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Juvenile justice system

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Abstract

Running head: JUVENILE 1

JUVENILE 2

Annotated Bibliography on the Juvenile Justice System

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Date

Amani, B., Milburn, N. G., Lopez, S., Young-Brinn, A., Castro, L., Lee, A., & Bath, E. (2018). Families and the juvenile justice system: considerations for family-based interventionsFamily & community health41(1), 55. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5726419/

This article focused on families studying their experiences with the juvenile justice system. The article issues a qualitative descriptive analysis indicating theories that range from poor treatments of the families thus suggesting issuing of the power back to the families. The article issues perspectives through which the families should consider improving the wellbeing of the youths. The article indicates how the juveniles are incarcerated on their lives.

Elkington, K. S., Lee, J., Brooks, C., Watkins, J., & Wasserman, G. A. (2020). Falling between two systems of care: Engaging families, behavioral health and the justice systems to increase uptake of substance use treatment in youth on probation. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment112, 49-59. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740547219302995

The authors of this article conducted a qualitative interview on 58 youth participants who had just left the juvenile. They investigated the youth treatment in prohibition. The article indicates the mechanical obstacles to facility. There was lack of management decisions available. It also discusses the implications of the policy and interventions. There is need to create an interagency relationship and communication among the SU management and trial.

Evangelist, M., Ryan, J. P., Victor, B. G., Moore, A., & Perron, B. E. (2017). Disparities at adjudication in the juvenile justice system: An examination of race, gender, and age. Social Work Research41(4), 199-212. https://academic.oup.com/swr/article-abstract/41/4/199/4600566

The authors of this article discuss a study based on a research that was conducted to study the ethnic, sex and age inequalities in the likelihood of an official decree using the organizational data. From the research the authors found out that the black male have increased probability of receiving a formal adjunction. They also conducted graph analysis that indicates that the youths are prone to disparate treatments.

Hirschfield, P. J. (2018). The role of schools in sustaining juvenile justice system inequality. The Future of Children28(1), 11-36. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26641545?casa_token=4wSy-iwYHE0AAAAA:ib5N_JBTudKQ_3JWXBrjSI1nlicKHHRre6eE-Nzg9Dxl-R0eA48f5fL9ALfVH2Soj6P6ul-tET7Odv8RXQDtxUYkmu0ZFf8pPjenVdM2ns7IaRqHAtkqSQ

This article focuses on the role that the schools may play in sustaining equality in juvenile justice system. The children’s schools may have high contribution in disproportionation the minority contact with the juvenile system. This article focuses its research on two sorts of practices through which the schools may account to unbalanced minority interaction with the justice system. An example is the macro level process where the black schools in America are more likely to suspend their learners as a discipline measure in comparison to the district white schools. The author also discusses the use of restorative justice practices such as peace asking and conferencing which reduce misbehaviours through conflict resolution.

Koocher, G. P., & Kinscherff, R. T. (2016). Ethical issues in psychology and juvenile justice. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2014-56681-031

The authors and the researchers of this article address the ethical issues that arise in the juvenile justice systems. The article reflects on the principles of treating the juveniles illustrating how they have treated the juveniles different from the adult offenders. It discusses the establishment of juvenile courts and how they have impacted the systems. The authors have also discussed through the article the establishment of similar courts with the jurisdiction over juvenile and the child protection cases.

Kuperminc, G. P., Chan, W. Y., Hale, K. E., Georgia State University, & United States of America. (2018). Group Mentoring for Resilience: Increasing Positive Development and Reducing Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System. https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=274354

This article focuses on the group mentoring programs that are designed to help the youths. The programs are structured to increase positive social networks with the participant and guidance from the group ups. It illustrates how the youths receive help from different grown up entities which help them in maintaining acceptable behaviours and refraining from the juvenile systems. It illustrates how mentoring and group sessions help in contributing to positive outcomes.

Modrowski, C. A., & Kerig, P. K. (2019). Investigating the association between posttraumatic risky behavior and offending in adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system. Journal of youth and adolescence48(10), 1952-1966 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-019-01120-0

This article is based on a research that was conducted to relate risky behaviours to traumatized youth. The researcher studied the youths to identify if the youths were associated with the juvenile offending. A research was conducted on predictors of posttraumatic uncertain behaviours forecasting their offences and researching if there was a distinct class of youth. From the research the authors illustrated how the female sex was considerably interrelated to post traumatic risky behaviours. However, it was not associated to formal felonious but it was reported to relate to self-reported offences. There were no ethnic, sex or age differences.

Modrowski, C. A., & Kerig, P. K. (2019). Investigating the association between posttraumatic risky behavior and offending in adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system. Journal of youth and adolescence48(10), 1952-1966 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-019-01120-0

This article focused on the methods that are used in treating the juveniles through supervision and care of children and the juvenile justice systems. It discusses the techniques that are used by the counsellors depending on the situations and the needs of the youths. Some of the treatments methodologies discussed include behaviour modification, positive peer culture and guided group interactions. It also discusses the impacts of various methods in the system.

Juvenile justice system didn’t exist until 1899 when the first juvenile court was established in Illinois. Before then, children who had committed various crimes were charged just as adults because they were being considered as “small adults.” Concern was shown that these children who were institutionalized with adult criminals were learning advanced crimes and usually found their way back in jail (FindLaw, 2019). During revolution in America, many people were displaced and moved to major towns in search of jobs to cater for their basic needs. Children were among this population and when they were not able to find jobs, many of them became street children and started engaging in different criminal activities.

The number of children committing different crimes escalated and there was a need for the judicial system to find a solution to manage the situation. Better understanding of the development of children and compassion led to some changes in the way that they were prosecuted in courts. Juvenile institutions were being set up which dealt with teaching different life and trade skills. They acted like correctional facilities for the children (FindLaw, 2019). House of refuge was set up for reeducation of youths where intermediate sentencing was used to correct the behavior and also religious teachings were provided, offering the youths a chance to turn their lives around.

New reformatories such as foster homes were also set up in the mid-1800s where hard labor was stressed in order to punish these individuals. Separate juvenile for girls were also set up to teach them to be more responsible in the future. All these institutions were brought together to form the first juvenile court in 1899. In 1944, the first juvenile courts operated with the philosophy of parenspratiaewhere the state was expected to act as a parent and intervene where necessary if a minor was found committing any crime (CJCJ, 2020).

Since then, changes have been made in this justice system, formalizing it and making more laws to allow representation of a minor by a lawyer during trials. Stages that occur in the juvenile court include intake screening of the minors, filing of a formal petition, adjudication and lastly disposition (The National Academies Press, 2015).

Introduction

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The increase in cases of crimes committed by children necessitated the implementation of juvenile law in America. The minors who commit crimes are arraigned in juvenile courts with their defense attorneys (CJCJ, 2020). The judicial system has incorporated the laws that govern the conduct of the behavior of minors that have criminal characteristics. Juvenile systems have continued to increase in the world where the victims and their families have had notable differences in their adaptation to life after the event. There are cases where the victims in juvenile cases are unfairly treated by the members of the society who affect their livelihood and means of expression (Modrowski & Kerig, 2019). In America, for instance, the juvenile system is not fair to the black people who are seen by the fact that black schools are likely to suspend the learners while the white schools do not. This indicates the disproportionation of the minority contact with the juvenile system. Data have indicated that the black males are likely to receive an adjunction that is formal than the white male as they are grounded on ethnic inequalities as well as sex.

There are programs that have been initiated to help the youth engage in positive behaviors and increase positive social networks with participation and guidance from adults. The programs have proven to be effective in fostering positive behaviors and also in avoiding juvenile systems. There are interventions that have been sought by the counselors to assist and take care of children and the juvenile justice systems (Kuperminc et al., 2018). The counselors have decided different techniques that are dependent on the type of needs of the youths. The treatments are aimed at modification of behaviors, positive peer cultures, and guided group interactions (Koocher & Kinscherff, 2016).

References

CJCJ, (2020). Juvenile Justice History. Retrieved from http://www.cjcj.org/education1/juvenile-justice-history.html

Koocher, G. P., & Kinscherff, R. T. (2016). Ethical issues in psychology and juvenile justice. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2014-56681-031

Kuperminc, G. P., Chan, W. Y., Hale, K. E., Georgia State University, & United States of America. (2018). Group Mentoring for Resilience: Increasing Positive Development and Reducing Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System. retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=274354

Modrowski, C. A., & Kerig, P. K. (2019). Investigating the association between posttraumatic risky behavior and offending in adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system. Journal of youth and adolescence48(10), 1952-1966 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-019-01120-0

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