program say that it is unfair and a crude form of
affirmative action that is hurting the country’s economy.
These critics cite examples of “brain drain,” in which qual-
ified and talented white businesspeople leave the country
to avoid the alleged unequal treatment. Additionally, critics
argue that this program has helped to make primarily well-
connected black Africans more wealthy while the large
majority have not received any benefits.69
You Be the International
Management Consultant
Domestic South African companies appear to be search-
ing outside of their home market for stability and growth.
Famous Brands, one of South Africa’s largest food com-
panies, is seeking to grow by more than 200 percent by
expanding rapidly into the rest of Africa. Its initial focus
is Nigeria, now the largest economy in Africa, with the
goal of diversifying and spreading risk from its South and
Southern Africa operations. The fast-food chain announced
that it would buy a 49 percent stake in Nigeria’s UAC
Restaurants Limited, which includes 165 franchised eater-
ies. Famous Brands has long operated in surrounding
countries, but this recent move indicates a doubling-down
on its move into other countries.70
Questions
1. As a consultant looking for opportunities in Africa,
how would you gauge the prospects of moving a
business into South Africa?
2. What are your immediate concerns about this move?
3. What are the pros and cons of opportunities in
South Africa?
4. How does the fact that traditional South African
companies are increasing their presence in other
African countries factor into your decision?
Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report: South
Africa (Kent, U.K.: EIU, 2009), pp. 7–10; “Still Everything to Play
For,” The Economist, June 5, 2010, pp. 15–16; “The Darkening of
White South Africa,” The Economist, May 20, 1995, pp. 18–20; Tom
Nevin, “The World Cup Retail Windfall—Myth or Reality?” African
Business, March 2010, pp. 58–59; “When the Whistle Blows,” The
Economist, June 5, 2010, p. 15; “Buthelezi Slams Affirmative
Action,” Mail & Guardian, February 1, 2007; “Tutu Warns of Poverty
‘Powder Keg’,” BBC, November 23, 2004, news.bbc.co.uk.
South AfricaIn the International Spotlight

156
O
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JE
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IV
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S
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F
T
H
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C
H
A
PT
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Chapter 5
MANAGING ACROSS
CULTURES
The World of International
Management
Taking a Bite Out of Apple:
Corporate Culture and an
Unlikely Chinese Start-Up
S ince first introducing the iPhone in 2007, Apple has achieved tremendous success in the smartphone industry.
User-friendly innovations, including the first touchscreen dis-
play, transformed the smartphone market. Through 2015, Apple
has sold over 800 million iPhones, becoming one of the most
admired and recognizable brands worldwide.2 Though Apple
has faced competition from traditional rivals Samsung and
Motorola for several years, new competition from unexpected
companies in developing markets is beginning to disrupt the
smartphone market. Xiaomi, a Chinese start-up formed in 2010,
is perhaps the largest and most successful of these new smart-
phone marketplace entrants. Xiaomi released its first phone in
2011; since then, sales have soared. By 2013, Xiaomi had sur-
passed Apple in terms of sales within China, the world’s largest
smartphone market. And in 2015, Xiaomi became the fourth
largest smartphone producer worldwide.
Though they are competing for the same customers, Apple
and Xiaomi could not be more different. Their approaches to
innovation, their supply chains, their product lines, and even
their ideas about intellectual property rights are diametrically
opposed. How have these two incredibly different companies
achieved success, and will Xiaomi’s corporate culture and
accompanying strategy ultimately propel the company to rival
Apple in the smartphone battle?
Individual versus the Collective
At Apple, individual achievement is highly regarded. Innovating
for the company, as an individual, is expected and required. In
fact, according to an urban legend, Steve Jobs allegedly once
fired an employee in the elevator for not having an answer to
the question, “So what have you done for Apple lately?” Per-
sonal excellence is required by every employee, with an over-
all focus on end results and exceeding corporate goals.3
Internal competition, and challenging others, is strongly
encouraged. Hierarchy exists, but individuals are encouraged
to speak up if it means achieving a better, more innovative
Traditionally, both scholars and practitioners assumed the uni-
versality of management. There was a tendency to take the
management concepts and techniques that worked at home
into other countries and cultures. It is now clear, from both
practice and cross-cultural research, that this universality
assumption, at least across cultures, does not hold up.
Although there is a tendency in a borderless economy to pro-
mote a universalist approach, there is enough evidence from
many cross-cultural researchers to conclude that the universal-
ist assumption that may have held for U.S. organizations and
employees is not generally true in other cultures.1
The overriding purpose of this chapter is to examine
how MNCs can and should manage across cultures. This chap-
ter puts into practice Chapter 4’s discussion on the meaning
and dimensions of culture and serves as a foundation and
point of departure for Chapters 8 and 9 on strategic manage-
ment. The first part of this chapter addresses the traditional
tendency to attempt to replicate successful home-country
operations overseas without taking into account cultural differ-
ences. Next, attention is given to cross-cultural challenges,
focusing on how differences can impact multinational manage-
ment strategies. Finally, the cultures in specific countries and
geographic regions are examined. The specific objectives of
this chapter are
1. EXAMINE the strategic dispositions that characterize
responses to different cultures.
2. DISCUSS cross-cultural differences and similarities.
3. REVIEW cultural differences in select countries and
regions, and note some of the important strategic
guidelines for doing business in each.

157
production expenses over the life of the product. While Apple
and other competitors retire their products nearly every year,
Xiaomi will continue to manufacture the same phone for nearly
two years.9 This flexibility also lowers inventory carrying costs.
Xiaomi owns no warehouses for long-term inventory holding,
considering itself more of an Internet-based merchant.10
Product Focus
Apple is dedicated to maintaining first-mover advantage. As a
result, Apple focuses narrowly on a few key products, with lit-
tle variation in features and price. The iPhone, for example, is
the only phone offered by Apple. When purchasing the latest
Apple product, customers know that they are buying the most
current technology on the market. By continually being the
first to market with new technology, Apple is able to maintain
a loyal customer base that is willing to put up with minor
defects and flaws in design. This narrow product focus has
created a trendy “brand” image for the company. However,
by only offering one product line, Apple sacrifices sales to
potential customers who are less concerned with the latest
technology.
Knowing that it cannot compete for the first-mover custom-
ers who want the newest technology fastest, Xiaomi focuses
on competing on price. Xiaomi aims to provide the best value
in the marketplace to its customers by not sacrificing quality to
meet consumer pricing demands; the hardware specifications
of Xiaomi phones rival those of Apple and Samsung but
remain at a fraction of the cost. Unlike Apple, Xiaomi offers a
wide array of products at multiple price points. In fact, Xiaomi
plans to introduce regionally specific models for every new
market it enters. With dozens of different phone products, for
example, customers can sacrifice features and the most cur-
rent technology for a phone within their budget. Xiaomi is will-
ing to quickly try multiple products, releasing slightly updated
models nearly every week.11
Intellectual Property
Apple, as a company that differentiates itself through innova-
tion, values its intellectual property as an important asset. This
culture starts at the top and permeates through the company:
Steve Jobs alone was listed as the inventor on over 300 pat-
ents.12 Having spent millions in research and development for
new technology and improved designs, Apple has accused
Samsung and others of essentially stealing patent-protected
technology. Apple has sued numerous companies to protect its
product. According to a former employee, “There’s a mentality
that it’s okay to shred somebody in the spirit of making the
best products.”4
Collectivism and group achievement, on the other hand,
permeate Xiaomi’s corporate culture. From initial design to
final production, collaboration between employees and the
public is more celebrated than individual creativity. Rather than
developing innovations in secret, Xiaomi takes an unconven-
tional approach to design by using crowd-sourcing as a key
element of its strategy.5 End users provide input and feedback
continuously to Xiaomi, shaping the direction in which Xiaomi
takes it products. This feedback results in continual product
evolution; rather than release new phones annually, like Apple,
Xiaomi actually releases new, incrementally better smartphone
models every week.6
Supply Chain Management
Apple has been able to maximize profits through its com-
plex, yet carefully doctored, supply chain. To minimize costs,
Apple outsources the majority of its production processes.
Nearly a thousand factories produce components for Apple
across the globe, with over 600 in Southeast Asia alone.7 As
a result of its low manufacturing costs, Apple is able to sell
the majority of its products with a 70 percent gross profit
margin. Relinquishing its control over the manufacturing
process, however, has led to some major negative conse-
quences for Apple. In 2012, Apple was unable to meet
customer demand for the iPad Mini due to supply chain
issues that resulted in lower-than-expected production
numbers.8 Furthermore, the lack of control over its suppliers’
actions has exposed Apple to criticism over human rights
violations. Highly publicized worker suicides and alleged
underage labor have tarnished Apple’s image, even though
the abuses occurred at the suppliers’ facilities.
Like Apple, Xiaomi works with a variety of suppliers
throughout Asia to produce its products. A key advantage for
Xiaomi’s approach to its supply chain, however, is its unique
ability to adjust production to meet demand. To achieve this,
Xiaomi maintains a strict policy with its suppliers that demand
alone drives the production quantity. This has allowed for
great flexibility in its supply. For example, in 2015, Xiaomi was
able to set the world record for most smartphones sold in
24  hours when it sold and shipped 2.1 million units. To keep
costs along its supply chain low, Xiaomi sells its products for
longer periods of time than its competitors, reducing

158 Part 2 The Role of Culture
intellectual property. In 2010, Apple sued HTC over 20 patent
infringements relating to its iPhone’s hardware and software.13
In 2012 alone, Apple and Samsung launched over a dozen
lawsuits against each other, primarily over patent infringe-
ments. Contested issues range from component technology to
software design. According to Apple, protecting its patents
allows it to provide “distinctive products that stand apart from
the masses.”14
Xiaomi’s approach to intellectual property mirrors its collec-
tive approach to design; exclusivity and secrecy are not seen
as important to its overall strategy. Little priority is placed on
protecting its own intellectual property, and the company often
skirts the line of violating other companies’ intellectual prop-
erty. For example, Xiaomi’s “MiPad” looks like, operates similar
to, and mimics the naming of Apple’s “iPad.” In fact, Xiaomi
will find it difficult, if not impossible, to sell its products in
many markets without facing lawsuits due to patent violations.
Most of the largest cell phone markets have strict intellectual
property protections in place. Xiaomi only holds two patents
from the United States, making it nearly impossible to defend
itself against lawsuits from Apple and other cell phone produc-
ers. It has been estimated that Xiaomi will need to spend as
much as US$100 million on lawsuits in the first two years if it
were to start selling products in the United States.15,16
Looking Forward—Which Strategy Is Working?
Whether or not Xiaomi can ultimately rival Apple in the smart-
phone battle is unclear. The first-mover advantage that Apple
has leveraged since 2007 has begun to deliver diminishing
returns. In the second quarter of 2016, Apple posted its first
decrease in revenue since the iPhone was first introduced.
However, while Xiaomi has surpassed Apple in sales within
China, Xiaomi’s global market share stands at only 5 percent,
far behind Apple’s 14 percent.17 Additionally, Xiaomi’s low-cost
strategy comes with low profits; in 2014, Xiaomi’s 2 percent
profit margin netted only US$56 million. Apple, on the other
hand, managed a 29 percent profit margin in the same year.18
The cultural differences of Xiaomi and Apple highlight how, within the same industry,
two companies can achieve success despite opposing strategies. This chapter provides
insight into uncovering similarities and differences across cultures and using those
insights to develop international management approaches that are effective and
responsive to local cultures.
■ The Strategy for Managing across Cultures
As MNCs become more transnational, their strategies must address the cultural simi-
larities and differences in their varied markets. A good example is provided by Renault,
the French auto giant. For years Renault manufactured a narrow product line that it sold
primarily in France. Because of this limited geographic market and the fact that its cars
continued to have quality-related problems, the company’s performance was at best
mediocre. Several years ago, however, Renault made a number of strategic decisions that
dramatically changed the way it did business. Among other things, it bought controlling
stakes in Nissan Motors of Japan, Samsung Motors of South Korea, and Dacia, the
Romanian automaker. The company also built a $1 billion factory in Brazil to produce
its successful Mégane sedan and acquired an idle factory near Moscow to manufacture
Renaults for the Eastern European market.
Today, Renault is a multinational automaker with operations on four continents.
The challenge the company now faces is to keep all these operations profitable. This has
not been easy. Nissan’s profits have a history of being unpredictable. In the years since
the global recession, Nissan has refocused its strategy by cutting costs and increasing
sales in the markets outside of Japan. These changes have resulted in a drastic turnaround;
Nissan experienced positive net incomes of 389 billion yen in 2013, 458 billion yen in
2014, and 535 billion yen in 2015.19,20,21 Similarly, Renault has rebounded to net incomes
of 1.99 billion euros and 2.82 billion euros in 2014 and 2015, respectively.22 Renault’s
quest for greater global market share continues to progress, with world market share up
to 3.1 percent in 2014. In the passenger car market, the Renault Group reported market
share of 3.3 percent.23 The Renault brand reclaimed the position of third-ranked brand
in Western Europe mainly owing to the success of the Mégane family and Twingo. In
the light commercial vehicle (LCV) market, the Renault brand has been the number-one
brand in Western Europe since 1998.

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 159
Dacia has manufactured what some call a genuine world car, known as the Logan.
Now sold in 43 countries, this simple, compact vehicle is sold at an affordable price in
European markets and has recently been introduced in India. Renault maintains innova-
tive strategies by offering the Logan under either the Dacia, Renault, or Nissan name,
depending on the market. Constituting 31 percent of market share in Romania, 5 percent
of market share in France, and 2.5 percent of market share across Europe, Dacia sold
over 500,000 passenger cars in 2014.24 The decision to integrate its sales organizations
with those of Nissan in Europe, thus creating one well-integrated, efficient sales force
on the continent, and the decision to start producing Nissan models in its Brazilian plant,
so that it can expand its South American offerings by more efficiently using current facili-
ties, have led to continual growth year-over-year improvements in sales and efficiency.25
In 2015, Renault introduced the Kwid, its ultra-low-cost hatchback, for the Indian
market. Unlike Tata’s Nano and other low-price cars introduced into the Indian market
over the last several years, the Kwid is designed to offer features similar to more expen-
sive cars, including good gas mileage, generous leg and head room, and attractive design.
Initial pricing in 2015 started at only US$5,000.26 On the 15th year of the Renault-
Nissan alliance, the Group called attention to a number of milestones achieved over that
period:
∙ Growth in sales from 4.8 million units in 1999 to 8.3 million in 2014.
∙ The eight brands within the alliance account for 10 percent of all car sales
worldwide.
∙ Savings of over 2.8 billion euros in 2013 alone through strategic synergies
that led to cost reductions and cost avoidance, as well as increased revenue.
∙ Growth in proportion of total sales that were coming from BRIC nations,
from 1 percent in 1999 to 30 percent in 2014.
∙ Development of zero-emission technology, resulting in 134,000 zero-emission
vehicles sold by 2013.
∙ Expansion globally, including in Russia through the acquisition of a majority
stake in the country’s largest car maker, AvtoVAZ.
∙ The longest-lasting and most productive alliance in the automobile sector.
∙ Employment of nearly a half of a million people worldwide.27
The Renault-Nissan Alliance has sought to foster multicultural management at
all levels. Each year, more than 30 teams with Renault and Nissan employees from
all regions and functions work together to identify synergies and best practices. Thou-
sands of people with cross-cultural experience have been in collaboration since the
beginning of the Alliance. Renault’s chief Carlos Ghoshen, who also serves as CEO
of Nissan Motor Co., is widely credited with both the operational and strategic
improvements at both Renault and Nissan. His multicultural and multinational upbring-
ing and career have convinced him of the value of cultural diversity and the creativity
they generate.
Renault’s recent experiences underscore the need to carefully consider different
national cultures and practices when developing international strategies.
Strategic Predispositions
Most MNCs have a cultural strategic predisposition toward doing things in a particular
way. Four distinct predispositions have been identified: ethnocentric, polycentric, regio-
centric, and geocentric.
A company with an ethnocentric predisposition allows the values and interests of
the parent company to guide strategic decisions. Firms with a polycentric predisposition
make strategic decisions tailored to suit the cultures of the countries where the MNC
operates. A regiocentric predisposition leads a firm to try to blend its own interests with
those of its subsidiaries on a regional basis. A company with a geocentric predisposition
ethnocentric
predisposition
A nationalistic philosophy
of management whereby the
values and interests of the
parent company guide
strategic decisions.
polycentric predisposition
A philosophy of
management whereby
strategic decisions are
tailored to suit the cultures
of the countries where the
MNC operates.
regiocentric predisposition
A philosophy of
management whereby
the firm tries to blend its
own interests with those of
its subsidiaries on a
regional basis.
geocentric predisposition
A philosophy of
management whereby the
company tries to integrate a
global systems approach to
decision making.

160 Part 2 The Role of Culture
tries to integrate a global systems approach to decision making. Table 5–1 provides
details of each of these orientations.
If an MNC relies on one of these profiles over an extended time, the approach may
become institutionalized and greatly influence strategic planning. By the same token, a
predisposition toward any of these profiles can provide problems for a firm if it is out
of step with the economic or political environment. For example, a firm with an ethno-
centric predisposition may find it difficult to implement a geocentric strategy because it
is unaccustomed to using global integration. Commonly, successful MNCs use a mix of
these predispositions based on the demands of the current environment described in the
chapters in Part One.
Meeting the Challenge
Despite the need for and, in general, the tendency of MNCs to address regional differ-
entiation issues, many MNCs remain committed to a globalization imperative, which
is a belief that one worldwide approach to doing business is the key to both efficiency
and effectiveness. However, despite this predilection to use home strategies, effective
MNCs are continuing their efforts to address local needs. A number of factors are mov-
ing companies to facilitate the development of unique strategies for different cultures,
including
1. The diversity of worldwide industry standards such as those in broadcasting,
where television sets must be manufactured on a country-by-country basis.
globalization imperative
A belief that one worldwide
approach to doing business
is the key to both efficiency
and effectiveness.
Table 5–1
Orientation of an MNC under Different Profiles
Orientation of the Firm
Ethnocentric Polycentric Regiocentric Geocentric
Mission
Governance
Strategy
Structure
Culture
Technology
Marketing
Finance
Personnel
practices
Profitability (viability)
Top-down
Global integration
Hierarchical product
divisions
Home country
Mass production
Product development
determined primarily by
the needs of home
country customers
Repatriation of profits
to home country
People of home country
developed for key
positions everywhere
in  the world
Public acceptance
(legitimacy)
Bottom-up (each
subsidiary decides
on local objectives)
National responsiveness
Hierarchical area divi-
sions, with autonomous
national units
Host country
Batch production
Local product
development based
on local needs
Retention of profits in
host country
People of local nationality
developed for key
positions in their own
country
Both profitability and
public acceptance
(viability and legitimacy)
Mutually negotiated
between region and its
subsidiaries
Regional integration and
national responsiveness
Product and regional
organization tied through
a matrix
Regional
Flexible manufacturing
Standardized within
region, but not
across regions
Redistribution within
region
Regional people devel-
oped for key positions
anywhere in the region
Same as regiocentric
Mutually negotiated
at all levels of the
corporation
Global integration and
national responsiveness
A network of organiza-
tions (including some
stakeholders and com-
petitor organizations)
Global
Flexible manufacturing
Global product, with
local variations
Redistribution globally
Best people everywhere
in the world developed
for key positions every-
where in the world
Source: From Balaji S. Chakravarthy and Howard V. Perlmutter, “Strategic Planning for a Global Business,” Columbia Journal of World Business, Summer 1985, pp. 5–6.

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 161
2. A continual demand by local customers for differentiated products, as in the
case of consumer goods that must meet local tastes.
3. The importance of being an insider, as in the case of customers who prefer to
“buy local.”
4. The difficulty of managing global organizations, as in the case of some local
subsidiaries that want more decentralization and others that want less.
5. The need to allow subsidiaries to use their own abilities and talents and not
be restrained by headquarters, as in the case of local units that know how to
customize products for their market and generate high returns on investment
with limited production output.
Responding to the cultural needs of local operations and customers, MNCs find
that regional strategies can be used effectively in capturing and maintaining worldwide
market niches. One example is Haier, which is discussed in the opening World of Inter-
national Management section at the beginning of Chapter 9. Another example is appli-
ance producer Whirlpool, which has manufacturing facilities spread across the United
States. Each plant is specialized and produces a small number of products for the entire
North American market; in this way, each can focus on tailoring products for the unique
demands of the various markets.
The globalization versus national responsiveness challenge is even more acute
when marketing cosmetics and other products that vary greatly in consumer use. For
example, marketers sell toothpaste as a cosmetic product in Spain and Greece but as a
cavity fighter in the Netherlands and United States. Soap manufacturers market their
product as a cosmetic item in Spain but as a functional commodity in Germany. Moreo-
ver, the way in which the marketing message is delivered also is important. For example:
∙ Germans want advertising that is factual and rational; they fear being manip-
ulated by “the hidden persuader.” The typical German spot features the stan-
dard family of two parents, two children, and grandmother.
∙ The French avoid reasoning or logic. Their advertising is predominantly
emotional, dramatic, and symbolic. Spots are viewed as cultural events—art
for the sake of money—and are reviewed as if they were literature or films.
∙ The British value laughter above all else. The typical broad, self-deprecating
British commercial amuses by mocking both the advertiser and consumer.28
In some cases, however, both the product and the marketing message are similar
worldwide. This is particularly true for high-end products, where the lifestyles and expec-
tations of the market niche are similar regardless of the country. Heineken beer, Hennes-
sey brandy, Porsche cars, and the Financial Times all appeal to consumer niches that are
fairly homogeneous, regardless of geographic locale. The same is true at the lower end
of the market for goods that are impulse purchases, novel products, or fast foods, such
as Coca-Cola’s soft drinks, Levi’s jeans, pop music, and ice-cream bars. In most cases,
however, it is necessary to modify products as well as the market approach for the
regional or local market. One analysis noted that the more marketers understand about
the way in which a particular culture tends to view emotion, enjoyment, friendship,
humor, rules, status, and other culturally based behaviors, the more control they have
over creating marketing messages that will be interpreted in the desired way.
The need to adjust global strategies for regional markets presents three major chal-
lenges for most MNCs. First, the MNC must stay abreast of local market conditions and
sidestep the temptation to assume that all markets are basically the same. Second, the
MNC must know the strengths and weaknesses of its subsidiaries so that it can provide
these units with the assistance needed in addressing local demands. Third, the multina-
tional must give the subsidiary more autonomy so that it can respond to changes in local
demands. The International Management in Action “Ten Key Factors for MNC Success”
provides additional insights into the ways that successful MNCs address these challenges.

162
■ Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities
As you saw in Chapter 4, cultures can be similar or quite different across countries. The
challenge for MNCs is to recognize and effectively manage the similarities and differ-
ences. Generally, the way in which MNCs manage their home businesses often should
be different from the way they manage their overseas operations.29 After recognizing the
danger for MNCs of drifting toward parochialism and simplification in spite of cultural
differences, the discussion in this section shifts to some examples of cultural similarities
and differences and how to effectively manage across cultures by a contingency approach.
Parochialism and Simplification
Parochialism is the tendency to view the world through one’s own eyes and perspectives.
This can be a strong temptation for many international managers, who often come from
advanced economies and believe that their state-of-the-art knowledge is more than ade-
quate to handle the challenges of doing business in less developed countries. In addition,
many of these managers have a parochial point of view fostered by their background.30
A good example is provided by Randall and Coakley, who studied the impact of culture
on successful partnerships in the former Soviet Union. Initially after the breakup of the
Soviet Union, the republics called themselves the Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS). Randall and Coakley found that while outside MNC managers typically entered
into partnerships with CIS enterprises with a view toward making them efficient and
profitable, the CIS managers often brought a different set of priorities to the table.
Commenting on their research, Randall and Coakley noted that the way CIS man-
agers do business is sharply different from that of their American counterparts. CIS
managers are still emerging from socially focused cultural norms embedded in their
parochialism
The tendency to view the
world through one’s own
eyes and perspectives.
International Management in Action
Ten Key Factors for MNC Success
Why are some international firms successful while oth-
ers are not? Some of the main reasons are that success-
ful multinational firms take a worldwide view of
operations, support their overseas activities, pay close
attention to political winds, and use local nationals
whenever possible. These are the overall findings of a
report that looked into the development of customized
executive education programs. Specifically, there are 10
factors or guidelines that successful global firms seem
to employ. Successful global competitors
1. See themselves as multinational enterprises and
are led by a management team that is comfort-
able in the world arena.
2. Develop integrated and innovative strategies
that make it difficult and costly for other firms to
compete.
3. Aggressively and effectively implement their world-
wide strategy and back it with large investments.
4. Understand that innovation no longer is confined to
the United States and develop systems for tapping
innovation abroad.
5. Operate as if the world were one large market
rather than a series of individual, small markets.
6. Have organization structures that are designed to
handle their unique problems and challenges and
thus provide them the greatest efficiency.
7. Develop a system that keeps them informed
about political changes around the world and the
implications of these changes on the firm.
8. Have management teams that are international in
composition and thus better able to respond to
the various demands of their respective markets.
9. Allow their outside directors to play an active role
in the operation of the enterprise.
10. Are well managed and tend to follow such impor-
tant guidelines as sticking close to the customer,
having lean organization structures, and encour-
aging autonomy and entrepreneurial activity
among the personnel.
Source: James F. Bolt, “Global Competitors: Some Criteria for
Success,” Business Horizons, January–February 1988, pp. 34–41;
Alan S. Rugman and Richard M. Hodgetts, International Business,
2nd ed. (London: Pearson, 2000), chapter 1; Sheida Hodge, Global
Smarts: The Art of Communicating and Deal Making Anywhere in the
World (New York: Wiley, 2000).

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 163
history, past training, and work experiences that emphasize strategic values unlike those
that exist in an international market-driven environment. For example, while an excess
of unproductive workers may lead American managers to lay off some individuals for
the good of the company, CIS managers would focus on the good of the working com-
munity and allow the company to accept significant profit losses as a consequence. This
led the researchers to conclude:
As behavioral change continues to lag behind structural change, it becomes imperative to
understand that this inconsistency between what economic demands and cultural norms
require manifests problems and complexities far beyond mere structural change. In short,
the implications of the different perspectives on technology, labor, and production . . . for
potential partnerships between U.S. and CIS companies need to be fully grasped by all par-
ties entering into any form of relationship.31
Simplification is the process of exhibiting the same orientation toward different
cultural groups. For example, the way in which a U.S. manager interacts with a British
manager is the same way in which he or she behaves when doing business with an Asian
executive. Moreover, this orientation reflects one’s basic culture. Table 5–2 provides an
example, showing several widely agreed-on, basic cultural orientations and the range of
variations for each. Asterisks indicate the dominant U.S. orientation. Quite obviously,
U.S. cultural values are not the same as those of managers from other cultures; as a
result, a U.S. manager’s attempt to simplify things can result in erroneous behavior. Here
is an example of a member of the purchasing department of a large European oil company
who was negotiating an order with a Korean supplier:
At the first meeting, the Korean partner offered a silver pen to the European manager. The
latter, however, politely refused the present for fear of being bribed (even though he knew
about the Korean custom of giving presents). Much to our manager’s surprise, the second
simplification
The process of exhibiting
the same orientation toward
different cultural groups.
Table 5–2
Six Basic Cultural Variations
Orientations Range of Variations
What is the nature of people? Good (changeable/unchangeable)
A mixture of good and evil*
Evil (changeable/unchangeable)
What is the person’s relationship to nature? Dominant*
In harmony with nature
Subjugation
What is the person’s relationship to other people? Lineal (hierarchic)
Collateral (collectivist)
Individualist*
What is the modality of human activity? Doing*
Being and becoming
Being
What is the temporal focus of human activity? Future*
Present
Past
What is the conception of space? Private*
Mixed
Public
Note: *Indicates the dominant U.S. orientation.
Source: Adapted from the work of Florence Rockwood Kluckhohn and Fred L. Stodtbeck.

164 Part 2 The Role of Culture
meeting began with the offer of a stereo system. Again the manager refused, his fear of
being bribed probably heightened. When he gazed at a piece of Korean china on the third
meeting, he finally realized what was going on. His refusal had not been taken to mean
“let’s get on with business right away,” but rather “If you want to get into business with me,
you had better come up with something bigger.”32
Understanding the culture in which they do business can make international man-
agers more effective.33 Unfortunately, when placed in a culture with which they are
unfamiliar, most international managers are not culturally knowledgeable, so they often
misinterpret what is happening. This is particularly true when the environment is mark-
edly different from the one from which they come. Consider, for example, the difference
between the cultures in Malaysia and the United States. Malaysia has what could be
called a high-context culture, which possesses characteristics such as
1. Relationships between people are relatively long lasting, and individuals feel
deep personal involvement with each other.
2. Communication often is implicit, and individuals are taught from an early age
to interpret these messages accurately.
3. People in authority are personally responsible for the actions of their subordi-
nates, and this places a premium on loyalty to both superiors and subordinates.
4. Agreements tend to be spoken rather than written.
5. Insiders and outsiders are easily distinguishable, and outsiders typically do not
gain entrance to the inner group.
These Malaysian cultural characteristics are markedly different from those of low-
context cultures such as the United States, which possess the following characteristics:
1. Relationships between individuals are relatively short in duration, and in gen-
eral, deep personal involvement with others is not valued greatly.
2. Messages are explicit, and individuals are taught from a very early age to say
exactly what they mean.
3. Authority is diffused throughout the bureaucratic system, and personal
responsibility is hard to pin down.
4. Agreements tend to be in writing rather than spoken.
5. Insiders and outsiders are not readily distinguished, and the latter are encour-
aged to join the inner circle.34
These differences are exacerbated by the fact that Malaysian culture is based on
an amalgamation of diverse religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. The
belief is pervasive that success and failure are the will of God, which may create issues
with American managers attempting to make deals, as Malaysians will focus less on facts
and more on intuitive feelings.
At the same time, it is important to realize that while there are cultural differences,
there also are similarities. Therefore, in managing across cultures, not everything is
totally different. Some approaches that work at home also work well in other cultural
settings.
Similarities across Cultures
When internationalization began to take off in the 1970s, many companies quickly admit-
ted that it would not be possible to do business in the same way in every corner of the
globe. There was a secret hope, however, that many of the procedures and strategies that
worked so well at home could be adopted overseas without modification. This has proved
to be a false hope. At the same time, some similarities across cultures have been uncov-
ered by researchers. For example, a co-author of this text (Luthans) and his associates
studied through direct observation a sample of managers in the largest textile factory in
Russia to determine their activities. Like U.S. managers studied earlier, Russian managers

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 165
carried out traditional management, communication, human resources, and networking
activities. The study also found that, as in the United States, the relative attention given
to the networking activity increased the Russian managers’ opportunities for promotion,
and that communication activity was a significant predictor of effective performance in
both Russia and the United States.35
Besides the similarities of managerial activities, another study at the same Russian
factory tested whether organizational behavior modification (O.B.Mod.) interventions
that led to performance improvements in U.S. organizations would do so in Russia.36,37
As with the applications of O.B.Mod. in the United States, Russian supervisors were
trained to administer social rewards (attention and recognition) and positive feedback
when they observed workers engaging in behaviors that contributed to the production of
quality fabric. In addition, Russian supervisors were taught to give corrective feedback
for behaviors that reduced product quality. The researchers found that this O.B.Mod.
approach, which had worked so well in the United States, produced positive results in
the Russian factory. They concluded that the hypothesis that “the class of interventions
associated with organizational behavior modification are likely to be useful in meeting
the challenges faced by Russian workers and managers [is] given initial support by the
results of this study.”38,39
In another cross-cultural study, this time using a large Korean sample, Luthans and
colleagues analyzed whether demographic and situational factors identified in the U.S.-
based literature had the same antecedent influence on the commitment of Korean employ-
ees.40,41 As in the U.S. studies, Korean employees’ position in the hierarchy, tenure in
their current position, and age all related to organizational commitment. Other similari-
ties with U.S. firms included (1) as organizational size increased, commitment declined;
(2) as structure became more employee-focused, commitment increased; and (3) the more
positive the perceptions of organizational climate, the greater the employee commitment.
The following conclusion was drawn:
This study provides beginning evidence that popular constructs in the U.S. management and
organizational behavior literature should not be automatically dismissed as culture bound.
Whereas some organizational behavior concepts and techniques do indeed seem to be culture
specific . . . a growing body of literature is demonstrating the ability to cross-culturally
validate other concepts and techniques, such as behavior management. . . . This study con-
tributed to this cross-cultural evidence for the antecedents to organizational commitment.
The antecedents for Korean employees’ organizational commitment were found to be similar
to their American counterparts.42
Many Differences across Cultures
We have stressed throughout the text how different cultures can be from one another and
how important it is for MNCs to understand the points of disparity. Here, we look at
some differences from a human resources perspective, a topic that will be covered in
depth in Chapter 14. We introduce human resource management (HRM) here as a way
to illustrate that the cultural foundations utilized in the selection of employees can further
form the culture that international managers will oversee. In other words, understanding
the HRM strategies before becoming a manager in the industry can aid in effective per-
formance. The focus here is more from a socially cultural perspective; the organizational
perspective will be discussed further in Chapter 14.
Despite similarities between cultures in some studies, far more differences than sim-
ilarities have been found. MNCs are discovering that they must carefully investigate and
understand the culture where they intend to do business and modify their approaches
appropriately. Sometimes these cultures are quite different from the United States—as well
as from each other! One human resource management example has been offered by
Trompenaars, who examined the ways in which personnel in international subsidiaries were
appraised by their managers. The head office had established the criteria to be used in
these evaluations but left the prioritization of the criteria to the national operating company.

166 Part 2 The Role of Culture
As a result, the outcome of the evaluations could be quite different from country to coun-
try because what was regarded as the most important criterion in one subsidiary might be
ranked much lower on the evaluation list of another subsidiary. In the case of Shell Oil,
for example, Trompenaars found that the firm was using a HAIRL system of appraisal.
The five criteria in this acronym stood for (a) helicopter—the capacity to take a broad view
from above; (b) analysis—the ability to evaluate situations logically and completely;
(c) imagination—the ability to be creative and think outside the box; (d) reality—the ability
to use information realistically; and (e) leadership—the ability to effectively galvanize and
inspire personnel. When staff in Shell’s operating companies in four countries were asked
to prioritize these five criteria from top to bottom, the results were as follows:
Netherlands France Germany Britain
Reality Imagination Leadership Helicopter
Analysis Analysis Analysis Imagination
Helicopter Leadership Reality Reality
Leadership Helicopter Imagination Analysis
Imagination Reality Helicopter Leadership
Quite obviously, personnel in different operating companies were being evaluated
differently. In fact, no two of the operating companies in the four countries had the same
criterion at the top of their lists. Moreover, the criterion at the top of the list for operat-
ing companies in the Netherlands—reality—was at the bottom of the list for those in
France; and the one at the top of the list in French operating companies—imagination—
was at the bottom of the list of the Dutch firms. Similarly, the German operating com-
panies put leadership at the top of the list and helicopter at the bottom, while the British
companies did the opposite! In fact, the whole list for the Germans is in the exact reverse
order of the British list.43
Other HRM differences can be found in areas such as wages, compensation, pay
equity, and maternity leave. Here are some representative examples.
1. The concept of an hourly wage plays a minor role in Mexico. Labor law
requires that employees receive full pay 365 days a year.
2. In Austria and Brazil, employees with one year of service are automatically
given 30 days of paid vacation.
3. Some jurisdictions in Canada have legislated pay equity—known in the
United States as comparable worth—between male- and female-intensive jobs.
4. In Japan, compensation levels are determined by using the objective factors of
age, length of service, and educational background rather than skill, ability, and
performance. Performance does not count until after an employee reaches age 45.
5. In the United Kingdom, employees are allowed up to 40 weeks of maternity
leave, and employers must provide a government-mandated amount of pay for
18 of those weeks.
6. In 87 percent of large Swedish companies, the head of human resources is on
the board of directors.44
These HRM practices certainly are quite different from those in the United States,
and U.S. MNCs need to modify their approaches when they go into these countries if
they hope to be successful. Compensation plans, in particular, provide an interesting area
of contrast across different cultures.
Drawing on the work of Hofstede (see Chapter 4), it is possible to link cultural
clusters and compensation strategies. Each cluster requires a different approach to for-
mulating an effective compensation strategy:
1. In Pacific Rim countries, incentive plans should be group-based. In high-
masculinity cultures (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines,
Singapore), high salaries should be paid to senior-level managers.

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 167
2. In EU nations such as France, Spain, Italy, and Belgium, compensation strategies
should be similar. In the latter two nations, however, significantly higher salaries
should be paid to local senior-level managers because of the high masculinity
index. In Portugal and Greece, both of which have a low individualism index,
profit-sharing plans would be more effective than individual incentive plans,
while in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany, personal-incentive plans
would be highly useful because of the high individualism in these cultures.
3. In Great Britain, Ireland, and the United States, managers value their individ-
ualism and are motivated by the opportunity for earnings, recognition,
advancement, and challenge. Compensation plans should reflect these needs.45
Figure 5–1 shows how specific HRM areas can be analyzed contingently on a
country-by-country basis. Take, for example, the information on Japan. When it is con-
trasted with U.S. approaches, a significant number of differences are found. Recruitment
and selection in Japanese firms often are designed to help identify those individuals who
will do the best job over the long run. In the United States, people often are hired based
on what they can do for the firm in the short run because many of them eventually will
quit or be downsized. Similarly, the Japanese use a great deal of cross-training, while
the Americans tend to favor specialized training. The Japanese use group performance
appraisal and reward people as a group; at least traditionally, Americans use manager-
subordinate performance appraisal and reward people as individuals. In Japan, unions are
regarded as partners; in the United States, management and unions view each other in a
much more adversarial way. Only in the area of job design, where the Japanese use a
great deal of participative management and autonomous work teams, are the Americans
beginning to employ a similar approach. The same types of differences can be seen in
the matrix of Figure 5–1 among Japan, Germany, Mexico, and China.
These differences should not be interpreted to mean that one set of HRM practices is
superior to another. In fact, recent research from Japan and Europe shows these firms often
have a higher incidence of personnel-related problems than do U.S. companies. Figure 5–1
clearly indicates the importance of MNCs using a contingency approach to HRM across
cultures. Not only are there different HRM practices in different cultures, but there also are
different practices within the same cultures. For instance, one study involving 249 U.S.
affiliates of foreign-based MNCs found that in general, affiliate HRM practices closely fol-
low local practices when dealing with the rank and file but even more closely approximate
parent-company practices when dealing with upper-level management.46 In other words, this
study found that a hybrid approach to HRM was being used by these MNCs.
Aside from the different approaches used in different countries, it is becoming
clear that common assumptions and conventional wisdom about HRM practices in
certain countries no longer are valid. For example, for many years, it has been assumed
that Japanese employees do not leave their jobs for work with other firms, that they
are loyal to their first employer, and that it would be virtually impossible for MNCs
operating in Japan to recruit talent from Japanese firms. Recent evidence, however,
reveals that job-hopping among Japanese employees is increasingly common. One
report concluded:
While American workers, both the laid-off and the survivors, grapple with cutbacks, one in
three Japanese workers willingly walks away from his job within the first 10 years of his
career, according to the Japanese Institute of Labor, a private research organization. And
many more are thinking about it. More than half of salaried Japanese workers say they would
switch jobs or start their own business if a favorable opportunity arose, according to a
survey by the Recruit Research Corporation.47
These findings clearly illustrate one important point: Managing across cultures
requires careful understanding of the local environment because common assumptions
and stereotypes may not be valid. Cultural differences must be addressed, and this is why
cross-cultural research will continue to be critical in helping firms learn how to manage
across cultures.48,49

168 Part 2 The Role of Culture
• Prepare for long
process
• Ensure that your
firm is “here to
stay”
• Develop trusting
relationship with
recruit
• Make substantial
investment in
training
• Use general training
and cross-training
• Training is everyone’s
responsibility
• Use recognition and
praise as motivators
• Avoid pay for
performance
• Treat unions as
partners
• Allow time for
negotiations
• Include participation
• Incorporate group
goal setting
• Use autonomous
work teams
• Use uniform, formal
approaches
• Encourage
co-worker input
• Empower teams to
make decision
Recruitment and
selection
Training
Compensation
Labor relations
Job design
• Obtain skilled labor
from government-
subsidized appren-
ticeship program
• Reorganize and
utilize apprenticeship
programs
• Be aware of govern-
ment regulations on
training
• Note high labor
costs for
manufacturing
• Be prepared for high
wages and short
workweek
• Expect high pro­
ductivity from
unionized workers
• Utilize works councils
to enhance worker
participation
• Use expatriates
sparingly
• Recruit Mexican
nationals at U.S. col-
leges
• Use bilingual
trainers
• Consider all aspects
of labor cost
• Understand changing
Mexican labor law
• Prepare for increas-
ing unionization of
labor
• Approach participa-
tion cautiously
• Recent public
policy shifts
encourage use of
sophisticated
selection procedures
• Carefully observe
existing training
programs
• Utilize team training
• Use technical training
as reward
• Recognize egalitarian
values
• Use “more work,
more pay” with
caution
• Tap large pool of
labor cities
• Lax labor laws may
become more
stringent
• Determine employ-
ee’s motives
before implementing
participation
Japan Germany Mexico China
Source: From Fred Luthans, Paul A. Marsnik, and Kyle W. Luthans, “A Contingency Matrix Approach to IHRM,” Human Resource Management Journal 36, no. 2 (1997), pp. 183–199.
A Partially Completed Contingency Matrix for International
Human Resource Management
Figure 5–1
■ Cultural Differences in Selected Countries
and Regions
As noted in Part One and in Chapter 4, MNCs are increasingly active in all parts of the
world, including the developing and emerging regions because of their recent growth and
future potential. Chapter 4 introduced the concept of country clusters, which is the idea
that certain regions of the world have similar cultures. For example, the way that Amer-
icans do business in the United States is very similar to the way that the British do

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 169
business in England. Even in this Anglo culture, however, there are pronounced differ-
ences, and in other clusters, such as in Asia, these differences become even more pro-
nounced. The next sections focus on cultural highlights and differences in selected
countries and regions that provide the necessary understanding and perspective for
effective management across cultures.
Using the GLOBE Project to Compare Managerial Differences
Examination of the GLOBE project has resulted in an extensive breakdown of how
managers behave and how different cultures can yield managers with similar perspec-
tives in some realms, with quite divergent opinions in other sectors. One example, as
illustrated in Figure 5–2, shows how the value scores for managers in China compare
to those of managers in the United States and Argentina. The web structure, based on
factors such as individualism, consciousness of social and professional status, and risky
behaviors, can be used to show both similarities and differences between multiple
cultures at once, indicating potential areas of cultural misunderstanding when conduct-
ing business. As can be seen through the web structure shown, Chinese managers
typically score higher than their Argentine and U.S. counterparts in the area of uncer-
tainty avoidance. This indicates that Chinese managers prefer structured situations,
rules, and careful planning, while their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina are more
open to looser restrictions and more unplanned situations. When managers from the
U.S. and Argentina are conducting business in a culture with high uncertainty avoid-
ance preferences, like China, it is suggested that they give their employees a clear plan
and a structural framework to complete their assigned tasks. Interestingly, all three
countries score similarly low in the area of power distance, indicating that managers
Figure 5–2
GLOBE Analysis:
Comparing Values in
China, the U.S., and
Argentina
Source: Original graphic by Ben Littell under supervision of Professor Jonathan Doh based on data from the GLOBE project research.
U.S.China Argentina
Assertiveness
Institutional Collectivism
In-Group CollectivismPower Distance
Performance Orientation Future Orientation
Gender EgalitarianismHumane Orientation
Uncertainty Avoidance
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

170 Part 2 The Role of Culture
in these cultures prefer structures with less hierarchy and more equality—even if, in
practice, the opposite is true within their country.50
As shown in the figure, Chinese managers tend to value assertiveness significantly
more than managers from Argentina, indicating that aggressive or confrontational
behavior in a business negotiation, for example, would not be viewed in a negative way
by Chinese businesspeople but might well by Argentine businesspeople. A Chinese
businessperson may walk away from intense negotiation feeling as though things went
well, while an Argentine counterpart across the table might view the same meeting as
unproductive and detrimental.51
One interesting development is the increasing frequency of managers and execu-
tives from one part of the world assuming leadership roles in another. For example, in
2015, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company named Christophe Weber as its new CEO,
becoming the first non-Japanese CEO in the company’s history. He joins the ranks of
the few—but increasing—number of foreign heads of Japanese firms, who now include
Brian Prince of Aozora Bank, Eva Chen of Trend Micro, and Carlos Ghoshen of Nissan
Motor Co. Foreign CEOs still face cultural difficulties, however. At Nippon Sheet Glass,
for example, American Craig Naylor resigned suddenly in 2012 after just two years as
CEO. Naylor cited “fundamental disagreements with the board on company strategy” as
the key reason for his departure.52 Chapters 13 and 14 provide an in-depth discussion of
leadership and human resource management across cultures, respectively. Because of the
increasing importance of developing and emerging regions and countries in the global
economy, knowledge of these contexts is more and more important for global managers.
In a study by the China Europe International Business School’s Leadership Behavioral
Laboratory and the Center for Creative Leadership, executives identified critical charac-
teristics in their careers that contributed to their development as managers in emerging
markets settings. These included setting an example for junior employees and learning
to thrive in unstable environments.53 In addition, managers emphasized the importance
of learning about their business and the emerging markets environment, through formal
classes, mentoring, and direct experience.
Managing Culture in Selected Countries and Regions
More specific insight on cultural practices specific to the BRIC countries, Arab countries,
and France are presented below.
Before this discussion, however, it is important to provide a word of caution on
overgeneralizing about cultures. Businesspeople from all cultures are individuals with
unique personalities and styles; there are always exceptions to the general cultural char-
acteristics discussed in the following sections. Stereotyping in cross-cultural dealings is
unwarranted. In this chapter, we review general cultural characteristics, but from your
own experience, you know the importance of an understanding of the particular individuals
or situations you are dealing with.
Managing Culture in China The People’s Republic of China (China, for short) has
had a long tradition of isolation. In 1979, Deng Xiaoping opened this country to the
world. Although his bloody 1989 put-down of protesters in Tiananmen Square was a
definite setback for progress, China is rapidly trying to close the gap between itself and
economically advanced nations and to establish itself as a power in the world economy.
As noted in Chapter 1, China is actively trading in world markets, is a member of the
WTO, and is a major trading partner of the United States. Despite this global presence,
many U.S. and European multinationals still find that doing business in China can be a
long, grueling process.54,55 Foreign firms still find it difficult to make a profit in China.
One primary reason is that Western-based MNCs do not appreciate the important role
and impact of Chinese culture.
Experienced executives report that the primary criterion for doing business in
China is technical competence. For example, in the case of MNCs selling machinery,

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 171
Chinese businesspeople tend to want to know exactly how the machine works, what its
capabilities are, and how repairs and maintenance must be handled. Sellers must be
prepared to answer these questions in precise detail. This is why successful multination-
als send only seasoned engineers and technical people to China. They know that the
questions to be answered will require both knowledge and experience, and young, fresh-
out-of-school engineers will not be able to answer them.
A major cultural difference between China and many Western countries is the issue
of time. Chinese culture tends to value punctuality, so it is important that those who do
business with them arrive on time, as discussed in Chapter 4. During meetings, such as
those held when negotiating a contract, Chinese businesspeople may ask many questions
and nod their assent at the answers. This nodding usually means that they understand or
are being polite; it seldom means that they like what they are hearing and want to enter
into a contract. For this reason, when dealing with Chinese businesspeople, one must
keep in mind that patience is critically important. Chinese businesspeople will make a
decision in their own good time, and it is common for outside businesspeople to make
several trips to China before a deal is finally concluded. Moreover, not only are there
numerous meetings, but sometimes these are unilaterally cancelled at the last minute and
rescheduled. This often tries the patience of outsiders and is inconvenient in terms of
rearranging travel plans and other problems.
Another important dimension of Chinese culture is guanxi, which means “good
connections.”56 In turn, these connections can result in such things as lower costs for
doing business.57 Yet guanxi goes beyond just lower costs. Yi and Ellis surveyed Hong
Kong and Chinese managers and found that both groups agreed that guanxi networking
offered a number of potential benefits, including increased business, higher sales revenue,
more sources of information, greater prospecting opportunities, and the facilitation of
future transactions.58 In practice, guanxi resembles nepotism, where individuals in author-
ity make decisions on the basis of family ties or social connections rather than objective
indices.59 Additionally, outsiders doing business in China must be aware that Chinese
people will typically argue that they have the guanxi to get a job done, when in reality
they may or may not have the necessary connections.
When conducting business in China, one must realize that the Chinese are a col-
lective society in which people pride themselves on being members of a group. Chinese
people are very proud of their collective economic accomplishments and want to share
these feelings with outsiders. This is in sharp contrast to the situation in the United States
and other Western countries, where individualism is highly prized. For this reason, one
must never single out a Chinese employee and praise him or her for a particular quality,
such as intelligence or kindness, because doing so may embarrass the individual in the
presence of his or her peers. It is equally important to avoid using self-centered conver-
sation, such as excessive use of the word “I,” because it appears that the speaker is
trying to single him- or herself out for special consideration.
In negotiations, reciprocity is important. If Chinese partners give concessions,
they expect some in return. Additionally, it is common to find them slowing down
negotiations to take advantage of Westerners’ desire to conclude arrangements as
quickly as possible. The objective of this tactic is to extract further concessions.
Another common strategy used by Chinese businesspeople is to pressure the other
party during final arrangements by suggesting that this counterpart has broken the
spirit of friendship in which the business relationship originally was established.
Again, through this strategy, the Chinese partners are trying to gain additional conces-
sions. Because negotiating can involve a loss of face, it is common to find Chinese
businesspeople carrying out the whole process through intermediaries. This allows
them to convey their ideas without fear of embarrassment.60 During negotiations, it is
also important not to show excessive emotion of any kind. Anger or frustration, for
example, is viewed as antisocial and unseemly. Negotiations should be viewed with
a long-term perspective. Those who will do best are the ones who realize they are
investing in a long-term relationship.61
guanxi
In Chinese, it means “good
connections.”

172 Part 2 The Role of Culture
While these are the traditional behaviors of Chinese businesspeople, the transition-
ing economy (see Chapter 1) has also caused a shift in business culture, which has
affected working professionals’ private lives. Performance, which was once based on
effort, is now being evaluated from the angle of results as the country continues to
maintain its flourishing profits. While traditional Chinese culture focused on family first,
financial and material well-being has become a top priority. This performance orientation
has increased stress and contributed to growing incidence of burnout, depression, sub-
stance abuse, and other ailments. Some U.S. companies have attempted to curb these
psychological ailments by offering counseling; however, this service is not as readily
accepted by Chinese culture. Instead of bringing attention to the “counseling” aspect,
firms instead promote “workplace harmony” and “personal well-being services.”62 This
suggests that while some aspects of Chinese culture are changing, international managers
must recognize the foundational culture of the country and try to deal with such issues
according to local beliefs.
Managing Culture in Russia As pointed out in Chapter 1, the Russian economy has
experienced severe problems, and the risks of doing business there cannot be overstated.
Recent tensions between the governments of Russia and the G7 nations, resulting from
Russian intervention in Crimea and Syria, have made business dealings even more com-
plicated. At the same time, however, by following certain guidelines, MNCs can begin
to tap the potential opportunities.
When conducting business in Russia, it is important to build personal relationships
with partners. Business laws and contracts do not mean as much in Russia as they do in
the West. When there are contract disputes, there is little protection for the aggrieved
party because of the time and effort needed to legally enforce the agreement. Detailed
contracts can be hammered out later on; in the beginning, all that counts is friendship.
Local consultants can be valuable. Because the rules of business have changed so
much in recent years, it pays to have a local Russian consultant working with the com-
pany. Russian expatriates often are not up to date on what is going on and, quite often,
are not trusted by local businesspeople who have stayed in the country. So the consultant
should be someone who has been in Russia all the time and understands the local busi-
ness climate.
Ethical behavior in Europe and the United States is not always the same as in
Russia. For example, it is traditional in Russia to give gifts to those with whom one
wants to transact business, an approach that may be regarded as bribery in the United
States. In recent years, large companies such as IKEA have faced repercussions in their
home markets due to bribery allegations from their business conduct in Russia (see Brief
Integrative Case 4.1 at the end of Part 4).
When conducting business in Russia, businesspeople should be careful about com-
promising or settling things too quickly, as this is often seen as a sign of weakness.
Because of the history of complexity during the Soviet Union days, Russians today tend
to be suspicious of anything that is conceded easily. If agreements are not reached after
a while, a preferred tactic on their part is to display patience and then wait it out. How-
ever, they will abandon this approach if the other side shows great patience because they
will realize that their negotiating tactic is useless.63
Conducting business in Russia requires careful consideration of cultural factors,
and it often takes a lot longer than initially anticipated. However, the benefits may be
worth the wait. And when everything is completed, there is a final cultural tradition that
should be observed: Fix and reinforce the final agreements with a nice dinner together
and an invitation to the Russians to visit your country and see your facilities.64
Managing Culture in India In recent years, India has begun to attract the attention of
large MNCs. Unsaturated consumer markets, coupled with cheap labor and production
locations, have helped make India a desirable market for global firms. The government
continues to play an important role in this process, although recently many of the

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 173
bureaucratic restrictions have been lifted as India works to attract foreign investment
and raise its economic growth rate.65,66 In addition, although most Indian businesspeople
speak English, many of their values and beliefs are markedly different from those in
the West. Thus, understanding Indian culture is critical to successfully doing business
in India.
Shaking hands with male business associates is almost always an acceptable prac-
tice. U.S. businesspeople in India are considered equals, however, and the universal
method of greeting an equal is to press one’s palms together in front of the chest and
say, “namaste,” which means “greetings to you.” Therefore, if a handshake appears to be
improper, it always is safe to use “namaste.”
For Western businesspeople in India, shirt, trousers, tie, and suit are proper attire.
In the southern part of India, where the climate is very hot, a light suit is preferable. In
the north during the winter, a light sweater and jacket are a good choice. Indian busi-
nesspeople, on the other hand, often will wear local dress. In many cases, this includes
a dhoti, which is a single piece of white cloth (about five yards long and three feet wide)
that is passed around the waist up to half its length and then the other half is drawn
between the legs and tucked at the waist. Long shirts are worn on the upper part of the
body. In some locales, such as Punjab, Sikhs will wear turbans, and well-to-do Hindus
sometimes will wear long coats like the rajahs. This coat, known as a sherwani, is the
dress recognized by the government for official and ceremonial wear. Foreign business-
people are not expected to dress like locals, and in fact, many Indian businesspeople will
dress like Europeans. Therefore, it is unnecessary to adopt local dress codes.67
Finally, it is important to remember that Indians are very tolerant of outsiders and
understand that many are unfamiliar with local customs and procedures. Therefore, there
is no need to make a phony attempt to conform to Indian cultural traditions. Making an
effort to be polite and courteous is sufficient.68
Managing Culture in France Many in the United States believe that it is more difficult
to get along with the French than with other Europeans. This feeling probably reflects
the French culture, which is markedly different from that in the United States. In France,
one’s social class is very important, and these classes include the aristocracy, the upper
bourgeoisie, the upper-middle bourgeoisie, the middle, the lower middle, and the lower.
Social interactions are affected by class stereotypes, and during their lifetime, most
French people do not encounter much change in social status. Additionally, the French
are very status conscious, and they like to provide signs of their status, such as knowledge
of literature and the arts; a well-designed, tastefully decorated house; and a high level
of education.
In the workplace, many French people are not motivated by competition or the
desire to emulate fellow workers. They often are accused of not having as intense a work
ethic as, for example, Americans or Asians. Many French workers frown on overtime,
and statistics show that on average, they have the longest vacations in the world (four to
five weeks annually). On the other hand, few would disagree that they work extremely
hard in their regularly scheduled time and have a reputation for high productivity. Part
of this reputation results from the French tradition of craftsmanship. Part of it also is
accounted for by a large percentage of the workforce being employed in small, independ-
ent businesses, where there is widespread respect for a job well done. In general, French
employees do not derive much motivation from professional accomplishment. Rather,
they believe that quality of life is what really matters. As a result, they attach a great
deal of importance to leisure time, and many are unwilling to sacrifice the enjoyment of
life for dedication to work.
Most French organizations tend to be highly centralized and have rigid structures.
As a result, it usually takes longer to carry out decisions. Because this arrangement is
quite different from the more decentralized, flattened organizations in the United States,
both middle- and lower-level U.S. expatriate managers who work in French subsidiaries
often find bureaucratic red tape a source of considerable frustration. There also are

174 Part 2 The Role of Culture
marked differences at the upper levels of management. In French companies, top manag-
ers have far more authority than their U.S. counterparts, and they are less accountable
for their actions. While top-level U.S. executives must continually defend their decisions
to the CEO or board of directors, French executives are challenged only if the company
has poor performance. As a result, those who have studied French management find that
they take a more autocratic approach.69
Managing Culture in Brazil Brazil is considered a Latin American country, but it is
important to highlight this nation since some characteristics make it markedly different
to manage as compared to other Latin American countries.70 Brazil was originally colo-
nized by Portugal, and remained affiliated with its parent country until 1865. Even
though today Brazil is extremely multicultural, the country still demonstrates many at-
tributes derived from its Portuguese heritage, including its official language. For exam-
ple, the Brazilian economy was once completely centrally controlled like many other
Latin American countries, yet was motivated by such Portuguese influences as flexibil-
ity, tolerance, and commercialism.71 This may be a significant reason behind its success-
ful economic emergence.
Brazilian businesspeople tend to have a relaxed work ethic, often respecting those
who inherit wealth and have strong familial roots over those seeking entrepreneurial
opportunities. They view time in a very relaxed manner, so punctuality is not a strong
suit in this country. Overall, the people are very good-natured and tend to avoid confron-
tation, yet they seek out risky endeavors.
In Brazil, physical contact is acceptable as a form of communication. Brazilian
businesspeople tend to stand very close to others when having a conversation, and will
touch the person’s back, arm, or elbow as a greeting or sign of respect. Additionally,
face-to-face interaction is preferred as a way to communicate, so avoid simply e-mailing
or calling. Do not be surprised if business meetings begin anywhere from 10 to
30  minutes after the scheduled time because Brazilian culture tends to not be governed
by the clock.
Appearance can be very important to Brazilian culture, as it will reflect both you
and your company. When conducting business, men should wear conservative dark suits,
shirts, and ties. Women should dress nicely but avoid too conservative or formal attire.
Brazilian managers often wonder, for example, if Americans make so much money, why
do they dress like they are poor?
Patience is key when managing business in Brazil. Many processes are longer and
more drawn out than in other cultures, including negotiations. Expressing frustration or
impatience and attempting to speed up procedures may lose the deal. The slow processes
and relaxed atmosphere do not imply that it is acceptable to be ill-prepared. Presentations
should be informative and expressive, and consistency is important. It is common for
Brazilian businesspeople to bring a lot of people to attend negotiations, mostly to observe
and learn. Subsequent meetings may include members of higher management, requiring
a rehashing of information.72,73
Managing Culture in Arab Countries The intense media attention given to the Iraq
War, terrorist actions, and continuing conflicts in the Middle East have perhaps revealed
to everyone that Arab cultures are distinctly different from Anglo cultures.74,75 Europeans
and Americans often find it extremely hard to do business in Arab countries, and a
number of Arab cultural characteristics can be cited for this difficulty.
One is the Arab view of time. In the United States, it is common to use the
cliché, “Time is money.” In Arab countries, a favorite expression is Bukra insha
Allah, which means “Tomorrow if God wills,” an expression that explains the
fatalistic approach to time common to many Arab cultures. As a result, if Arab
businesspeople commit themselves to a date in the future and fail to show up, they
may feel no guilt or concern because they believe they have no control over time in
the first place.

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 175
When conducting business in an Arab country, it is important to understand that
culture generally holds that destiny depends more on the will of a supreme being than
on the behavior of individuals. A higher power dictates the outcome of important
events, so individual action is of little consequence. Also of importance is that, in the
culture of many Arab countries, social status is largely determined by family position
and connections, not necessarily by accomplishments. This view helps to explain why
some Middle Easterners take great satisfaction in appearing to be helpless. This
approach is quite different from that in the United States, where the strong tend to be
compensated and rewarded. If a person was ill, such as in this example, the individual
would be relieved of his responsibility until he or she had regained full health. In the
interim, the rest of the group would go on without the sick person, and he or she
might lose power.
In Arab countries, initial meetings typically are used to get to know the other
party. Business-related discussions may not occur until the third or fourth meeting.
Also, in contrast to the common perception among many Western businesspeople
who have never been to an Arab country, it is not necessary to bring the other party
a gift. If this is done, however, it should be a modest gift. A good example is a
novelty or souvenir item from the visitor’s home country. Also, Arab businesspeople
tend to attach a great deal of importance to status and rank. When meeting with
them, one should pay deference to the senior person first. It also is important never
to criticize or berate anyone publicly. This causes the individual to lose face, and
the same is true for the person who makes these comments. Mutual respect is required
at all times.76
The World of International Management—Revisited
Management at many companies and in many countries is becoming more and more
multicultural, yet individual corporate cultures persist. Apple and Xiaomi are both exam-
ples of highly successful companies with radically different approaches to strategy and
management. Apple prides itself on groundbreaking innovation, individual achievement,
and excellence. At Xiaomi, the emphasis is on extending innovations and applications
and on group achievement and collective responsibility, all geared toward companywide
success. The two companies even take a very different approach to their supply chains,
with Apple outsourcing the entirety of its production and only manufacturing its new
phone models for about a year, while Xiaomi produces its new phone models for a lon-
ger period of time and maintains contracts with suppliers who can adjust production
based on frequent changes in demand. In terms of products, Apple is a first-mover with
a universal product focus, while Xiaomi is a “fast follower” with a variety of phones for
its different markets. In some ways, these two companies epitomize the cultures from
which they emanate, but both are now global players.
Cross-border investments by Chinese, Indian, and other developing-country firms
have prompted investing firms, especially in Europe and North America, to more thought-
fully consider cultural issues as they seek to integrate local companies and employees
into their global organizations. As we saw in Chapter 4, East Asian, U.S., and Western
European cultures differ on many dimensions, which may pose challenges for companies
seeking to operate across these geographical/cultural boundaries.
Now that you have read this chapter, you should have a good understanding of the
importance and the difficulties of managing across cultures. Using this knowledge as a
platform, answer the following questions: (1) Which aspects of Apple’s culture have
helped it succeed in its global growth and which may have impeded it? (2) Which aspects
of Xiaomi’s culture have helped it succeed in its global growth and which may have
impeded it? (3) How would you characterize Apple and Xiaomi in terms of the four
basic strategic predispositions? (4) What might Apple learn from Xiaomi and Xiaomi
learn from Apple?

176 Part 2 The Role of Culture
1. One major problem facing MNCs is that they some-
times attempt to manage across cultures in ways
similar to those of their home country. MNC dispo-
sitions toward managing across cultures can be
characterized as (1) ethnocentric, (2) polycentric,
(3) regiocentric, and (4) geocentric. These different
approaches shape how companies adapt and adjust
to cultural pressures around the world.
2. One major challenge when dealing with cross-
cultural problems is that of overcoming parochialism
and simplification. Parochialism is the tendency to
view the world through one’s own eyes and per-
spectives. Simplification is the process of exhibiting
the same orientation toward different cultural
groups. Another problem is that of doing things the
same way in foreign markets as they are done in
domestic markets. Research shows that in some
cases, this approach can be effective; however,
effective cross-cultural management more com-
monly requires approaches different than those used
at home. One area where this is particularly evident
is human resource management. Recruitment, selec-
tion, training, and compensation often are carried
out in different ways in different countries, and
what works in the United States may have limited
value in other countries and geographic regions.
3. Doing business in various parts of the world
requires the recognition and understanding of cul-
tural differences. Some of these differences revolve
around the importance the society assigns to time,
status, control of decision making, personal accom-
plishment, and work itself. These types of cultural
differences help to explain why effective managers
in China or Russia often are quite different from
those in France, and why a successful style in the
United States will not be ideal in Arab countries.
SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS
KEY TERMS
ethnocentric predisposition, 159
geocentric predisposition, 159
globalization imperative, 160
guanxi, 171
parochialism, 162
polycentric predisposition, 159
regiocentric predisposition, 159
simplification, 163
REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. Define the four basic predispositions MNCs have
toward their international operations.
2. If a locally based manufacturing firm with sales of
$350 million decided to enter the EU market by set-
ting up operations in France, which orientation would
be the most effective: ethnocentric, polycentric, regio-
centric, or geocentric? Why? Explain your choice.
3. In what way are parochialism and simplification
barriers to effective cross-cultural management? In
each case, give an example.
4. Many MNCs would like to do business overseas in
the same way that they do business domestically.
Do research findings show that any approaches that
work well in the United States also work well in
other cultures? If so, identify and describe two.
5. In most cases, local managerial approaches must be
modified for doing business overseas. What are
three specific examples that support this statement?
Be complete in your answer.
6. What are some categories of cultural differences
that help make one country or region of the world
different from another? In each case, describe the
value or norm and explain how it would result in
different behavior in two or more countries. If you
like, use the countries discussed in this chapter as
your point of reference.
Haier is a China-based multinational corporation that sells
a wide variety of commercial and household appliances in
the international marketplace. These range from washers,
dryers, and refrigerators to industrial heating and ventila-
tion systems. Visit Haier.com and read about some of the
latest developments in which the company is engaged:
(1)  What type of cultural challenges does Haier face when
it attempts to market its products worldwide? Is demand
universal for all these offerings, or is there a “national
responsiveness” challenge, as discussed in the chapter, that
must be addressed? (2) Investigate the way in which Haier
has adapted its products in different countries and regions,
especially emerging markets. What are some examples?
(3) In managing its far-flung enterprise, what are two cul-
tural challenges that the company is likely to face and
what will it need to do to respond to these?
INTERNET EXERCISE: HAIER’S APPROACH

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 177
1. Nancy J. Adler, International Dimensions of Orga-
nizational Behavior, 5th ed. (Cincinnati, OH:
Southwestern, 2007).
2. Evan Niu, “How Many iPhones Has Apple Sold?”
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3. Dylan Love, “At Apple, They Really Are After
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4. Adam Lashinsky, “This Is How Apple Keeps the
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5. Parmy Olson, “How China’s Xiaomi Does in a
Week What Apple Does in a Year: Update
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com/sites/parmyolson/2013/10/22/how-chinas-
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6. Ibid.
7. David M. Barreda, “Who Supplies Apple? (It’s Not
Just China),” China File, February 14, 2013, www.
chinafile.com/who-supplies-apple-it-s-not-just-china-
interactive-map.
8. Peter Cohan, “Apple Can’t Innovate or Manage
Supply Chain,” Forbes, October 26, 2012.
http://www.forbes.com/sites/petercohan/2012/10/26/
apple-cant-innovate-or-manage-supply-chain/.
9. “Xiaomi & the Supply Chain Behind the World’s
Highest Valued Startup,” Elementum News, April
16, 2015, http://news.elementum.com/how-supply-
chain-is-building-xiaomis-empire.
10. Ibid.
11. Devindra Hardawar, “What China’s Xiaomi Can
Teach Apple, Google, and the Western Tech
World,” Venture Beat, September 1, 2013, http://
venturebeat.com/2013/09/01/what-xiaomi-can-teach-
google-apple-and-the-western-tech-world/.
12. Miguel Helft and Shan Carter, “A Chief Executive’s
Attention to Detail, Noted in 313 Patents,” The New
York Times, August 25, 2011, www.nytimes.
com/2011/08/26/technology/apple-patents-show-
steve-jobss-attention-to-design.html?_r=2.
13. Nick Bilton, “Bits: What Apple vs. HTC Could
Mean,” The New York Times, March 2, 2010,
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vs-htc-could-mean/.
14. Leo Kelion, “Apple v Samsung Patent Verdict
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15. Parmy Olson, “Xiaomi May Have a Major Patent
Problem,” Forbes, January 29, 2015, www.forbes.
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problem/#37415e5322ec.
16. Salvador Rodriguez, “Why Xiaomi Is Not Coming
to America Anytime Soon: It Only Has 2 US Pat-
ents,” International Business Times, March 30,
2015, www.ibtimes.com/why-xiaomi-not-coming-
america-anytime-soon-it-only-has-2-us-pat-
ents-1863838.
17. “Smartphone Vendor Market Share, 2015 Q2,” IDC,
http://www.idc.com/prodserv/smartphone-market-
share.jsp.
18. Carrie Mihalcik, “Xiaomi Made Only $56M Last
Year, Filing Shows,” CNet, December 16, 2014,
www.cnet.com/news/upstart-phone-maker-xiaomi-
values-growth-over-profit/.
19. Nissan Motor Corporation, “Nissan Reports Net
Income of 389 Billion Yen for FY2013,” news
releases, May 12, 2014, www.nissan-global.com/
EN/NEWS/2014/_STORY/140512-01-e.html.
20. Nissan Motor Corporation, “Nissan Reports Net
Income of $4.2 Billion (¥457.6 billion) for
FY2014,” news release, May 13, 2015, http://nissan-
news.com/en-US/nissan/usa/releases/nissan-reports-
net-income-of-4-2-billion-457-6-billion-for-fy2014.
21. Yuro Kageyama, “Nissan Reports 38 Percent Rise
in Profit, Raises Forecasts,” AP, November 2, 2015,
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raises-forecasts.
22. “New models lift Renault profit despite Russia
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idUSKCN0VL0KP.
23. “World Motor Vehicle Production,” OICA, February
2016, www.oica.net/category/production-statistics/.
24. “Dacia Exceeded the Threshold of 500,000 Vehicles
Sold Worldwide,” Dacia Group, January 19, 2015,
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dacia-exceeded-the-threshold-of-500000-vehicles-
sold-worldwide.
25. Luca Ciferri, “How Renault’s Low-Cost Dacia Has
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January 2, 2013, http://europe.autonews.com/arti-
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cost-dacia-has-become-a-cash-cow.
26. Greeshma M, “5 Reasons Why Renault Kwid Will
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September 26, 2015, www.ibtimes.co.in/5-reasons-
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ENDNOTES

178 Part 2 The Role of Culture
27. “Renault-Nissan Alliance Celebrates 15th Anniver-
sary as Four Key Business Units Prepare to Con-
verge,” Renault Nissan, March 27, 2014, www.
media.blog.alliance-renault-nissan.com/news/renault-
nissan-alliance-celebrates-15th-anniversary-as-four-
key-business-units-prepare-to-converge/.
28. Lisa Hoecklin, Managing Cultural Differences:
Strategies for Competitive Advantage (Workingham,
England: Addison-Wesley, 1995), pp. 98–99.
29. Marcy Beitle, Arjun Sethi, Jessica Milesko, and
Alyson Potenza, “The Offshore Culture Clash,”
AT  Kearney Executive Agenda XI, no. 2 (2008),
pp.  32–39.
30. Matt Ackerman, “State St.: New Markets Key to
Growth,” American Banker, May 3, 2004, p. 1.
31. Linda M. Randall and Lori A. Coakley, “Building a
Successful Partnership in Russia and Belarus: The
Impact of Culture on Strategy,” Business Horizons,
March–April 1998, pp. 15–22.
32. Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner,
Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diver-
sity in Global Business, 2nd ed. (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1998), p. 202.
33. See, for example, Anisya S. Thomas and Stephen L.
Mueller, “A Case for Comparative Entrepreneurship:
Assessing the Relevance of Culture,” Journal of
International Business Studies, Second Quarter
2000, pp. 287–301.
34. Adapted from Richard Mead, International Manage-
ment (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1994), pp.
57–59.
35. Fred Luthans, Dianne H. B. Welsh, and Stuart A.
Rosenkrantz, “What Do Russian Managers Really
Do? An Observational Study with Comparisons to
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Studies, Fourth Quarter 1993, pp. 741–761.
36. Diane H. B. Welsh, Fred Luthans, and Steven M.
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Goes to Russia: Replicating an Experimental Analy-
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pp. 15–35.
37. Diane H. B. Welsh, Fred Luthans, and Steven M.
Sommer, “Managing Russian Factory Workers: The
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Techniques,” Academy of Management Journal,
February 1993, pp. 58–79.
38. Welsh, Luthans, and Sommer, “Organizational
Behavior Modification,” p. 31.
39. The summary of positive (17 percent average) per-
formance from O.B.Mod. for U.S. samples can be
found in Fred Luthans and Alexander Stajkovic,
“Reinforce for Performance,” Academy of Manage-
ment Executive 13, no. 2 (1999), pp. 49–57.
40. Steven M. Sommer, Seung-Hyun Bae, and Fred
Luthans, “The Structure-Climate Relationship in
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Management 12, no. 2 (1995), pp. 23–36.
41. Also see Steven Sommer, Seung-Hyun Bae, and
Fred Luthans, “Organizational Commitment Across
Cultures: The Impact of Antecedents on Korean
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pp. 977–993.
42. Sommers, Bae, and Luthans, “The Structure-
Climate Relationship in Korean Organizations.”
43. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, Riding the
Waves of Culture, p. 196.
44. Shari Caudron, “Lessons for HR Overseas,” Person-
nel Journal, February 1995, p. 92.
45. Richard M. Hodgetts and Fred Luthans, “U.S. Mul-
tinationals’ Compensation Strategies for Local Man-
agement: Cross-Cultural Implications,”
Compensation and Benefits Review, March–April
1993, pp. 42–48.
46. Philip M. Rosenzweig and Nitin Nohria, “Influ-
ences on Human Resource Management Practices in
Multinational Corporations,” Journal of Interna-
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pp. 229–251.
47. “Disillusioned Workers Cost Japanese Economy up
to $180.18 Billion,” The Wall Street Journal,
September 5, 2001, p. B18.
48. Also see Richard W. Wright, “Trends in Interna-
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Journal of International Business Studies, Fourth
Quarter 1994, pp. 687–701.
49. Also see Schon Beechler and John Zhuang Yang,
“The Transfer of Japanese-Style Management to
American Subsidiaries: Contingencies, Constraints,
and Competencies,” Journal of International Busi-
ness Studies, Third Quarter 1994, pp. 467–491.
50. Mansour Javidan, Peter W. Dorfman, et al., “In the
Eye of the Beholder: Cross Cultural Lessons in
Leadership from Project GLOBE,” Academy of
Management Perspectives 20, no. 1 (2006),
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51. Ibid.
52. Jacob M. Schlesinger, “Another Foreign CEO
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leaves-japans-executive-ranks/.
53. Jean Lee, “Emerging Need: How Companies in
Developing Markets Can Cultivate the Leaders

Chapter 5 Managing Across Cultures 179
They Lack,” The Wall Street Journal Online, May
24, 2010, www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748
704878904575030901196923746.
54. John Boudreau and Brandon Bailey, “Doing Business
in China Getting Tougher for U.S. Companies,”
Mercury News, March 27, 2010.
55. Emily Rauhala, “Q. and A.: Doing Business in
China,” The New York Times online, June 16, 2010,
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57. Stephen S. Standifird and R. Scott Marshall, “The
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58. Lee Mei Yi and Paul Ellis, “Insider-Outsider Per-
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59. Rosalie L. Tung, “Managing in Asia: Cross-Cultural
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60. For more on this topic, see Philip R. Harris and
Robert T. Moran, Managing Cultural Differences,
3rd ed. (Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1991),
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61. Ming-Jer Chen, Inside Chinese Business (Boston:
Harvard Business School Press, 2001), p. 153.
62. Michelle Conlin, “Go-Go-Going to Pieces in
China,” BusinessWeek, April 23, 2007, p. 88.
63. For additional insights into how to interact and
negotiate effectively with the Russians, see Richard
D. Lewis, When Cultures Collide (London:
Nicholas Brealey, 1999), pp. 314–318.
64. William B. Snavely, Serguel Miassaoedov, and
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65. “The AU: Challenges for India,” Chicago Tribune,
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66. Amy Waldman, “In India, Economic Growth and
Democracy Do Mix,” The New York Times, May
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67. Adapted from Harris and Moran, Managing
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68. Also see Lewis, When Cultures Collide,
pp. 341–346.
69. Jean-Louis Barsoux and Peter Lawrence, “The
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70. T. Lenartowicz and James Patrick Johnson, “A
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71. Reed E. Nelson and Suresh Gopalan, “Do Organi-
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72. Derived from Raul Gouvea, “Brazil: A Strategic
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73. David Hannon, “Brazil Offers the Best of Both
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74. Sean Van Zyl, “Global Political Risks: Post 9/11,”
Canadian Underwriter 71, no. 3 (March 2004),
p. 16.
75. Marvin Zonis, “Mideast Hopes: Endless Surprises,”
Chicago Tribune, January 18, 2004, p. 1.
76. Adapted from Harris and Moran, Managing Cul-
tural Differences, p. 503.
77. CIA, “Poland,” The World Factbook (2016), https://
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
geos/pl.html.
78. Ibid.
79. “Poland: Selected Indicators,” Organization for Eco-
nomic Co-operation and Development, https://data.
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80. CIA, “Poland.” This is Op. cit of Endnote 77.
81. “Poland: Selected Indicators.” This is Op. Cit of
Endnote 79.
82. CIA, “Poland.” This is Op. cit of Endnote 77.
83. Ibid.
84. Deyana Ivanova, “Tesco Share Price: Grocer’s
Polish Business at Risk,” Invezz, February 10, 2016,
http://invezz.com/news/equities/22323-Tesco-share-
price-Grocers-Polish-business-at-risk-.

180
Poland is located in Central Europe and is bordered by
Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus,
and Lithuania. The Baltic Sea is located to the northwest.
Slightly smaller than New Mexico, the country’s terrain
is largely flat with mountain ranges along its southern
border. Its climate is relatively cool, with moderately
severe winters and mild summer temperatures. Poland’s
natural resources include coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas,
silver, lead, salt, amber, and arable land.77
Poland’s population, estimated at 38,562,000, has
remained steady for the last several years. Poland, with a
median age of 40 years old, has an older-than-average
population. The country is essentially entirely made up of
native Poles. Immigrants do not comprise a significant
proportion of the population. Poland has no citizenship
by birth; instead, citizenship is awarded by descent, which
requires both parents to be citizens of Poland. The coun-
try is almost exclusively Roman Catholic.78
Poland’s GDP stands at US$545 billion, or US$24,952
per capita. Unlike most of Europe, Poland has seen years
of steady economic gains. In 2015, the economy expanded
at 3.5 percent.79 Poland was one of the only countries in
the European Union to avoid a recession during 2008–
2009: The government of Prime Minister Donald Tusk
steered the Polish economy through the economic down-
turn by skillfully managing public finances and adopting
controversial pension and tax reforms to further shore up
public finances. Once a largely agricultural nation, the
country’s economy has transitioned to one based primar-
ily on industry (41 percent) and services (56 percent).80
The labor force, with 18.29 million people, ranks 34th in
the world in size.81 Poland’s main export partners include
Germany, the UK, the Czech Republic, France, Italy, the
Netherlands, and Russia. Machinery and transportation
equipment, intermediate manufactured goods, miscella-
neous manufactured goods, foodstuffs, and live animals
are all major exports.82
Poland has adopted a republic form of government. It
was one of the first ex-communist countries to embrace a
capitalistic economy with privatization and economic lib-
eralization. The country’s economic success following the
fall of the Soviet Union was largely attributed to the gov-
ernment’s success at privatizing most of the small and
medium state-owned companies and encouraging foreign
direct investment. Poland’s major difficulties lie in
its somewhat deficient infrastructure, its rigid labor codes,
a burdensome commercial court system, its extensive
government red tape, a lack of energy mix, and its
burdensome tax system.83
You Be the International
Management Consultant
Tesco, a multinational grocery and general merchandise
retailer, operates over 6,000 stores around the world and
442 stores in Poland. Tesco has a large online presence
and handles online orders for customers in its various
markets. The company has enjoyed considerable success
across the world but has faced some recent difficulty with
its Polish investments.
The Polish government has recently announced a plan
to increase revenues to pay for various initiatives, includ-
ing the proposed imposition on large retailers of a
1.9  percent tax on gross revenue. This tax is targeted at
“foreign-dominated industries” like supermarkets and
banks. Moody’s estimates that this new tax could cost
Tesco as much as 3.5 percent of earnings.84
Questions
1. If you were a consultant for Tesco, how would you
advise Tesco to deal with the new tax?
2. Would this new tax be enough for you to advise the
company to end business in Poland?
3. Does the fact that this regulation is specifically
targeted at foreign-dominated industries and
businesses create concern for future regulations
should you choose to continue operations in
Poland?
PolandIn the International Spotlight

182
O
B
JE
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T
IV
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S
O
F
T
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C
H
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PT
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Chapter 6
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES
AND DIVERSITY
The World of International
Management
Managing Culture and Diversity
in Global Teams
A ccording to many international consultants and manag-ers, diverse and global teams are one of the most con-
sistent sources of competitive advantage for any organization.
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, the international accounting and
consulting firm, has embraced a global mindset when building
its teams. According to the company, “strength from cultural
diversity is one of Deloitte’s shared values.” With more than
200,000 employees spread across offices in 150 countries,
the company has implemented a corporate culture that
regards diversity as a key competitive advantage.1
At Deloitte, as with most multinational organizations, global
teams are also virtual teams. According to a study by Kirkman,
Rosen, Gibson, and Tesluk, virtual teams are “groups of people
who work interdependently with shared purpose across space,
time, and organization boundaries using technology to commu-
nicate and collaborate.”2 These teams are often cross-cultural
and cross-functional. Furthermore, Kirkman and colleagues
explain that virtual teams allow “organizations to combine the
best expertise regardless of geographic location.”3 To manage
a global team, international managers must take into consider-
ation three factors: culture, communication, and trust.
Culture
At Deloitte, leadership is trained to adapt to the cultural differ-
ences that their globally located employees exhibit. Leveraging
the experiences of one of their global teams, the company
conducted a three-month study into how cultural dynamics
impact performance and success. The team included employ-
ees from Spain, Germany, Australia, the United States, and
Japan. Through this study, Deloitte identified four key findings
regarding culture and global leadership:4
1. “Cultural and/or personality diversity is in the eye of the
beholder.” Despite prior assumptions that cultural differ-
ences would have the largest impact on the team’s final
deliverable, the team members in the study were split
as to whether culture or personality led to a greater
The previous two chapters focused on national cultures. The
overriding objective of this chapter is to examine the interac-
tion of national culture (diversity) and organizational cultures
and to discuss ways in which MNCs can manage the often
inherent conflicts between national and organizational cultures.
Many times, the cultural values and resulting behaviors that
are common in a particular country are not the same as those
in another. To be successful, MNCs must balance and integrate
the national cultures of the countries in which they do busi-
ness with their own organizational culture. Employee relations,
which includes how organizational culture responds to national
culture or diversity, deals with internal structures and defines
how the company manages. Customer relations, associated
with how national culture reacts to organizational cultures,
reflects how the local community views the company from a
customer service and employee satisfaction perspective.
Although the field of international management has long
recognized the impact of national cultures, only recently has
attention been given to the importance of managing organiza-
tional cultures and diversity. This chapter first examines com-
mon organizational cultures that exist in MNCs, and then
presents and analyzes ways in which multiculturalism and
diversity are being addressed by the best, world-class multina-
tionals. The specific objectives of this chapter are
1. DEFINE exactly what is meant by organizational culture,
and discuss the interaction of national and MNC cultures.
2. IDENTIFY the four most common categories of organiza-
tional culture that have been found through research, and
discuss the characteristics of each.
3. PROVIDE an overview of the nature and degree of multi-
culturalism and diversity in today’s MNCs.
4. DISCUSS common guidelines and principles that are used
in building multicultural effectiveness at the team and the or-
ganizational levels.

183
better, stronger cross-cultural teams. Through the program,
individuals are identified as having one or more of the four
types of “chemistries”: Pioneer, Driver, Integrator, or Guardian.
By sharing their “chemistry” with the team, team members
can adapt their style of delivery to better communicate with
each other. Deloitte delivers “Business Chemistry” to external
clients as well as to its internal teams. To date, more than
90,000 people in 150 countries have used the program.6
In her article “Tips for Working in Global Teams,” Melanie
Doulton provides helpful suggestions for good communication
in a global team:
∙ When starting a project with a new team, hold an initial
meeting in which all members introduce themselves
and describe the job each one is going to do.
∙ Hold regular meetings throughout the project to ensure
everyone is “on the same page.” Follow up conference
calls with written minutes to reinforce what was discussed
and what individual team members are responsible for.
∙ Put details of the project in writing, especially for a new
team in which everyone speaks in different accents and
uses different idioms and colloquialisms.
∙ Communicate using the most effective technology. For
example, decide when e-mail is preferable to a phone
call or instant messaging is preferable to a videoconfer-
ence. In addition, try to understand everyone’s communi-
cation style. For example, for a high-context culture such
as India’s, people tend to speak in the passive voice,
whereas in North America, people use the active voice.7
Moreover, while acknowledging the challenges of communica-
tion in virtual teams, Steven R. Rayner also points out that
written communication can have an advantage. He states,
“The process of writing—where the sender must carefully
examine how to communicate his/her message—provides the
sender with the opportunity to create a more refined response
than an ‘off-the-cuff’ verbal comment.”8
impact. In many instances, the individual personalities of
the team members, irrespective of national origin, were
shown to be equally as differentiating.
2. “Cultural diversity can positively contribute to people’s
professional and personal enjoyment of the project, as
well as a project’s outcome.” The team members in the
study universally expressed an enhanced experience
from working with others of differing cultures. A few fac-
tors seemed to lead to this. Genuine curiosity about their
fellow team members, learning how to build new types
of relationships, and being challenged to think differently
were all found to be enjoyable by the employees.
3. “Cultural diversity can indirectly encourage project mem-
bers to rethink their usual working habits and expecta-
tions, behave with fewer assumptions about the ‘right’
way to address an issue and promote linguistic clarity.”
Unexpectedly, the lack of a common first language
between team members actually enhanced communica-
tion. Employees spent more time ensuring that the con-
tent of their communication was clearly understood by
the team, and team members reported that they actually
found themselves transforming into better listeners.
4. “The dominance of cultural diversity amongst team mem-
bers reduces the bias to interact with people who have
common characteristics and create a unique bond.” With
each employee bringing a different set of perspectives to
the table, the playing field among the team members
was more level. The employees expressed a sense of
synergy, with many stating that they felt better prepared
to overcome challenges by having such a diverse set of
skills at their disposal. Ironically, the lack of similarities
between the employees in the study actually led to
greater personal connections to each other, with team
members expressing a familial feeling among the group.5
Communication
Communicating without face-to-face interaction can have
its drawbacks. Being consciously aware of the way that
both you and your teammates communicate can increase
the chances of success for your team.
To help team members gain a better understanding of
each other’s communication styles, Deloitte developed
“Business Chemistry,” a program that identifies the pre-
ferred business behaviors of team members to help build
Likelihood of Message Getting Interpreted Correctly
Source: Adapted from Steven R. Rayner, “The Virtual Team Challenge,” Rayner & Associates,
Inc., 1997.
Fax/Letter
LOW HIGH
E-mail Telephone
Video
Conferencing
Face-to-Face
Interaction

184 Part 2 The Role of Culture
Trust
Kirkman and colleagues emphasize that “a specific challenge
for virtual teams, compared to face-to-face teams, is the dif-
ficulty of building trust between team members who rarely, or
never, see each other.”9  Rayner notes that “by some estimates,
as much as 30 percent of senior management time is spent in
‘chance’ encounters (such as unplanned hallway, parking lot,
and lunch room conversations). . . . In a virtual team setting,
these opportunities for relationship building and idea sharing
are far more limited.”10
How can managers build trust among virtual team mem-
bers? From their research, Kirkman and colleagues discovered
that “building trust requires rapid responses to electronic com-
munications from team members, reliable performance, and
consistent follow-through. Accordingly, team leaders should
coach virtual team members to avoid long lags in responding,
unilateral priority shifts, and failure to follow up on commit-
ments.”11 In addition, Doulton recommends that virtual team
members “exchange feedback early” and allow an extra day
or two for responses due to time zone differences.12
Team building activities also build trust. According to Kirkman
and colleagues, as part of the virtual team launch, it is recom-
mended that all members meet face-to-face to “set objectives,
clarify roles, build personal relationships, develop team norms,
and establish group identity.”13  Picking the right team members
can help the teams become more cohesive as well. When Kirk-
man and colleagues interviewed 75 team leaders and members
in virtual teams, people responded that skills in communication,
teamwork, thinking outside the box, and taking initiative were
more important than technical skills. This finding was surprising,
considering most managers select virtual team members based
on technical skills. Having people with the right skills is essential
to bring together a successful virtual team.14
At Deloitte, training employees to trust and harness the ben-
efits of global, diverse teaming starts at the intern level. Through
Deloitte’s Global Project Challenge, interns cross-collaborate with
other Deloitte employees across the world to solve real business
problems. Employees learn strategies to cope with both the
logistical challenges, such as time zone differences, and cultural
challenges that arise when working in a virtual team.
Advantages of Global Virtual Teams
In addition to its challenges of overcoming cultural and com-
munication barriers, global virtual teams have certain advan-
tages over face-to-face teams.
First, Kirkman and colleagues concluded that “working virtu-
ally can reduce team process losses associated with stereotyp-
ing, personality conflicts, power politics, and cliques commonly
experienced by face-to-face teams. Virtual team members may
be unaffected by potentially divisive demographic differences
when there is minimal face-to-face contact.” Managers may
even give fairer assessments of team members’ work because
managers are compelled to rely on objective data rather than
being influenced by their perceptual biases.15
Second, Rayner observes that “having members span many
different time zones can literally keep a project moving around
the clock. . . . Work doesn’t stop—it merely shifts to a different
time zone.”16
Third, according to Rayner, “The ability for an organization
to bring people together from remote geography and form a
cohesive team that is capable of quickly solving complex prob-
lems and making effective decisions is an enormous competi-
tive advantage.”17
For an international manager, this competitive advantage
makes overcoming challenges of managing global teams worth
the effort.
As can be seen from Deloitte’s experiences, there are both benefits and challenges inher-
ent in multinational, multicultural teams. These teams, which almost always include a
diverse group of members with varying functional, geographic, ethnic, and cultural back-
grounds, can be an efficient and effective vehicle for tackling increasingly multidimen-
sional business problems. At the same time, this very diversity brings challenges that are
often exacerbated when the teams are primarily “virtual.” Research has demonstrated the
benefits of diversity and has also offered insight on how best to overcome the inherent
challenges of global teams, including those that are “virtual.”
In this chapter we will explore the nature and characteristics of organizational
culture as it relates to doing business in today’s global context. In addition, strategies
and guidelines for establishing a strong organizational culture in the presence of diversity
are presented.
■ The Nature of Organizational Culture
The chapters in Part One provided the background on the external environment, and the
chapters so far in Part Two have been concerned with the external culture. Regardless
of whether this environment or cultural context affects the MNC, when individuals join
an MNC, not only do they bring their national culture, which greatly affects their learned
beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors, but they also enter into an organizational culture.
Employees of MNCs are expected to “fit in.” For example, at PepsiCo, personnel are

Chapter 6 Organizational Cultures and Diversity 185
expected to be cheerful, positive, and enthusiastic and have committed optimism; at Ford,
they are expected to show self-confidence, assertiveness, and machismo.18 Regardless of
the external environment or their national culture, managers and employees must under-
stand and follow their organization’s culture to be successful. In this section, after first
defining organizational culture, we analyze the interaction between national and organi-
zational cultures. An understanding of this interaction has become recognized as vital to
effective international management.
Definition and Characteristics
Organizational culture has been defined in several different ways. In its most basic
form, organizational culture can be defined as the shared values and beliefs that enable
members to understand their roles in and the norms of the organization. A more detailed
definition is offered by organizational cultural theorist Edgar Schein, who defines it as
a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of
external adaptation and internal integration, and that has worked well enough to be
considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to per-
ceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.19
Regardless of how the term is defined, a number of important characteristics are
associated with an organization’s culture. These have been summarized as
1. Observed behavioral regularities, as typified by common language, terminol-
ogy, and rituals.
2. Norms, as reflected by things such as the amount of work to be done and the
degree of cooperation between management and employees.
3. Dominant values that the organization advocates and expects participants to
share, such as high product and service quality, low absenteeism, and high
efficiency.
4. A philosophy that is set forth in the MNC’s beliefs regarding how employees
and customers should be treated.
5. Rules that dictate the dos and don’ts of employee behavior relating to areas
such as productivity, customer relations, and intergroup cooperation.
6. Organizational climate, or the overall atmosphere of the enterprise, as reflected
by the way that participants interact with each other, conduct themselves with
customers, and feel about the way they are treated by higher-level management.20
This list is not intended to be all-inclusive, but it does help illustrate the nature of
organizational culture.21  The major problem is that sometimes an MNC’s organizational
culture in one country’s facility differs sharply from organizational cultures in other
countries. For example, managers who do well in England may be ineffective in Germany,
despite the fact that they work for the same MNC. In addition, the cultures of the English
and German subsidiaries may differ sharply from those of the home U.S. location. Effec-
tively dealing with multiculturalism within the various locations of an MNC is a major
challenge for international management.
A good example is provided by the British-Swedish MNC AstraZeneca PLC, the
seventh-largest pharmaceutical company in the world. With operations in over 100 coun-
tries on six continents, AstraZeneca’s 13-member senior executive team includes leaders
from the United Kingdom, France, Australia, the United States, and the Nether-
lands.22 Over 23 percent of the company’s employees work in North America, and about
31 percent are employed in Asia.23 To unite such a diverse set of employees under a
common corporate culture, AstraZeneca’s Global Steering Group has focused on three
universal cultural pillars: “Leadership and Management Capability,” “Transparency in
Talent Management and Career Progression,” and “Work/Life Challenges.”24 Further-
more, the company introduced a new cross-cultural mentorship program, called Insight
Exchange. By pairing senior- and junior-level employees from different cultural and
professional backgrounds, AstraZeneca hopes to create a more open culture.
organizational culture
Shared values and beliefs
that enable members
to understand their roles
and the norms of the
organization.

186 Part 2 The Role of Culture
In some cases companies have deliberately maintained two different business cul-
tures because they do not want one culture influencing the other. A good example is
provided by the Tata Group, the giant conglomerate based in India, which has made
multiple transnational acquisitions in recent years. When its automobile subsidiary, Tata
Motors, bought control of Daewoo, a Korean automaker, it used a strategy that is not
very common when one company controls another. Rather than impose its own culture
on the chain, Tata’s management took a back seat. To emphasize this approach, Tata
Group chairman Ratan Tata publicly stated that “Tata Motors will operate Daewoo as a
Korean company, in Korea, managed by Koreans.”25  Tata maintained the Daewoo brand
name, appointed a Korean as the new CEO, and operated as a Korean business. The
union vice president even remarked that “Though Tata is a foreign company, we were
able to confirm that it recognizes and respects Korea in many aspects.” In the first four
years after the acquisition, revenue doubled, operating profit grew sevenfold, and trust
between the employees’ union and management improved.26   
Tata Chemicals took a similar approach when it purchased British soda ash producer
Brunner Mond and its Kenyan subsidy Magadi Soda. To maintain the existing company
culture at Brunner Mond and Magadi Soda, Tata Chemicals did not change the companies’
names or logos, kept all existing senior executives in place, and made it clear that all major
decisions would be made jointly between Brunner Mond, Magadi Soda, and Tata Chemi-
cals. To ensure a smooth ownership transition, executives from all three companies jointly
created a plan of action for the first 100 days post-acquisition. Since then, Tata Chemicals
has leveraged resources from all three companies to build strong relationships with exter-
nal suppliers, expand global growth opportunities, and coordinate sales and operations.27 
■ Interaction between National and Organizational Cultures
There is a widely held belief that organizational culture tends to moderate or erase the
impact of national culture. The logic of such conventional wisdom is that if a U.S. MNC
set up operations in, say, France, it would not be long before the French employees began
to “think like Americans.” In fact, evidence is accumulating that just the opposite may
be true. Hofstede’s research found that the national cultural values of employees have a
significant impact on their organizational performance, and that the cultural values
employees bring to the workplace with them are not easily changed by the organization.
So, for example, while some French employees would have a higher power distance than
Swedes and some a lower power distance, chances are “that if a company hired locals
in Paris, they would, on the whole, be less likely to challenge hierarchical power than
would the same number of locals hired in Stockholm.”28
Andre Laurent’s research supports Hofstede’s conclusions.29 He found that cultural
differences are actually more pronounced among foreign employees working within the
same multinational organization than among personnel working for firms in their native
lands. Nancy Adler summarized these research findings as follows:
When they work for a multinational corporation, it appears that Germans become more
German, Americans become more American, Swedes become more Swedish, and so on.
Surprised by these results, Laurent replicated the research in two other multinational cor-
porations, each with subsidiaries in the same nine Western European countries and the
United States. Similar to the first company, corporate culture did not reduce or eliminate
national differences in the second and third corporations. Far from reducing national differ-
ences, organization culture maintains and enhances them.30
There often are substantial differences between the organizational cultures of dif-
ferent subsidiaries, and, of course, this can cause coordination problems. For example,
when Lucent Technologies, Inc., of Murray Hill, New Jersey, merged with Alcatel SA
of Paris, France, both parties failed to realize some of the cultural differences between
themselves and their new partners. Leadership concerns due to cultural misunderstand-
ings arose from the very beginning of the merger. Frenchman Serge Tchuruk was

Chapter 6 Organizational Cultures and Diversity 187
appointed chair of the combined company, while American Patricia Russo was appointed
as CEO. In France, the chair is often seen as the company’s leader, while in the United
States, the CEO is viewed as the person highest in command. This cultural difference
led to confusion as to whether Russo or Tchuruk was actually in charge.31 Additionally,
Patricia Russo did not speak French, despite leading a now-French company, resulting
in additional confusion.32   
When the combined company faced financial crises, the cultural response differed
greatly between the American and French executives, leading to further disagreement.
In the United States, jobs are often cut when finances are pressured, whereas in France,
companies tend to reach out to the government for assistance. As a result, Alcatel-Lucent
was unable to cut costs, but also unable to secure government assistance.33 Local restric-
tions, overlooked before the merger, further hindered the combined company’s success
and added to the financial strain; in Bonn, Germany, for example, the company was
required to keep both Lucent’s and Alcatel’s original offices open, despite employing
only a combined 75 employees.34 After just a few years, both top executives were forced
to step aside. The merger never did result in profitability for the company; for all seven
years that Alcatel-Lucent operated independently before being acquired by Nokia in
2015, the company posted negative cash flows.
In examining and addressing the differences between organizational cultures, Hofstede
provided the early database of a set of proprietary cultural-analysis techniques and pro-
grams known as DOCSA (Diagnosing Organizational Culture for Strategic Application).
This approach identifies the dimensions of organizational culture summarized in Table 6–1.
Table 6–1
Dimensions of Corporate Culture
Motivation
Activities Outputs
To be consistent and precise. To strive for accuracy and To be pioneers. To pursue clear aims and objectives.
attention to detail. To refine and perfect. Get it right. To innovate and progress. Go for it.
Relationship
Job Person
To put the demands of the job before the needs of To put the needs of the individual before the needs
the individual. of the job.
Identity
Corporate Professional
To identify with and uphold the expectations of the To pursue the aims and ideals of each professional practice.
employing organizations.
Communication
Open Closed
To stimulate and encourage a full and free exchange To monitor and control the exchange and accessibility of
of information and opinion. information and opinion.
Control
Tight Loose
To comply with clear and definite systems and procedures. To work flexibly and adaptively according to the needs of the
situation.
Conduct
Conventional Pragmatic
To put the expertise and standards of the employing To put the demands and expectations of customers first. To
organization first. To do what we know is right. do what they ask.
Source: Adapted from a study by the Diagnosing Organizational Culture for Strategic Application (DOCSA) group and reported in Lisa Hoecklin, Managing Cultural
Differences: Strategies for Competitive Advantage (Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley, 1995), p. 146.

188 Part 2 The Role of Culture
It was found that when cultural comparisons were made between different subsidiaries of
an MNC, different cultures often existed in each one. Such cultural differences within an
MNC could reduce the ability of units to work well together. An example is provided in
Figure 6–1, which shows the cultural dimensions of a California-based MNC and its Euro-
pean subsidiary as perceived by the Europeans. A close comparison of these perceptions
reveals some startling differences.
The Europeans viewed the culture in the U.S. facilities as only slightly activities
oriented (see Table 6–1 for a description of these dimensions), but they saw their own
European operations as much more heavily activities oriented. The U.S. operation was
viewed as moderately people oriented, but their own relationships were viewed as very
job oriented. The Americans were seen as having a slight identification with their own
organization, while the Europeans had a much stronge