Methods of Wage Determination in India 1. Fixation of wages is a recent phenomenon in India 2. There was no effective machinery until 2nd world war for settlement of disputes for fixation of wages. 3. After independence of India, industrial relations become a major issue and there was phenomena increase in industrial dispute mostly over wages leading to substantial loss of production. 4. Realizing that industrial peace is essential for progress on industrial as well as economic front, the central govt. convened in 1947, and a tripartite conference consisting of representatives of employers, labour and government.
Govt. of India formulated industrial policy resolution in 1948 where the govt. has mentioned to items which has bearing on wages • statutory fixation of minimum wages • Promotion of fair wages. 5. To achieve 1st objective, the minimum wages act, 1948 was passed to lay down certain norms and procedures for determination and fixation of wages by central and state govt. 6. To achieve 2nd objective govt. of India appointed in 1949, a tripartite committee on fair wages to determine the principles on which fair wages should be fixed Wages and salary incomes in India are fixed through several institutions. These are Collective bargaining • Industrial wage bound • Govt. appointed pay commissions • Adjudication by courts & tribunals 1. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING:- • Collective bargaining relates to those arrangements under which wages and conditions of employments are generally decided by agreements negotiated between the parties. • Broadly speaking the following factors affect the wage determination by collective bargaining process ? Alternate choices & demands ? Institutional necessities ? The right and capacity to strike • In a modern democratic society wages are determined by collective bargaining in contrast to individual bargaining by working. In the matter of wage bargaining, unions are primarily concerned with ? General level of wage rates ? Structure of wages rates (differential among occupations) ? Bonus, incentives and fringe benefits, Administration of wages. 2. INDUSTRIAL WAGE BOARDS:- • Concept of wage board was first enunciated by committee on fair wages. • It was commended by first five year plan and second five year plan also considered wage board as an acceptable machinery for setting wage disputes. • Wage boards in India are of two types ? Statutory wage board ? Tripartite wage board
Statutory wage board means a body set up by law or with legal authority to establish minimum wages and other standards of employment which are then legally enforceable in particular trade or industry to which board’s decision relate. Tripartite wage board means a voluntary negotiating body set up by discussions between organized employers, workers and govt. to regulate wages, working hours and related conditions of employment. • Wage board decisions are not final and are subjected to either executive or judicious review or reconsideration by other authority or tribunals. The powers and procedure of wage boards are same as those industrial tribunals unsaturated under ID Act 1947. 3. PAY COMMISSIONS:- • First pay commission was appointed by govt. of India in 1946 under chairmanship of justice vardachariar to enquire in to conditions of service of central govt. employees. • The vardachariar commission in its report said that in no case should a mans pay less than living wage • The 2nd pay commission was appointed in aug. 1957. and commission submits its report in 1959, examined the norms for fixing a need based minimum wage set up 15th session of ILC. • Govt. f India appointed third pay commissions in 1970’s which submit its report in April 1973. In this report commission express its support for a system in which pay adjustments will occurs automatically upon an upward movement in consumer price index. • After thirteen years, govt, appointed fourth central pay cimmissions under chairmanship of justice P. N. Singhal on July 26, 1983 to examine structure of all central govt. employees, including those of union territories. Officers belong to all India service and armed forces. Commission submits its report on July 30, 1986 and recommended drastic changes in pay scale. The 5th pay commission (1952-1996) made certain recommendation regarding restricting of pay scales. • The 6th pay commissions was established on 2006 and committee submit its report on March 2008. 3. Adjudication Since independence adjudication has been one of the main instruments for settlement of disputes, improvement in wage scales and standardization of wages and allowances. Though courts and tribunals were primarily intended to deal with settlement of industrial disputes, in practiae, wage fixation has become an important element in their work and functioning. This is because of large of disputes concerning of wages and allowances.
Numerous wage disputes in many industries have been referred for adjudication to labour courts and tribunals during past ten decades. The high courts and Supreme Court have also adjudicated upon such disputes. The awards given by these authorities not only helped in formulation of a body of principles governing wage fixation but laid foundation for present wage structure in many of major industries. Some major legislation which governs the principles of wage fixation -Minimum wages Act 1948, Payments of wages Act 1936, Equal Remuneration Act 1976, Industrial Disputes Act 1947, and Companies Act 1956.
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