Take Test: Final Exam InstructionsTimed Test This test has a time limit of 1 hour and 30 minutes. You will be notified when time expires, and you may continue or submit.Warnings appear when half the time, 5 minutes, 1 minute, and 30 seconds remains. Multiple Attempts Not allowed. This test can only be taken once. Less than five minutes remain. Remaining Time:04 minutes, 44 seconds. Question 1 1. Which of these is true of brain development? Dendrite branching accelerates during infancy Myelination takes place during infancy There is an increase in synaptic connections during childhood All of the above are true2 points Question 2 1. A(n) _____ is any agent that causes a birth defect. androgen teratogen proestrogen estrogen2 points Question 3 1. According to Piaget, assimilation occurs when individuals _____. adjust their schemas to new information incorporate new information into existing schemas are deprived of parental warmth and sensitivity are insecurely attached to their caregivers2 points Question 4 1. Which of the following is the correct sequence of the stages of prenatal development? Conception, zygote, embryonic period, fetal period Conception, embryonic period, zygote, fetal period Conception, fetal period, embryonic period, zygote Conception, fetal period, zygote, embryonic period2 points Question 5 1. Which theory of aging has focused on the role of chronic stress in reducing immune system functioning? Erikson’s theory of socioemotional development Free-radical theory Cellular-clock theory Hormonal stress theory2 points Question 6 1. Which researcher tracked individuals who had experienced bereavement, and looked at their patterns of grief? George Bonanno James Marcia Ernest Becker Elizabeth Kubler-Ross2 points Question 7 1. Four-month-old baby Oscar is a participant in a preferential looking experiment. Researchers show Oscar two photos, one of which is of his mother’s face, and the other which is of a female stranger’s face. The photos are presented repeatedly in differing locations, and the amount of time Oscar spends looking at the photos is recorded. What will researchers conclude if Oscar shows a reliable preference for his mother’s face over the stranger’s face? Oscar can discriminate his mother’s face from a stranger’s face. Oscar is afraid of strangers. Oscar likes strangers as much as his mothers. Oscar can’t see very well.2 points Question 8 1. Which of the following refers to a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence? Sensorimotor stage Preoperational stage Puberty Menopause2 points Question 9 1. Which of the following represents the correct chronological sequence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? Sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations Sensorimotor, concrete operations, preoperations, formal operations Preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor Concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor, preoperations2 points Question 10 1. Which of the following is true about the concrete operational stage of reasoning? Adolescents can conceive of hypothetical possibilities in this stage. This stage denotes ability of an adolescent to systematically deduce, or come to a conclusion about, the best path for solving the problem. A kind of abstract, logical reasoning occurs in this cognitive stage. One important skill at this stage of reasoning is the ability to classify or divide things into different sets or subsets and to consider their interrelations.2 points Question 11 1. Benjamin loves putting together puzzles. He has recently mastered putting together a 10-piece Sesame Street puzzle. His mother claps at his accomplishment but wants to continue challenging Benjamin just beyond his current abilities. The next time they play, she gives Benjamin a 15-piece puzzle and offers some guidance on how to sort the pieces out. According to Vygotsky, Benjamin’s mother provides _____ that allows Benjamin’s cognitive abilities to be built higher and higher. accommodating assimilation scaffolding conservation2 points Question 12 1. Juan is a child with low activity level and tends to withdraw from new situations. He is inflexible, and displays low mood intensity. Juan is said to have what type of temperament? Easy Difficult Slow-to-warm-up Aversive2 points Question 13 1. Which of these is not an example of an ability that is present at birth? Sucking Object permanence Blinking Swallowing2 points Question 14 1. A(n)_____ is a mental framework for understanding what it means to be male or female in one’s culture. gender schema gender diversity gender bias gender orientation2 points Question 15 1. If children cannot grasp the concept of conservation, they are unable to _____. accommodate in later life see things from the point of view of another person recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape retain earlier schemas when confronted with new experiences2 points Question 16 1. Neuroleptic drugs _____. are antianxiety drugs reduce schizophrenic symptoms effectively block serotonin activity in the brain cure schizophrenia2 points Question 17 1. A therapist who uses cognitive restructuring believes that _____ are the causes of abnormal behavior. parental relationships maladaptive beliefs chemical imbalances childhood experiences2 points Question 18 1. Which therapist is most closely associated with client-centered therapy? Heinz Kohut Albert Bandura Sigmund Freud Carl Rogers2 points Question 19 1. _____ treat depression by inhibiting reabsorption of serotonin in the brain. Tricylics Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Benzodiazepines2 points Question 20 1. The therapeutic alliance is the relationship between the therapist and _____. the client the American Psychiatric Association the local government other professional therapists who practice in the same state2 points Question 21 1. John does not have much money, but requires the help of a mental health professional. He might best be served by contacting a _____. board-certified psychiatrist self-help support group humanistic therapist counseling psychologist2 points Question 22 1. Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are techniques commonly used in _____. psychoanalysis cognitive therapy family therapy behavioral therapy2 points Question 23 1. Lithium is commonly used to treat _____. panic attack disorder bipolar disorder schizophrenia major depression2 points Question 24 1. Tranquilizers are _____ drugs. antianxiety antidepressant antipsychotic MAO inhibitor2 points Question 25 1. According to the psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy, which of the following is an essential part of the job of a psychotherapist? Point out inconsistencies in the patient’s thoughts and behaviors Encourage the patient to explore his or her potential for growth Encourage the client to assess his or her own problems through client-centered therapy Interpret the disguised revelations of the unconscious mind to the patient2 points Question 26 1. One potential side effect of neuroleptic drugs is _____, a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and mouth, as well as extensive twitching of the neck, arms, and legs. insomnia schizophrenia tardive dyskinesia transference2 points Question 27 1. _____ is very directive, persuasive, and confrontational. In contrast, _____ involves more of an open-ended dialogue between the therapist and the individual. Beck’s cognitive therapy / rational-emotive behavior therapy Rational-emotive behavior therapy / Beck’s cognitive therapy Client-centered therapy / behavior therapy Integrative therapy / psychodynamic therapy2 points Question 28 1. Which form of treatment, developed by Moniz and used widely by Freeman, involves severing neural fibers connecting parts of the brain? Prefrontal lobotomy Electroconvulsive therapy Antipsychotic disengagement Thalamectomy2 points Question 29 1. A test taker of the _____ is asked to tell a story about each of the pictures, including events leading up to the situation described, the characters’ thoughts and feelings, and the way the situation turns out. Rorschach test Thematic Apperception Test empirically keyed test Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory2 points Question 30 1. Gladys is a therapist who is constantly reminding her clients that people have a natural capacity for personal growth and positive qualities. Gladys likely endorses the _____ of personality. psychodynamic perspective humanistic perspective learning perspective trait perspective2 points Question 31 1. Trait theories of personality _____. state that situational factors override personal characteristics focus on the role of the unconscious take a more optimistic view of human nature than humanistic psychologists do examine personal characteristics that are stable across situations2 points Question 32 1. Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with extraversion? Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine GABA2 points Question 33 1. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was created by _____. Sigmund Freud Karen Horney Alfred Adler Henry Murray2 points Question 34 1. Adler’s view that people are motivated by purposes and goals and that perfection, not pleasure, is thus the key motivator in human life is known as _____. individual psychology humanistic theory trait theory social cognitive theory2 points Question 35 1. A(n) _____ is a type of self-report test that is created by first identifying two groups that areknown to be different. thematic apperception test empirically keyed test Rorschach inkblot test personology inventory2 points Question 36 1. “Personology” refers to _____. an old, outdated term for personality psychology the study of the whole person the study of how individuals operate within groups the study of healthy, well-adjusted individuals2 points Question 37 1. Which of the following perspectives emphasizes that personality is primarily unconscious? Social cognitive perspectives Psychodynamic perspectives Humanistic perspectives Personological and life story perspectives2 points Question 38 1. _____ are enduring characteristics of our personality. _____ are briefer or more temporary experiences. States / Traits Traits / States Conditions of worth / Archetypes Archetypes / Conditions of worth2 points Question 39 1. According to Rogers, we are all born with a need for_____, or a need to be liked, loved, and accepted by those around us. unconditional positive regard conditions of worth the collective unconscious catharsis2 points Question 40 1. Alex is shy and keeps to himself most of the time. Alex would score low on what trait? Openness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism2 points Question 41 1. According to Bandura’s concept of _____ determinism, the person, the person’s behavior, and the environment all influence one another. reciprocal causal humanistic psychodynamic2 points Question 42 1. What happened within the Stanford Prison Study? The experiment ran for the full two weeks for which it was scheduled The experiment was cut off after 6 days because the prisoners and guards didn’t care about their roles The experiment was cut off after six days because of concerns for participant safety The experiment was cut off after guards administered 450 volt shocks to prisoners2 points Question 43 1. According to attribution theory, attributions vary along which of the following dimensions? Internal/external causes Known/unknown causes Regular/irregular causes Consistent/inconsistent causes2 points Question 44 1. When thinking about a situation, the observer is more likely to think about ______ factors, while the actor is more likely to view it in terms of ______ factors. Personality / situational Situational / personality External / situational Internal / personality2 points Question 45 1. The _____ is the overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do. fundamental attribution error self-serving bias stereotype threat false consensus effect2 points Question 46 1. The effects of others on our behavior can take the form of _____, imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas. egoism altruism social contagion social loafing2 points Question 47 1. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobsen conducted a study in 1968. The researchers told grade-school teachers that five students were likely to be “late bloomers” – that these students had high levels of ability that would likely emerge over time. In reality, the students had been randomly selected by the researchers. Nonetheless, a year later, the researchers found that teachers’ expectations for the “late bloomers” were reflected in student performance – the academic performance of the “late bloomers” was beyond that of other students. The results from this study demonstrate which of the following concepts? Cognitive dissonance theory The butterfly effect The self-fulfilling prophecy The self-serving bias20 points Question 48 1. You watch as another student stumbles and drops her books in the hall. According to the fundamental attribution error, how would you explain the student’s behavior? She must have tripped over something. She is a clumsy person. She couldn’t help it; there were too many books to carry. She was trying to get out of someone else’s way.2 points Question 49 1. When people try to convince Alan to stop smoking, he replies, “It’s not dangerous, my Uncle Bob smoked all his life and lived until he was 93.” This statement, which is an example of self-justification, illustrates Alan’s attempt to reduce _____. stereotype threat cognitive dissonance the self-serving bias the fundamental attribution error2 points Question 50 1. Central route persuasion _____. involves the use of non-message factors, such as the source’s credibility and attractiveness involves engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound, logical argument involves emotional appeals involves altruism2 points Question 51 1. _____ refers to the tendency to take credit for one’s own successes and to deny responsibility for one’s own failures. Positive illusion Learned helplessness Self-serving bias Stereotyping2 points Question 52 1. Social loafing refers to the _____. tendency for people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone tendency for people to exert more effort when working in groups than when working alone tendency to spend more time being productive when in the company of one’s peers social norm that obligates the general public to help those who may not be completely able to help themselves (e.g., children and the elderly)2 points Question 53 1. Which is an example of the peripheral route in persuasion? Sharing data on the issue Providing facts on the issue Appealing to the emotions of the individual Using logic and reason2 points Question 54 1. In which type of culture is conformity stronger? Individualistic Collectivistic Capitalistic Nativistic2 points Question 55 1. Chad regularly experiences motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts. It is likely that Chad suffers from a(n) _____. mood disorder anxiety disorder personality disorder dissociative disorder2 points Question 56 1. _____ is a mood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state. Major depressive disorder Dysthymic disorder Bipolar disorder Generalized anxiety disorder2 points Question 57 1. Individuals with bulimia nervosa tend to have _____ of perfectionism and _____ of self-efficacy. high levels / high levels high levels / low levels low levels / high levels low levels / low levels2 points Question 58 1. In the film A Beautiful Mind, John Nash hears and sees people who are not actually there. These sensations are examples of _____. hallucinations delusions mirages catatonia2 points Question 59 1. In 1973 Rosenhan conducted a study in which eight healthy individuals were committed to a psychiatric hospital. What did the results of this study demonstrate? College students are very susceptible to mental health issues. Doctors are always correct in their diagnosis of Schizophrenia. Once a person has been labeled with a psychological disorder, that label affects how others perceive everything else he or she does. If you are treated for Schizophrenia at an early age, you are likely to recover fully.2 points Question 60 1. Anne, a mother of two young children, developed amnesia, traveled across the country, and assumed a new identity as an accountant. When her husband and children tracked her down several months later, she had no recollection of her earlier life. Anne would likely be diagnosed with _____. borderline personality disorder antisocial personality disorder multi-personality disorder dissociative fugue2 points Question 61 1. Which of these reflects a change included in the newest (fifth) edition of the DSM? The addition of Asperger’s Syndrome The new edition does not allow a diagnosis of major depression for those suffering grief over the death of a loved one The addition of Disruptive Mood Regulation Disorder Some of the diagnostic criteria for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder have been made more strict2 points Question 62 1. Individuals who suffer from anorexia nervosa weigh less than _____ of what is considered normal for age and height and refuse to maintain weight at a healthy level. 65 percent 70 percent 85 percent 90 percent2 points Question 63 1. Which of the following was formerly called multiple personality disorder? Dissociative amnesia Dissociative identity disorder Dissociative fugue Schizophrenia2 points Question 64 1. _____ is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in various contexts. Schizophrenia Dissociative identity disorder Antisocial personality disorder Borderline personality disorder2 points Question 65 1. Which of these is the primary tool used in the United States for the classification of mental disorders? Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders International Classification of Diseases and Related Problems Disorder Selection Manual Symptoms and Classification of Disorders (5)2 points Question 66 1. The _____ of Schizophrenia are marked by a distortion or an excess of normal function, whereas _____ reflect social withdrawal, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions. positive symptoms / negative symptoms negative symptoms / positive symptoms physical symptoms / psychic symptoms psychological symptoms / physical symptoms2 points Question 67 1. A fear becomes a phobia when _____. a doctor diagnoses it as such an individual will go to any length to avoid the object of the fear a person can specifically identify what they are afraid of a person cannot identify the source of their nervous feelings2 points Question 68 1. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, performance is best under conditions of _____ arousal. no low moderate high2 points Question 69 1. According to self-determination theory, competence motivation involves _____. drive-reduction self-efficacy and mastery environmental stimuli maintaining optimal arousal2 points Question 70 1. The _____ of an emotion refers to whether it feels pleasant or unpleasant. The _____ of an emotion is the degree to which the emotion is reflected in an individual’s being active, engaged, or excited versus more passive, relatively disengaged, or calm. arousal level / valence valence / arousal level manifestation / valence valence / manifestation2 points Question 71 1. Soccer players are expected to congratulate and shake hands with the opposing team, even when their team loses the game. This is an example of _____. a display rule a set point the two-factor theory of emotion the Yerkes-Dodson law2 points Question 72 1. Adding external rewards to a situation in which the person is already intrinsically motivated to perform usually results in _____. neutral intrinsic motivation maximized extrinsic motivation reduced intrinsic motivation reduced extrinsic motivation2 points Question 73 1. The highest and most elusive of Maslow’s needs is _____. esteem self-actualization belongingness competence2 points Question 74 1. The _____ calms the body. sympathetic nervous system non-adrenergic neurons parasympathetic nervous system non-cholinergic neurons2 points Question 75 1. You just ran a marathon in very hot weather and perspired heavily. According to drive reduction theory, your body will have a(n) _____ for water, which will produce a(n) _____ for water, which will lead to a(n) _____ to get water. instinct; motivation; need instinct; motivation; drive need; motivation; drive need; drive; motivation2 points Save and Submit
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